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  1. 1. Conquer the Code:Sounds, Symbols, and Syllables
  2. 2. Reading . . . an extraordinary ability, peculiarly human and yet distinctly unnatural.Dr. Sally Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia, 2003
  3. 3. Literacy . . .Begins at birth, and is a lifelong process!
  4. 4. Unfortunately,Children are not born with thisinsight, nor does it developnaturally without instruction. Reid Lyon, 1997, NICHD
  5. 5. In today’s world,learning to read well is a key to thefuture success of our children. Notonly is reading fluently and withcomprehension by third grade alegislated priority, it is an ethical andprofessional imperative. (Wolfe and Nevills, 2004)
  6. 6. In fact, teaching reading is Rocket Science!(See Teaching Reading Is Rocket Science: What Expert Teachers of Reading Should Know and Be Able to Do by Louisa C. Moats, AFT, June 1999)
  7. 7. Research Practice• National Research Council: Committee on National Research Council: Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children (1998)• National Research Council - Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success (1999)• National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read (2000)• Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read (2001)• Scientific Research in Education (2002)
  8. 8. Reading and the Brain“If we provide intervention at an early age, then we can improve reading fluency and facilitate the development of the neural systems that underlie skilled reading.”(Sally and Bennett Shaywitz,Educational Leadership, March 2004, p. 10)
  9. 9. Language Components Receptive ExpressiveOral Listening SpeakingWritten Reading Writing
  10. 10. “The Big Five”• Phonemic Awareness• Phonics• Vocabulary• Fluency• Text Comprehension
  11. 11. Reading Components and the “Big Five” Means End DECODING COMPREHENSION• Phonemic • Vocabulary Awareness • Text• Phonics Comprehension
  12. 12. Lesson Plan Format• Preread Schema• Read it Story grammar• Reread it Fluency• Discuss it Vocabulary• React to it Comprehension• Code it Alphabetic code• Apply it Practice• Transfer it Generalization
  13. 13. Read with “HuGs” unitingHolistic & Graphophonic strategies
  14. 14. Reading is the union ofComprehension + Decoding (Holistic) (Graphophonic)Pre-read it Code it:Read it Hear itReread it See itDiscuss it Associate itReact to it Expand it
  15. 15. Code it: Alphabetic Code• Hear it Phonological: sound• See it Print: symbol• Associate it Sound/symbol• Expand it Structural analysis
  16. 16. Conquer the Code:Sounds, Symbols, and Syllables• Sounds – Phonological Awareness – Phonemic Awareness• Symbols – Print Awareness – Alphabet knowledge• Syllables – Vowel Patterns – Syllabication
  17. 17. Oral Language• Listening and Speaking• Literacy Events• “Grand Conversations”• Phonological Awareness: sensitivity to the sounds of language
  18. 18. Phonology: Sounds• Phonological awareness• Phonemic awareness• 44 phonemes (speech sounds)• Oral / auditory• Related to reading and writing
  19. 19. How many sounds?• in the word box• in the word enough• in the word precious
  20. 20. 44 Sounds of the English Language• Vowels (10) • Consonants (18) /ă//ā/ /b/ /j/ /s/ /ĕ/ /ē/ /k/ /l/ /t/ /ĭ/ /ī/ /d/ /m/ /v/ /ŏ/ /ō/ /f/ /n/ /w/ /ŭ/ /ū/ /g/ /p/ /y/ /h/ /r/ /z/
  21. 21. 44 Sounds of the English Language• Vowel Diphthongs (2) • Consonant Digraphs(7) /ou/ /sh/ /ch/ /wh/ /oi/ /th/ /th/ /zh/• Vowel Variants (3) /ng/ /au/ /oo/ (moon) • r-controlled (3) /oo/ (book) /ar/ /or/ /er/• Schwa (1) /ə/
  22. 22. Phonological Awareness• “Funnel – ogical” awareness• Sensitivity to the sounds of language – words, syllables, and sounds• Includes phonemic awareness• Necessary for understanding the alphabetic principle and how sounds match print
  23. 23. Phonological Awareness• Word awareness• Rhyming words• Syllable awareness• Alliteration• Onset-rime• Phonemic segmentation and blending• Phonemic manipulation
  24. 24. Phonological Activities• Clapping, standing, using body motions• Manipulatives, e.g., linking blocks, puzzles, objects, chips or tokens• Pictures, books, posters• Music and rhyme• “Feel it in your mouth!”• Elkonin (sound) boxes
  25. 25. Written Language• Reading and writing• Print awareness• Reading: decoding + comprehension• Sound – symbol connection [phonics]• Writing: spelling, handwriting, written expression [writing process]
  26. 26. Orthography: Symbols• Alphabet (26 letters)• Represent speech sounds• Written / visual• Spelling patterns
  27. 27. Print Awareness• Concepts of Print • Book concepts • One-to-one correspondence • Directionality• Alphabet Knowledge • Recognition • Identification • Formation
  28. 28. How do children develop print awareness?• Read alouds• Shared reading• Print rich environment• Big Books, little books, lots of books• Hearing poems, nursery rhymes• Seeing charts, signs, lists, “Morning Message” and “Sign in”
  29. 29. Alphabet Activities• Sort plastic or magnetic letters• Use letter cards with the ABC song• Match environmental print labels to alphabet letter cards• Locate target letter by using highlighter tape• Write letters in the air, using large muscle movements• Write letters in shaving cream, sand, or rice trays
  30. 30. Pre-Phonics• Phonological Awareness • Oral • Sounds• Print Awareness • Visual • Symbols
  31. 31. Phonics“refers to instructional practicesthat emphasize how spellings arerelated to speech sounds insystematic ways.” (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998)
  32. 32. What is the Alphabetic Principle?• the systematic and predictable relationship between the letters of written language and the sounds of spoken language• the way print matches speech• the relationship between phonology and orthography• also known as the alphabetic code
  33. 33. Why learn the Alphabetic Code?• It provides the understanding for the internal structure of words.• It helps children recognize familiar words and decode new words.• It connects reading and writing.• It enables children to read with fluency and comprehension.
  34. 34. Phonics• Synthetic Phonics • Structural Analysis • Part to whole • Root words,• Analytic Phonics prefixes & suffixes • Whole to part • Word families (rimes) • Compound words• Vowel Patterns • Contractions • 6 Syllable types • Syllabication • 85-88% regularity
  35. 35. Color-CodeVowels Digraphs Blends a sh bl- e ch cr- i th st- o wh -nd u ph -mp-y -w etc.
  36. 36. Orthography: Syllables• Six basic syllable types• 85 – 88% of English language• Vowel Patterns (syllable types)• Structure of our language• Alphabetic code
  37. 37. Vowel Patterns• Regular • Effective• Reliable • Efficient• Research-based • Easy to use
  38. 38. Vowel Pattern ChartClosed Open Silent eBossy r 2 Vowels C+le Talkers Whiners
  39. 39. Vowel Pattern ChartClosed Open Silent e cat me ride fish go cape bub- ta- hopeBossy r 2 Vowels C+le Talkers Whiners car ta - ble boat boy girl bub - ble meat clown tur- tur - tle
  40. 40. Vowel PatternsClosed: A word or syllable that contains only one vowel followed by one or more consonants; the vowel is short. “One lonely vowel squished in the middle, says its special sound just a little.” sat bed fin top gum sand best print shop lunch at Ed in on up
  41. 41. Vowel PatternsOpen:A word or syllable that ends with one vowel; the vowel is long.“If one vowel at the end is free, it pops way up and says its name to me.” me she hi go flu fly
  42. 42. Vowel PatternsSilent e [Magic e]:A word or syllable that ends in e, containing one consonant before the final e and one vowel before that consonant; the vowel is long.“The magic e is quiet, but it has a claim to fame; it makes the vowel before it say its real name.”The magic e is so powerful, it gives all its strength to the other vowel so that it can say its real name. make Steve ride hope cube
  43. 43. Vowel PatternsBossy r [r-controlled]:A word or syllable containing a vowel followed by r; the vowel sound is altered by the r.The letter r is so bossy, it tells the vowel that it can’t say its real name (long vowel) or its special sound (short vowel), but must say the r sound (as in car, for, her). car her girl for curl
  44. 44. Vowel PatternsDouble Vowel Talkers: [vowel digraphs]A word or syllable containing two adjacent vowels; the first one is long.“When two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking and says its name.” rain day see meat pie boat toe slow suit blue
  45. 45. Vowel PatternsDouble Vowel Whiners :[diphthongs and variants]A word or syllable that contains two adjacent vowels; the vowels say neither a long or short vowel sound, but rather a very different sound.Sometimes when two vowels are next to each other, they make a funny whining sound, like when you fall down and say “ow,” “aw,” “oy,” and get a “boo- boo.” fault saw foil boy loud cow moon new book
  46. 46. Vowel PatternsC+le: [consonant + le]This syllable ends with “le” preceded by a consonant, and occurs in two-syllable words.When a word ends with a consonant and “le,” the “le” grabs the consonant before it, and the word breaks into two parts right before that consonant. bub–ble ca–ble ea–gle poo–dle pur-ple
  47. 47. Vowel Pattern “Prediction Power”The prediction power of the patterns ranges from 77 to 89%, each of which is much better than predictions on the basis of chance alone. Teaching children vowel patterns can make a difference in their fluency and comprehension (May, 2002). Closed Open Silent e 86 – 89% 77% 81% Bossy r 2 Vowels C+le Talkers Whiners 77%
  48. 48. Irregular / “Memory” Words• About 12 – 15% of English words do not conform to the regular patterns• Can be taught through context, repetition, multisensory techniques, and learning games, e.g., Word Wall activities, VAAKT (associative word cards), BINGO
  49. 49. Structural Analysis• Root words and affixes• Compound words• Contractions• Syllabication
  50. 50. Root Words and AffixesPrefix Root Suffix un friend ly re heat ed in spect or• Color-highlight or draw a box around affixes (prefix = green; suffix = red)• Make charts for similar affixes
  51. 51. Compound Words• Begin with whole word, e.g., doghouse• Segment and blend• Use fists, puzzles, linking blocks• Make lists of compound words• Use color-coding (doghouse)• Practice deletion (say doghouse without dog)
  52. 52. Contractions• Compare “long” and “short” forms, e.g., do not (long – 2 words) don’t (short – contraction)• Highlight apostrophe (use elbow macaroni) and deleted letter/s in red• Use a rubberband to show long and shortened forms (same meaning)• Make lists of contractions from stories
  53. 53. Syllabication Patterns• C+le turtle tur – tle• VC/CV rabbit rab – bit• V/CV tiger ti – ger• VC/V camel cam – el• V/V lion li - on
  54. 54. Strategy for Syllabication• “Spot and dot” the vowels• Connect the dots• Look at the number of consonants between the vowels• If 2 – break between the consonants• If 1 – break before the consonant; if it doesn’t sound right, move over one letter
  55. 55. Apply and Transfer• Provide many opportunities to use these skills and strategies, both in isolation and in connected text – Fiction and non-fiction – Poetry and songs – Decodable text – Learning games and activities
  56. 56. Why?When students have the MEANS to conquer the code,they will reach the GOAL, and master the meaning!
  57. 57. The End Remember . . .Teach a child to read, Give a gift for life!! Thank you for your kind attention! Happy Teaching!
  58. 58. Websites of American Federation of Association for Supervision and Curriculum Education Florida Center for Reading Florida Branch - International Dyslexia National Institute for National Reading International Reading Reading Rockets