…
THE CHANGING LANDSCAPE OF TEACHING
PART I – ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT
DR. JEFF LOATS
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
SPS 4500 , SEPT 26THT...
INTRODUCTIONS…
2
Tell me…
• Who you are
• What kind of teaching you are doing
• Is teaching a part of your future plans?
WARM-UP: BORN VS. MADE
"I've had great teachers and awful teachers... the
whole spectrum.The ones that are great seem
to h...
WARM-UP: BORN VS. MADE
~22% → Agree that teaching quality is
essentially innate
~44% → Improvement is a matter of desire,
...
ASIDE: LEARNING STYLES
“Not every student's learning style is going to match
every teacher's teaching style. It is possibl...
WARM-UP: BORN VS. MADE
“Some teachers are naturally better at interacting or
captivating a group of people but I believe t...
DWECK: FIXED VS. GROWTH MINDSET
7
DWECK: FIXED VS. GROWTH MINDSET
8
DWECK: FIXED VS. GROWTH MINDSET
9
DWECK: FIXED VS. GROWTH MINDSET
10
11
Can you think of areas in your own life where you
have a fixed or growth mindset?
A) I can’t think of an example of eit...
WARM-UP: LECTURE TIME
Out of an average 60 minutes of class time,
roughly how many minutes of class time are
spent on lect...
WARM-UP:TEACHING HERITAGE
“[…] Now that I am taking program specific
classes the style of teaching varies quite a bit. I
t...
WARM-UP:TEACHING HERITAGE
“They do not all use an interactive approach, but
most have, which is quite nice. I would have t...
WARM-UP: BIGGEST “TAKE AWAY”
What was the biggest "take away" idea that you
got from the article?
~66% → Engagement is key...
WARM-UP: BIGGEST “TAKE AWAY”
“Active leaning is nothing new; however, the
research in the article failed to test creative ...
WARM-UP: BIGGEST “TAKE AWAY”
“I feel that it is only a matter of time before we
drasticly change our teaching methods.We
k...
18
What kind of experience do you have with
clickers or another classroom response system in
an educational setting?
A) I’...
GUIDING PRINCIPLES
20
Technology is not an educational panacea
Seek tools that offer new approaches
As always, let evidenc...
PHYSICS EDUCATION REVOLUTION
Eric Mazur, Physicist at Harvard:
21
22
“ALL SIMILARLY (IN)EFFECTIVE…”
23
University of Washington
University of Colorado
University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign
TECHNOLOGIES VS.TECHNIQUES
25
Hands
Colored cards
Hardware “clickers”
Virtual response tools
Peer Instruction
Factual reca...
MAZUR’S PERSONAL REVOLUTION
26
(added) Pre-class reading, enforced
(removed) Nearly all “watch me do this”
portions of cla...
PEER INSTRUCTION
27
Multiple choice questions
–Conceptual
–Hard
1. Students answer Individually
2. Discussion with peers
3...
Students have developed a robot dog
and a robot cat, both of which can
run at 8 mph and walk at 4 mph.
A the end of the te...
MAZUR AFTER 1YEAR
29
ELSEWHERE?
30
WHY CLICKERS?
31
Alternatives:
–Hand raising
–Numbered/colored cards
Anonymity + secrecy honesty
Inclusive
Fast
Credit for...
STILL CLICKERS?
32
Hardware clickers are (basically) obsolete
Good options:
• PollEverywhere
• Top Hat
• LearningCatalytics
TECHNOLOGIES VS.TECHNIQUES
33
Clickers
Colored cards
Hands
Virtual response tools
Peer Instruction
Factual recall
Polling/...
THE EVIDENCE STANDARD
34
Research results:
Quick/easy attendance in large class sizes.
Provides anonymity (Banks, 2006).
E...
THE EVIDENCE STANDARD
35
Research results:
Improved concentration (Hinde & Hunt, 2006)
Improved learning and retention
(Mo...
STUDENT FEEDBACK ON CLICKERS
315 students in 7 classes over 4 terms (roughly ±6%)
Rated on 5 point scale (strongly disagre...
MY SUMMARY
37
Classroom response systems can be integrated
into most teaching styles and disciplines to good
effect.
From ...
YOUR SUMMARY
38
For yourself… or to share next week
What was the biggest shift in your thinking
during this discussion?
Wh...
CLICKER REFERENCES & RESOURCES
39
Banks, D.A. (Ed.). (2006). Audience response systems in higher
education:Applications an...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Changing Landscape of Teaching - SPS 4500 #1 - Jeff Loats

256 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
256
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • From video:~90% of students believe itIt is close to something that IS right Confirmation bias!
  • From: http://www.danpink.com/2010/11/the-3-rules-of-mindsets/Dweck’s broad argument is that what people believe shapes what they achieve — mostly irrespective of their innate talent. Some people, she says, have a fixed view of intelligence: They believe that intelligence is an entity, that we’re each endowed with a particular finite supply. Others have a growth view of intelligence: They believe that intelligence can expand through practice and effort.Your starting assumption about intelligence — your mindset, as she calls it in a popular book — heavily determines what you’re able to accomplish. And people with growth mindsets generally accomplish more and learn more deeply.In the lecture, Dweck set out three rules that nicely summarize the differences between the two mindsets along with quotations from students that demonstrate the rules.RULE #1Fixed mindset: Look clever at all costs. (“The main thing I want when I do my school work is to show how good I am at it.”)Growth mindset: Learn, learn, learn. (“It is much more important for me to learn things in my classes than it is to get the best grades.”)RULE #2Fixed mindset: It should come naturally. (“To tell you the truth, when I work hard at my school work it makes me fee like I’m not very smart.”)Growth mindset: Work hard, effort is key. (“The harder you work at something, the better you’ll be at it.”)RULE #3Fixed mindset: Hide your mistakes and conceal your deficiencies. (After a disappointing exam score, “I’d spend less time on this subject from now on. I’d try not to take this subject ever again, and I would try to cheat on the next test.”)Growth mindset: Capitalize on your mistakes and confront your deficiencies. (After a disappointing exam score, “I’d work harder in this class and spend more time studying for the tests.”)
  • Asking
  • Asking
  • “Learning technologies should be designed to increase, and not to reduce, the amount of personal contact between students and faculty on intellectual issues.”(Study Group on the Conditions of Excellencein American Higher Education, 1984)
  • About ~20 years ago, physics teachers began treating education as a research topic!Their findings were pretty grim"But the students do fine on my exams!“It appeared that students had been engaging in “surface learning” allowing them to solve problems algorithmically without actually understanding the concepts.
  • Was this just at Harvard (silly question)!Data from H.S., 2-year, 4-year, universities, etc.0.23 Hake gain on the FCI means that of the newtonian physics they could have learned in physics class, they learned 23% of it.Conclusion: Traditional physics lectures are all similarly (in)effective in improving conceptual understanding.
  • Enter Physics Education Research:An effort to find empirically tested ways to improve the situation.
  • Students had fragile knowledge from engaging in surface learningObviously this isn't what he thought he was teaching.Very “learner centered” moveClass time is now almost entirely focused on tackling tough conceptual questionsLater shifted to JiTT instead of reading quizzes
  • Carefully chosen questionsIdeally: 30-70% correct on first try)In 95% of cases, students “migrate” towards correct answer, often dramatically.Explanation and discussion by instructor follows the second “vote”, as necessary.In my class, participation is required (5% of final grade) but correctness is not required.
  • Is this just about new energy being put into an old class?(This is a difficult confounding factor in assessing new teaching techniques.)
  • Is this just about new energy being put into an old class?
  • Major caveat: Using classroom response system does not automatically bring these benefits. The method matters much more than the means.Hinde & Hunt: We survey 219 first-year business studies students tackling introductory economics, and find that the technology enhances learning in lectures because, among other things, it improves concentration, provides instantaneous and more effective student feedback, and allows students to make comparisons on how well they fare relative to their peers. Moreau, 2010: Overall, the experimental group scored higher on the posttest than the control group, and weak students in the experimental group made more improvement as measured by the posttest than similar ability students in the control groupPoirier & Feldman, 2007: There are reports of modest increases in exam grades when instructors use clickers to test concepts and probe opinions in large sections of introductory psychology .Anderson, et al. 2011: Compression (dropping topics that are well understood) based on group, or individual-level performance caused no decrease in learning compared to no compression.
  • Hinde & Hunt: We survey 219 first-year business studies students tackling introductory economics, and find that the technology enhances learning in lectures because, among other things, it improves concentration, provides instantaneous and more effective student feedback, and allows students to make comparisons on how well they fare relative to their peers. Moreau, 2010: Overall, the experimental group scored higher on the posttest than the control group, and weak students in the experimental group made more improvement as measured by the posttest than similar ability students in the control groupPoirier & Feldman, 2007: There are reports of modest increases in exam grades when instructors use clickers to test concepts and probe opinions in large sections of introductory psychology .Anderson, et al. 2011: Compression (dropping topics that are well understood) based on group, or individual-level performance caused no decrease in learning compared to no compression.
  • Changing Landscape of Teaching - SPS 4500 #1 - Jeff Loats

    1. 1. … THE CHANGING LANDSCAPE OF TEACHING PART I – ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT DR. JEFF LOATS DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS SPS 4500 , SEPT 26THTH, 2013
    2. 2. INTRODUCTIONS… 2 Tell me… • Who you are • What kind of teaching you are doing • Is teaching a part of your future plans?
    3. 3. WARM-UP: BORN VS. MADE "I've had great teachers and awful teachers... the whole spectrum.The ones that are great seem to have a natural knack for it while others seem to have been born clueless about how to teach. I'm not sure there will ever be teaching methods that will make a bad teacher into a good one." What is your response?
    4. 4. WARM-UP: BORN VS. MADE ~22% → Agree that teaching quality is essentially innate ~44% → Improvement is a matter of desire, effort and time spent. ~22% → Mismatch of learning styles
    5. 5. ASIDE: LEARNING STYLES “Not every student's learning style is going to match every teacher's teaching style. It is possible that the teachers you thought were bad just had a different teaching style that didn't work for you.You should talk to teachers that you think are bad and see if they can try to incorporate your learning style into their class.” References: • “The Myth of Learning Styles” by Cedar Riener and Daniel Willingham • YouTube: Learning Styles Don’t Exist • Scholarly review: “Learning styles: Concepts and evidence”, Pashler et al, 2008
    6. 6. WARM-UP: BORN VS. MADE “Some teachers are naturally better at interacting or captivating a group of people but I believe that teaching skills can be learned by anyone who is willing to put in the effort. A teacher must be self aware and willing to take feedback to improve. Classically "bad" teachers are a product of a problem, perhaps they did not receive teaching specific education but more subject education.” “I would agree. Some teachers are better than other. However, the best way to learn is from each other.”
    7. 7. DWECK: FIXED VS. GROWTH MINDSET 7
    8. 8. DWECK: FIXED VS. GROWTH MINDSET 8
    9. 9. DWECK: FIXED VS. GROWTH MINDSET 9
    10. 10. DWECK: FIXED VS. GROWTH MINDSET 10
    11. 11. 11 Can you think of areas in your own life where you have a fixed or growth mindset? A) I can’t think of an example of either B) I can think of a fixed mindset example C) I can think of a growth mindset example D) I can think of an example of each
    12. 12. WARM-UP: LECTURE TIME Out of an average 60 minutes of class time, roughly how many minutes of class time are spent on lecture-based delivery of content?
    13. 13. WARM-UP:TEACHING HERITAGE “[…] Now that I am taking program specific classes the style of teaching varies quite a bit. I think their methods and attitudes come from their experience in the field. I think they teach this way because they are preparing us to be practitioners.” “I believe that traditional ways of teaching continues, even though it may not be the most effective, because educators fear that new forms of teaching may be difficult to do and might result in student failure.”
    14. 14. WARM-UP:TEACHING HERITAGE “They do not all use an interactive approach, but most have, which is quite nice. I would have to think that they teach the way they do because they know it works.Those who just lecture the whole time might not be totally into it, despite being professionals of their field, and that is why they teach the way they do. A lot of people are just dry.”
    15. 15. WARM-UP: BIGGEST “TAKE AWAY” What was the biggest "take away" idea that you got from the article? ~66% → Engagement is key and Lecture performs poorly ~11% → Training can trump experience ~11% → Change is needed ~11% → No single technique is the “trick” ~11% → Creative classes already do this ~11% → Not all classes can use this
    16. 16. WARM-UP: BIGGEST “TAKE AWAY” “Active leaning is nothing new; however, the research in the article failed to test creative or art classes.” “The biggest idea that I got from this article is that engaging students is not only important but can be done by teachers without expertise in the field. […]” “Not one teaching style alone did the trick, better outcomes occurred when "deliberate practice" was utilized.”
    17. 17. WARM-UP: BIGGEST “TAKE AWAY” “I feel that it is only a matter of time before we drasticly change our teaching methods.We know longer need to train young people to complete tasks for factory work so we should revamp our teaching styles. ” “Of course I do not see how a more interactive approach could work in all classes. A history class might not have that option.”
    18. 18. 18 What kind of experience do you have with clickers or another classroom response system in an educational setting? A) I’ve never used them in any way B) I’ve used them as a learner C) I’ve used them as a teaching tool D) I’ve used as both a learner and a teacher
    19. 19. GUIDING PRINCIPLES 20 Technology is not an educational panacea Seek tools that offer new approaches As always, let evidence guide our attention
    20. 20. PHYSICS EDUCATION REVOLUTION Eric Mazur, Physicist at Harvard: 21
    21. 21. 22 “ALL SIMILARLY (IN)EFFECTIVE…”
    22. 22. 23 University of Washington University of Colorado University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    23. 23. TECHNOLOGIES VS.TECHNIQUES 25 Hands Colored cards Hardware “clickers” Virtual response tools Peer Instruction Factual recall Polling/survey Poll-Teach-Poll Thought Questions Teach-Test-Retest
    24. 24. MAZUR’S PERSONAL REVOLUTION 26 (added) Pre-class reading, enforced (removed) Nearly all “watch me do this” portions of class: sample problems, derivations, etc. (modified) Lecture broken up into small bites (added) Depth over coverage (added) ConceptTests with Peer Instruction
    25. 25. PEER INSTRUCTION 27 Multiple choice questions –Conceptual –Hard 1. Students answer Individually 2. Discussion with peers 3. Students answer post-discussion 4. Class-wide discussion
    26. 26. Students have developed a robot dog and a robot cat, both of which can run at 8 mph and walk at 4 mph. A the end of the term, there is a race! The robot cat must run for half of its racing time, then walk. The robot dog must run for half the racing distance, then walk. Which one wins the race? A) Robot cat B) Robot dog C) They tie 28
    27. 27. MAZUR AFTER 1YEAR 29
    28. 28. ELSEWHERE? 30
    29. 29. WHY CLICKERS? 31 Alternatives: –Hand raising –Numbered/colored cards Anonymity + secrecy honesty Inclusive Fast Credit for learning
    30. 30. STILL CLICKERS? 32 Hardware clickers are (basically) obsolete Good options: • PollEverywhere • Top Hat • LearningCatalytics
    31. 31. TECHNOLOGIES VS.TECHNIQUES 33 Clickers Colored cards Hands Virtual response tools Peer Instruction Factual recall Polling/survey Poll-Teach-Poll Thought Questions Teach-Test-Retest
    32. 32. THE EVIDENCE STANDARD 34 Research results: Quick/easy attendance in large class sizes. Provides anonymity (Banks, 2006). Every student participates (Banks, 2006). Encourages active learning (Martyn, 2007).
    33. 33. THE EVIDENCE STANDARD 35 Research results: Improved concentration (Hinde & Hunt, 2006) Improved learning and retention (Moreau, 2010). Improved exam scores (Poirier & Feldman, 2007) Efficient use of class time (Anderson, et al. 2011).
    34. 34. STUDENT FEEDBACK ON CLICKERS 315 students in 7 classes over 4 terms (roughly ±6%) Rated on 5 point scale (strongly disagree to agree) The use of iClickers, and activities that used them have… Agreed or Strongly Agreed …helped me to stay more engaged in class than I would otherwise be. 93% …helped me to learn the material better than I otherwise would 83% …been worth the cost to buy them 78%
    35. 35. MY SUMMARY 37 Classroom response systems can be integrated into most teaching styles and disciplines to good effect. From an evidence-based perspective, classroom response systems addresses often-neglected areas. As with all reforms, be prepared to find that students know less than we might hope.
    36. 36. YOUR SUMMARY 38 For yourself… or to share next week What was the biggest shift in your thinking during this discussion? What is the biggest question you feel needs more attention from the discussion? Contact Dr. Loats: Jeff.Loats@gmail.com Today’s slides: www.slideshare.net/JeffLoats
    37. 37. CLICKER REFERENCES & RESOURCES 39 Banks, D.A. (Ed.). (2006). Audience response systems in higher education:Applications and cases. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. Hinde, K., & Hunt,A. (2006). Using the personal response system to enhance student learning: Some evidence from teaching economics. In Banks, D.A. (Ed.),Audience Response Systems in Higher Education:Applications and Cases. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. Martyn, M. (2007). Clickers in the classroom: An active learning approach. EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 30(2), 71-74. (http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/EQM0729.pdf) Moreau, N.A. (2010). Do clickers open minds? Use of a questioning strategy in developmental mathematics,CAPELLA UNIVERSITY, 2010, 157 pages; 3389211 Poirier,C. R., & Feldman, R. S. (2007). Promoting active learning using individual response technology in large introductory psychology classes.Teaching of Psychology, 34(3), 194-196. Mazur, E. 2004 ”Introduction to Peer Instruction” talk presented at New Physics & Astronomy FacultyWorkshop, 2004, UMD. Hake, R.R. 1998a. “Interactive-engagement vs traditional methods:A six thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses,” Am. J. Phys. 66(1): 64-74; (www.physics.indiana.edu/~sdi/ajpv3i.pdf) Anderson, L., Healy,A., Kole, J., & Bourne, L. (2011). Conserving time in the classroom: the clicker technique.The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64(8): 1457-1462. ThoughtQuestions: A NewApproach to Using Clickers CU Science Education Initiative & UBC Science Education Initiative (http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/files/CU- SEI_Thought_Questions.pdf) Clicker Resource Guide from the CU Science Education Initiative & UBC Science Education Initiative (http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/files/Clicker_guide_CWSEI _CU-SEI_04-08.pdf) Duncan, D. (2009).Tips for Successful “Clicker” Use. Retrieved January 31, 2009. (http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/files/Tips_for_Successful_C licker_Use_Duncan.pdf) WhyAre Clicker Questions HardToCreate? Blog post by Ian Beatty, Science Education Researcher and Professor of Physics at the University of NorthCarolina at Greensboro (http://ianbeatty.com/blog/archives/100) Good resource list at Carleton College’s website: http://serc.carleton.edu/sp/library/classresponse/index.html

    ×