Introducing Embedded Systems and the
Electronics & Communication Engineering Dept
SEMESTER – I
Sl. No. Course No. Subject Hrs / Week Evaluation Scheme (Marks) Credits (C)
L T P Sessional ESE Total
1 MECVE 101
Semiconductor Devices – Physics
3 1 0 25 25 50 100 150 4
2 MECVE 102 CMOS Analog Design -I 3 1 0 25 25 50 100 150 4
3 MECVE 103 CMOS Digital Design -I 3 1 0 25 25 50 100 150 4
4 MECVE 104
Embedded System Hardware
3 1 0 25 25 50 100 150 4
5 MECVE 105 Elective – I 3 0 0 25 25 50 100 150 3
6 MECVE 106 Elective – II 3 0 0 25 25 50 100 150 3
7 MECVE 107 VLSI Design Lab 0 0 3 25 25 50 100 150 2
8 MECVE 108 Seminar – I 0 0 2 25 25 50 0 50 1
Total 18 4 5 200 200 400 700 1100 25
L – Lecture, T – Tutorial, P – Practical
Elective – I & II
Elective – I (MEC VE 105) Elective – II (MEC VE 106)
MEC VE 105 -
Advanced Digital Design
106 - 1
MEC VE 105 -
VLSI Process Technology
106 - 2
Nanomaterials, Structures and
MEC VE 105 -
System Identification and System
106 - 3
RF IC Technology
MEC VE 105 -
Electronic System Design
106 - 4
Modeling of Embedded Systems
EMBEDDED SYSTEM HARDWARE
ARCHITECTURE - I
MECVE 104 L T P C
3 1 0 4
1. Tammy Noergaard, “Embedded Systems Architecture, A
Comprehensive Guide for Engineers and Programmers”,
Newness, Elseiver, 2012
2. Lyla B Das , “Embedded systems-An integrated approach”,
Pearson Education, 2013
3. Steve Furber , “ARM System-on-chip architecture”, 2/e,
4. Jack Ganssle, Tammy Noergaard,Fred Eady,Lewin
Edwards,David J. Katz, RickGentile, Ken Arnold, Kamal Hyder,
Bob Perrin, Creed Huddleston, “Embedded Hardware Know
It all”, Newness, Elseiver, 2008
1. Wayne Wolf , “Computers as Components-principles of
Embedded computer system design”, Elseveir, 2005
2. Ken Arnold, “Embedded Controller Hardware Design”, LLH
Technology publishing, 2001
3. Peter Marwedel, “Embedded System Design”, Springer, 2006
4. Frank Vahid and Tony D. Givargis, “Embedded System Design:
A Unified Hardware / Software Introduction”, 2000.
5. Jerraya, A. “Long Term Trends for Embedded System Design.”
6. S. E. Derenzo, “Practical Interfacing in the Laboratory: Using a
PC for Instrumentation, Data Analysis and Control”, Cambridge,
7. E. A. Lee and S. A. Seshia , “Introduction to Embedded
Introduction to Embedded
Systems and Embedded
A system engineering approach to
1. Introduction and definition of Embedded
2. Embedded System Design,
3. Introduction and importance of embedded
4. The embedded systems Model.
Basics of computer architecture and binary number systems.
1. Introduction to Embedded Systems- Application
2. Features and General characteristics of embedded
3. Microprocessor vs microcontroller
4. Figure of merits
5. Classification of MCUs
Embedded systems The hardware point of view-
3. low power design
4. pullup and pull down resistors
Examples of embedded systems
1. Mobile Phone,
2. Automotive Electronics,
3. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
4. Wireless Sensor Networks (WISENET),
6. Biomedical Applications,
7. Brain Machine Interface … etc
• One of the very first recognizably modern
embedded systems was the Apollo Guidance
Computer, developed by Charles Stark
Draper at the MIT Instrumentation
• At the project's inception, the Apollo guidance computer was
considered the riskiest item in the Apollo project as it
employed the then newly developed monolithic integrated
circuits to reduce the size and weight.
• An early mass-produced embedded system
was the Autonetics D-17 guidance
computer for the Minuteman missile, released
• When the Minuteman II went into production
in 1966, the D-17 was replaced with a new
computer that was the first high-volume use
of integrated circuits.
This program alone reduced prices on quad nand gate IC ’s ,
permitting their use in commercial products.
• In the 1970's, computers were widely used in
commercial and administrative applications.
• Microprocessors also became available,
bringing together on a single chip all the
functionalities of a processor.
• This is the start of a race to miniaturize
electronic components - allowing (Moore's
• The capacity of electronic chips to double
every two years
• An early microprocessor for example, the Intel
4004, was designed for calculators and other
small systems but still required external
memory and support chips.
• In 1978 National Engineering Manufacturers
Association released a "standard" for
programmable microcontrollers, including
almost any computer-based controllers, such
as single board computers, numerical, and
• In the 1980s, the availability of computer
networks brings together Information
Technology and Telecommunications.
• The computer mouse, Windows and graphical
interfaces also appear.
• By the early 1980s, memory, input and output
system components had been integrated into
the same chip as the processor forming
• Microcontrollers find applications where a
general-purpose computer would be too costly.
• In the 1990s, internet and and the world wide
web become available, allowing widespread
access to digital technologies.
• The concept of "Information
• Finally, towards the beginning of the 2000s, a
second parallel revolution occurs for
• It is less visible, but has deeper impacts.
• In the end, the Embedded Systems revolution
will join the world wide web revolution
• Over 95% of all electronic chips produced today
are for embedded systems. Their use in everyday
products is a major evolution for Information
and Communication Technologies.
• The miniaturization of ICT hardware now makes
it possible to make wireless, implantable medical
devices and monitors that can transmit vital
statistics and alerts to external devices.
Embedded = Embodiment
“Embodied phenomena are those that by their very
nature occur in real time and real space”
In other words, A number of systems coexist to discharge
a specific function in real time
Before Part A
“‘Real’-time usually means time as prescribed by
For example the time struck by clock (however
fast or late it might be).
These variations in the functionality can
only be achieved by a very flexible device.
• you may like to adjust the zoom of the digital camera
you may like to reduce the screen brightness
you may like to change the ring tone
you may like to relay a specific song from your favorite
FM station to your friend using your mobile
You may like to use it as a calculator, address book,
emailing device etc.
Characteristics of an Rtes
• Tightly Constrained
• Reactive and Real Time
Some common characteristics of
– Executes a single program, repeatedly
– Low cost, low power, small, fast, etc.
• Reactive and real-time
– Continually reacts to changes in the system’s
– Must compute certain results in real-time without
• Both the DSPs share the same memory
without interfering with each other. (This kind
of memory is known as dual ported memory
or two-way post-box memory )
• (RTOS) controls the timing requirement of all
• The ASICs are specialized units capable of
specialized functions such as
3. modulation/demodulation (MODEM) action
• CODECs are generally used for interfacing low
power serial Analog-to-Digital Converters
• The analog signals from the controlled process
can be monitored through an ADC interfaced
through this CODEC.
1. Introduction and definition of
Embedded systems are more limited
in hardware and/or software
a personal computer (PC).
An embedded system is designed
to perform a dedicated function.
An embedded system is a computer
system with higher quality and
than other types of computer
Some devices that are called
embedded systems, such as PDAs or
web pads, are not
really embedded systems.
Examples of embedded systems and their markets
APDV = Advanced Pro-series
Digital Variable Ignition.
ASFS= Advanced Swirl Flow Induction
• Embedded system: is a system whose principal
function is not computational, but which is
controlled by a computer embedded within it.
Embedded system: A way of working, organizing or
performing one or many tasks according to a fixed
set of rules, program or plan.
Definition of Embedded Systems
“An embedded system is a system that has
software embedded into computer-hardware,
which makes a system dedicated for an
application (s) or specific part of an
application or product or part of a larger
REFERENCE : Chapter-1L01: "Embedded Systems - " , Raj Kamal, Publs.: McGraw-Hill
A “short list” of embedded systems
And the list goes on and on
Automatic teller machines
Automatic toll systems
Cell-phone base stations
Curbside check-in systems
Electronic card readers
Home security systems
Medical testing systems
Portable video games
Theft tracking systems
TV set-top boxes
VCR’s, DVD players
Video game consoles
Washers and dryers
An embedded system example –
a digital camera
CCD preprocessor Pixel coprocessor
Memory controller ISA bus interface UART LCD ctrl
Digital camera chip
• Single-functioned -- always a digital camera
• Tightly-constrained -- Low cost, low power, small, fast
• Reactive and real-time -- only to a small extent
• An embedded system is a product that has one or more
computers embedded within it, which exercise primarily a
• The embedded computer is usually a microcontroller: a
microprocessor adapted for embedded control applications.
• Microcontrollers are designed according to accepted
electronic and computer principles, and are fundamentally
made up of microprocessor core, memory and peripherals.
Quote of the Day
The empires of the future are the empires of the mind.
– Winston Churchill