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SENTENCE VS
FRAGMENTS
SENTENCE
• A sentence has two characteristics:
• 1. It has a subject and predicate
• 2. It expresses a complete and independence
thought.
• If either of these characteristics is missing
from a group of words written as a
“sentence”, the result is an error called a
sentence fragment .
FRAGMENTS
 A word group that lacks a subject or
a verb or does not express a
complete thought.
Fails to be a sentence in the sense
that it cannot stand by itself.
EXAMPLE OF FRAGMENTS
 Incomplete Thought
After he went to work .
No Sentence Subject
Going to school .
No Sentence Predicate
The young, attractive woman .
TYPES OF FRAGMENTS
• Dependent-Word Fragments
• –ing and to Fragments
• Added-Detail Fragments
• No Sentence Subject
• No Sentence Predicate
•
Dependent-Word Fragments
• Some word groups that begin with dependent words are
fragments: after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if,
even though, how, if, in order to, since, so that, that, unless,
until, what, whatever, when, whenever, where, whereas,
wherever, whether, which, whichever, while, who, whoever,
whose
• EXAMPLE:
• We do research on the Internet. Whenever we plan to make a
major purchase.
Correcting Dependent-
Word Fragments
• Attach it to the sentence that comes before or
after it.
We do research on the Internet. Whenever
we plan to make a major purchase.
We do research on the Internet whenever we
plan to make a major purchase
Correcting Dependent-
Word Fragments
 If the dependent-word group comes first, use
a comma.
 While some students work very hard. Others
try to get by with a minimum of effort.
While some students work very hard, others
try to get by with a minimum of effort.
Correcting Dependent-
Word Fragments
o Eliminate the dependent word by rewriting
the sentence
On his way to work, Bill took a shortcut.
Which he thought would enable him to avoid
traffic lights and get him to the office faster.
On his way to work, Bill took a shortcut to
avoid traffic lights and to get to the office
faster.
–ing and to Fragments
–ing word at or near the start of the word group -
often a participial phrase
 The astronomer gazed intently through the
telescope. Hoping to catch a glimpse of the meteor.
to + verb at or near the start of the word group -
often an infinitive phrase
 In an effort to get to the airport on time. We left the
house at four o’clock in the morning.
Correcting –ing and to
Fragments
Attach the fragment to the sentence that
comes before or after it
The astronomer gazed intently through the
telescope. Hoping to catch a glimpse of the
meteor.
The astronomer gazed intently through the
telescope, hoping to catch a glimpse of the
meteor
Correcting –ing and to
Fragments
• Add a subject or verb to the fragment to make
it a sentence
 He works eight hours a day. Then going to
class for three hours.
 He works eight hours a day. Then he goes to
class for three hours.
A Note on –ing and to
Fragments
-ing words may be sometimes be gerunds
(verb forms used as nouns)
Writing good essays can be challenging
to + verb’ may be an infinitive (or infinitive
phrase) that serves as the subject
 To achieve our goals, we work hard…
Added-Detail Fragments
 Lack a subject and verb
 Some common words and phrases lead to these
fragments: especially, except, for example, including,
not even, particularly, such as.
 All software in the store is on sale. Except video
games.
 Several basic courses are required for graduation.
Among them, English Composition, an introductory
math course, and one general science course.
Correcting Added-Detail
Fragments
Attach the fragment to the sentence that
comes before or after it
All software in the store is on sale except
video games.
Add a subject or verb to the fragment to make
it a sentence
Correcting No Sentence
Subject
Add on a subject (person, place, thing, or
idea), i.e.
the “do-er” to act on the verb in the
sentence.
Change the verb form to fit with the subject.
Running fast down the hall.
He was running fast down the hall
Correcting No Sentence
Predicate
 Add on a verb (physical or mental action or a
state of being)
 to “do” the action of the “do-er,” i.e. the
subject
Mainly, the passage of time.
Mainly, the passage of time quickened

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Sentence vs-fragment

  • 2. SENTENCE • A sentence has two characteristics: • 1. It has a subject and predicate • 2. It expresses a complete and independence thought. • If either of these characteristics is missing from a group of words written as a “sentence”, the result is an error called a sentence fragment .
  • 3. FRAGMENTS  A word group that lacks a subject or a verb or does not express a complete thought. Fails to be a sentence in the sense that it cannot stand by itself.
  • 4. EXAMPLE OF FRAGMENTS  Incomplete Thought After he went to work . No Sentence Subject Going to school . No Sentence Predicate The young, attractive woman .
  • 5. TYPES OF FRAGMENTS • Dependent-Word Fragments • –ing and to Fragments • Added-Detail Fragments • No Sentence Subject • No Sentence Predicate •
  • 6. Dependent-Word Fragments • Some word groups that begin with dependent words are fragments: after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, how, if, in order to, since, so that, that, unless, until, what, whatever, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, whether, which, whichever, while, who, whoever, whose • EXAMPLE: • We do research on the Internet. Whenever we plan to make a major purchase.
  • 7. Correcting Dependent- Word Fragments • Attach it to the sentence that comes before or after it. We do research on the Internet. Whenever we plan to make a major purchase. We do research on the Internet whenever we plan to make a major purchase
  • 8. Correcting Dependent- Word Fragments  If the dependent-word group comes first, use a comma.  While some students work very hard. Others try to get by with a minimum of effort. While some students work very hard, others try to get by with a minimum of effort.
  • 9. Correcting Dependent- Word Fragments o Eliminate the dependent word by rewriting the sentence On his way to work, Bill took a shortcut. Which he thought would enable him to avoid traffic lights and get him to the office faster. On his way to work, Bill took a shortcut to avoid traffic lights and to get to the office faster.
  • 10. –ing and to Fragments –ing word at or near the start of the word group - often a participial phrase  The astronomer gazed intently through the telescope. Hoping to catch a glimpse of the meteor. to + verb at or near the start of the word group - often an infinitive phrase  In an effort to get to the airport on time. We left the house at four o’clock in the morning.
  • 11. Correcting –ing and to Fragments Attach the fragment to the sentence that comes before or after it The astronomer gazed intently through the telescope. Hoping to catch a glimpse of the meteor. The astronomer gazed intently through the telescope, hoping to catch a glimpse of the meteor
  • 12. Correcting –ing and to Fragments • Add a subject or verb to the fragment to make it a sentence  He works eight hours a day. Then going to class for three hours.  He works eight hours a day. Then he goes to class for three hours.
  • 13. A Note on –ing and to Fragments -ing words may be sometimes be gerunds (verb forms used as nouns) Writing good essays can be challenging to + verb’ may be an infinitive (or infinitive phrase) that serves as the subject  To achieve our goals, we work hard…
  • 14. Added-Detail Fragments  Lack a subject and verb  Some common words and phrases lead to these fragments: especially, except, for example, including, not even, particularly, such as.  All software in the store is on sale. Except video games.  Several basic courses are required for graduation. Among them, English Composition, an introductory math course, and one general science course.
  • 15. Correcting Added-Detail Fragments Attach the fragment to the sentence that comes before or after it All software in the store is on sale except video games. Add a subject or verb to the fragment to make it a sentence
  • 16. Correcting No Sentence Subject Add on a subject (person, place, thing, or idea), i.e. the “do-er” to act on the verb in the sentence. Change the verb form to fit with the subject. Running fast down the hall. He was running fast down the hall
  • 17. Correcting No Sentence Predicate  Add on a verb (physical or mental action or a state of being)  to “do” the action of the “do-er,” i.e. the subject Mainly, the passage of time. Mainly, the passage of time quickened