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Embedded System-design technology


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Embedded System-design technology

  1. 1. Alpha Breathing : (2 Mins) The three steps for alpha breathing are • Breathe in • Breathe out • Hold (Repeat the three steps for 8 times)
  2. 2. Chapter 3 Design Technology
  3. 3. Design Implementation
  4. 4. Trade-offs The co-design ladder In the past: • Hardware and software design technologies were very different • Recent maturation of synthesis enables a unified view of hardware and software • Hardware/software “codesign” • The choice of hardware versus software for a particular function is simply a tradeoff among various design metrics, like performance, power, size, NRE cost, and especially flexibility; there is no fundamental difference between what hardware or software can implement.
  5. 5. Implementation
  6. 6. Independence of processor and IC technologies Basic tradeoff • General vs. custom • With respect to processor technology or IC technology • The two technologies are independent
  7. 7. Design Technology Design task • Define system functionality • Convert functionality to physical implementation while • Satisfying constrained metrics • Optimizing other design metrics • Designing embedded systems is hard • Complex functionality • Millions of possible environment scenarios • Competing, tightly constrained metrics • Productivity gap • As low as 10 lines of code or 100 transistors produced per day
  8. 8. Improving Productivity Design technologies developed to improve productivity • Advancing hardware/software unified view • Automation • Program replaces manual design • Synthesis • Reuse • Predesigned components • Cores • General-purpose and single-purpose processors on single IC • Verification • Ensuring correctness/completeness of each design step • Hardware/software co-simulation
  9. 9. Automation- Synthesis Early design mostly hardware • Software complexity increased with advent of general-purpose processor • Different techniques for software design and hardware design • Caused division of the two fields • Design tools evolve for higher levels of abstraction • Different rate in each field • Hardware/software design fields rejoining • Both can start from behavioral description in sequential program model • 30 years longer for hardware design to reach this step in the ladder • Many more design dimensions • Optimization critical
  10. 10. Verification Ensuring design is correct and complete • Correct • Implements specification accurately • Complete • Describes appropriate output to all relevant input • Formal verification • Hard • For small designs or verifying certain key properties only • Simulation • Most common verification method
  11. 11. Simulation Speed Relative speeds of different types of simulation/emulation • 1 hour actual execution of SOC • = 1.2 years instruction-set simulation • = 10,000,000 hours gate-level simulation
  12. 12. Emulators General physical device system mapped to • Microprocessor emulator • Microprocessor IC with some monitoring, control circuitry • SPP emulator • FPGAs (10s to 100s) • Usually supports debugging tasks • Created to help solve simulation disadvantages • Mapped relatively quickly • Hours, days • Can be placed in real environment • No environment setup time • No incomplete environment • Typically faster than simulation • Hardware implementation
  13. 13. Reuse-Intellectual Property Cores Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components • Predesigned, prepackaged ICs • Implements GPP or SPP • Reduces design/debug time • Have always been available • System-on-a-chip (SOC) • All components of system implemented on single chip • Made possible by increasing IC capacities • Changing the way COTS components sold • As intellectual property (IP) rather than actual IC • Behavioral, structural, or physical descriptions • Processor-level components known as cores • SOC built by integrating multiple descriptions
  14. 14. Brain Activation: (2 mins)
  15. 15. Answer: 9 Explanation : The number at the centre of each triangle equals the sum of the lower two numbers minus the top number.
  16. 16. Survey and Reading by students (18 mins.) Survey: 1. State the tradeoff between design technology, IC and processor technology. 2. Mention some of the PLDs. 3. Define emulators. 4. Mention the advantages and disadvantages in design technology. 5. Define the performance metric for throughput and time in embedded system. Reading: 1. What are the trade offs? 2. List out steps in improving productivity? Guided Reading with hints Page No.: 43-65
  17. 17. Discussion (9 mins.)
  18. 18. Reconstruct – Mind map (7 mins.)
  19. 19. Summary (5 mins.) • • Design Technology Independence of Processor and IC technology – Improving productivity • Automation • • • Reuse • Verification Automation Trade-offs • Simulation Speed • Emulators • Reuse
  20. 20. Gazing/Rote memory: (2 mins) • • • • • • • Design Technology Tradeoffs Automation Reuse Verification Emulators Simulation speed
  21. 21. Assessment (MCQ And higher order questions) 1. COTS improves _________. (a) reusability (b) Simulation speed (c) Automation (d) None 2. Emulators contain __________ FPGA’s. (a) 10s to 1000’s (b) 10s to 100s (c) transistor level (d) voltage level
  22. 22. 3. ___________ Automates exploration and insertion of implementation details for lower level. (a) Compiler (b) Interpreters (c) Machine Instruction (d) Logic gates 4. Ensuring design is correct and complete (a) single purpose processor (b) Application specific processor (c) Real time processor (d) None 5. A very popular Programmable Logic Device (PLD) is . (a) Field-Programmable Gate Array (b) Fast Programmable Gate Array (c) Fuzzy Programmable Gate Array (d) None
  23. 23. Two mark Questions: 1. State the tradeoff between design technology, IC and processor technology. 2. Mention some of the PLDs. 3. Define emulators. 4. Mention the advantages and disadvantages in design technology. 5. Define the performance metric for throughput and time in embedded system. 1. Explain design technology. 2. Explain the tradeoffs for design, IC and Processor technology.