Embedded system Design

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Introducing Embedded Systems and the Microcontrollers

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Embedded system Design

  1. 1. Introducing Embedded Systems and the Microcontrollers 1 By AJAL.A.J ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Electronics & Communication Engineering Dept
  2. 2. SEMESTER – I Sl. No. Course No. Subject Hrs / Week Evaluation Scheme (Marks) Credits (C) L T P Sessional ESE Total TA CT Sub Total 1 MECVE 101 Semiconductor Devices – Physics & Modeling 3 1 0 25 25 50 100 150 4 2 MECVE 102 CMOS Analog Design -I 3 1 0 25 25 50 100 150 4 3 MECVE 103 CMOS Digital Design -I 3 1 0 25 25 50 100 150 4 4 MECVE 104 Embedded System Hardware Architecture -I 3 1 0 25 25 50 100 150 4 5 MECVE 105 Elective – I 3 0 0 25 25 50 100 150 3 6 MECVE 106 Elective – II 3 0 0 25 25 50 100 150 3 7 MECVE 107 VLSI Design Lab 0 0 3 25 25 50 100 150 2 8 MECVE 108 Seminar – I 0 0 2 25 25 50 0 50 1 Total 18 4 5 200 200 400 700 1100 25 L – Lecture, T – Tutorial, P – Practical
  3. 3. Elective – I & II Elective – I (MEC VE 105) Elective – II (MEC VE 106) MEC VE 105 - 1 Advanced Digital Design MEC VE 106 - 1 VLSI CAD MEC VE 105 - 2 VLSI Process Technology MEC VE 106 - 2 Nanomaterials, Structures and Devices MEC VE 105 - 3 System Identification and System Simulation MEC VE 106 - 3 RF IC Technology MEC VE 105 - 4 Electronic System Design MEC VE 106 - 4 Modeling of Embedded Systems
  4. 4. EMBEDDED SYSTEM HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE - I MECVE 104 L T P C 3 1 0 4
  5. 5. References: 1. Tammy Noergaard, “Embedded Systems Architecture, A Comprehensive Guide for Engineers and Programmers”, Newness, Elseiver, 2012 2. Lyla B Das , “Embedded systems-An integrated approach”, Pearson Education, 2013 3. Steve Furber , “ARM System-on-chip architecture”, 2/e, Pearson Education 4. Jack Ganssle, Tammy Noergaard,Fred Eady,Lewin Edwards,David J. Katz, RickGentile, Ken Arnold, Kamal Hyder, Bob Perrin, Creed Huddleston, “Embedded Hardware Know It all”, Newness, Elseiver, 2008
  6. 6. 1. Wayne Wolf , “Computers as Components-principles of Embedded computer system design”, Elseveir, 2005 2. Ken Arnold, “Embedded Controller Hardware Design”, LLH Technology publishing, 2001 3. Peter Marwedel, “Embedded System Design”, Springer, 2006 4. Frank Vahid and Tony D. Givargis, “Embedded System Design: A Unified Hardware / Software Introduction”, 2000. 5. Jerraya, A. “Long Term Trends for Embedded System Design.” 6. S. E. Derenzo, “Practical Interfacing in the Laboratory: Using a PC for Instrumentation, Data Analysis and Control”, Cambridge, 2003. 7. E. A. Lee and S. A. Seshia , “Introduction to Embedded Systems”, 2011-2012 References: contd
  7. 7. About the Author
  8. 8. Module 1 Introduction to Embedded Systems and Embedded hardware:
  9. 9. PART –A A system engineering approach to embedded systems 1. Introduction and definition of Embedded Systems, 2. Embedded System Design, 3. Introduction and importance of embedded systems architecture, 4. The embedded systems Model. Basics of computer architecture and binary number systems.
  10. 10. PART –B 1. Introduction to Embedded Systems- Application domain 2. Features and General characteristics of embedded systems 3. Microprocessor vs microcontroller 4. Figure of merits 5. Classification of MCUs
  11. 11. PART –C Embedded systems The hardware point of view- 1. MCU 2. memory 3. low power design 4. pullup and pull down resistors 5. Sensors 6. ADCs 7. actuators
  12. 12. PART –D Examples of embedded systems 1. Mobile Phone, 2. Automotive Electronics, 3. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) 4. Wireless Sensor Networks (WISENET), 5. Robotics, 6. Biomedical Applications, 7. Brain Machine Interface … etc
  13. 13. History ….. • One of the very first recognizably modern embedded systems was the Apollo Guidance Computer, developed by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. • At the project's inception, the Apollo guidance computer was considered the riskiest item in the Apollo project as it employed the then newly developed monolithic integrated circuits to reduce the size and weight.
  14. 14. • An early mass-produced embedded system was the Autonetics D-17 guidance computer for the Minuteman missile, released in 1961. @ 1961
  15. 15. @ 1966 • When the Minuteman II went into production in 1966, the D-17 was replaced with a new computer that was the first high-volume use of integrated circuits. This program alone reduced prices on quad nand gate IC ’s , permitting their use in commercial products.
  16. 16. • In the 1970's, computers were widely used in commercial and administrative applications. • Microprocessors also became available, bringing together on a single chip all the functionalities of a processor. • This is the start of a race to miniaturize electronic components - allowing (Moore's Law). @ 1970's
  17. 17. Moore's Law • The capacity of electronic chips to double every two years
  18. 18. • An early microprocessor for example, the Intel 4004, was designed for calculators and other small systems but still required external memory and support chips. @ 1971
  19. 19. @ 1978 • In 1978 National Engineering Manufacturers Association released a "standard" for programmable microcontrollers, including almost any computer-based controllers, such as single board computers, numerical, and event-based controllers.
  20. 20. • In the 1980s, the availability of computer networks brings together Information Technology and Telecommunications. • The computer mouse, Windows and graphical interfaces also appear. @ 1980's
  21. 21. • By the early 1980s, memory, input and output system components had been integrated into the same chip as the processor forming a microcontroller. • Microcontrollers find applications where a general-purpose computer would be too costly. @ 1980
  22. 22. • In the 1990s, internet and and the world wide web become available, allowing widespread access to digital technologies. • The concept of "Information Technologies" appears. @ 1990's
  23. 23. • Finally, towards the beginning of the 2000s, a second parallel revolution occurs for Embedded Systems. • It is less visible, but has deeper impacts. • In the end, the Embedded Systems revolution will join the world wide web revolution @ 1990's
  24. 24. • Over 95% of all electronic chips produced today are for embedded systems. Their use in everyday products is a major evolution for Information and Communication Technologies. • The miniaturization of ICT hardware now makes it possible to make wireless, implantable medical devices and monitors that can transmit vital statistics and alerts to external devices. @ 2014
  25. 25. Trending towards
  26. 26. Embedded = Embodiment “Embodied phenomena are those that by their very nature occur in real time and real space” In other words, A number of systems coexist to discharge a specific function in real time Before Part A
  27. 27. Real Time “‘Real’-time usually means time as prescribed by external sources” For example the time struck by clock (however fast or late it might be).
  28. 28. These variations in the functionality can only be achieved by a very flexible device. • you may like to adjust the zoom of the digital camera  you may like to reduce the screen brightness  you may like to change the ring tone  you may like to relay a specific song from your favorite FM station to your friend using your mobile  You may like to use it as a calculator, address book, emailing device etc.
  29. 29. Characteristics of an Rtes • Single-Functioned • Tightly Constrained • Reactive and Real Time
  30. 30. Single-Functioned
  31. 31. Tightly Constrained
  32. 32. Reactive and Real Time
  33. 33. 37 Some common characteristics of embedded systems • Single-functioned – Executes a single program, repeatedly • Tightly-constrained – Low cost, low power, small, fast, etc. • Reactive and real-time – Continually reacts to changes in the system’s environment – Must compute certain results in real-time without delay
  34. 34. Architecture of an Embedded System
  35. 35. Comments I • Both the DSPs share the same memory without interfering with each other. (This kind of memory is known as dual ported memory or two-way post-box memory ) • (RTOS) controls the timing requirement of all the devices.
  36. 36. Comments II • The ASICs are specialized units capable of specialized functions such as 1.motor control, 2.voice encoding, 3. modulation/demodulation (MODEM) action ……….. etc.
  37. 37. Comments III • CODECs are generally used for interfacing low power serial Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs). • The analog signals from the controlled process can be monitored through an ADC interfaced through this CODEC.
  38. 38. PART –A 1. Introduction and definition of Embedded Systems
  39. 39. What Is an Embedded System?
  40. 40. Embedded systems are more limited in hardware and/or software functionality than a personal computer (PC). An embedded system is designed to perform a dedicated function.
  41. 41. An embedded system is a computer system with higher quality and reliability requirements than other types of computer systems. Some devices that are called embedded systems, such as PDAs or web pads, are not really embedded systems.
  42. 42. Examples of embedded systems and their markets
  43. 43. APDV = Advanced Pro-series Digital Variable Ignition. ASFS= Advanced Swirl Flow Induction System
  44. 44. Swirl Flow
  45. 45. Examples of embedded systems and their markets
  46. 46. Cardiovascular x ray machine
  47. 47. In General • Embedded system: is a system whose principal function is not computational, but which is controlled by a computer embedded within it. 51 Embedded system: A way of working, organizing or performing one or many tasks according to a fixed set of rules, program or plan.
  48. 48. Definition of Embedded Systems “An embedded system is a system that has software embedded into computer-hardware, which makes a system dedicated for an application (s) or specific part of an application or product or part of a larger system.” REFERENCE : Chapter-1L01: "Embedded Systems - " , Raj Kamal, Publs.: McGraw-Hill Education
  49. 49. 53 A “short list” of embedded systems And the list goes on and on Anti-lock brakes Auto-focus cameras Automatic teller machines Automatic toll systems Automatic transmission Avionic systems Battery chargers Camcorders Cell phones Cell-phone base stations Cordless phones Cruise control Curbside check-in systems Digital cameras Disk drives Electronic card readers Electronic instruments Electronic toys/games Factory control Fax machines Fingerprint identifiers Home security systems Life-support systems Medical testing systems Modems MPEG decoders Network cards Network switches/routers On-board navigation Pagers Photocopiers Point-of-sale systems Portable video games Printers Satellite phones Scanners Smart ovens/dishwashers Speech recognizers Stereo systems Teleconferencing systems Televisions Temperature controllers Theft tracking systems TV set-top boxes VCR’s, DVD players Video game consoles Video phones Washers and dryers
  50. 50. 54 An embedded system example – a digital camera Microcontroller CCD preprocessor Pixel coprocessor A2D D2A JPEG codec DMA controller Memory controller ISA bus interface UART LCD ctrl Display ctrl Multiplier/Accum Digital camera chip lens CCD • Single-functioned -- always a digital camera • Tightly-constrained -- Low cost, low power, small, fast • Reactive and real-time -- only to a small extent
  51. 51. Summary • An embedded system is a product that has one or more computers embedded within it, which exercise primarily a control function. • The embedded computer is usually a microcontroller: a microprocessor adapted for embedded control applications. • Microcontrollers are designed according to accepted electronic and computer principles, and are fundamentally made up of microprocessor core, memory and peripherals. 55
  52. 52. Quote of the Day The empires of the future are the empires of the mind. – Winston Churchill

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