Lock Out Tag Out (LOTO) Lockout Tag out Authorized Employees Training
Why is LOTO important? • The Lock Out/Tag Out procedure prevents the unexpected start up or release of stored energy that could cause injury to employees by placing a lock and/or warning tag on an energy isolation device.
LOTO Program Enforcement• Any employee not using LOTO program• Employees tempering the LOTO lock and Tag• Removing the LOTO program Must be brought to the notice of Plant Manager, EHS Manager and HR
Hazardous Energy Sources Energy Description Type Mechanical Relating to springs, rotating parts etc, produced by machine Radiation Energy released from unstable nuclei, nuclear reaction or charged particle acceleration Magnetic Energy stored in magnetic fields, found in capacitors & superconducting magnetic storage Gravity Found in machine/equipment parts that might descend, slide or fall if left unblocked Electrical Present in transmission lines, transformers, circuit breakers or motors- AC or DC Hydraulic Involving fluid under pressure, in cylinders, pipes & tanks Pneumatic Involving compressed air or gas, in cylinders, lines or pipes Thermal Hot or Cold, Heat generated from machine or cooling system (<5°C & >60°C) Chemical Produced as a result of chemical reaction Steam Water vapour kept under pressure
What is LOTO?LOTO is a technique to prevent the release of hazardous energyduring servicing or maintenanceLOTO is performed by physically putting lock & tag at the energyisolation pointsLOTO DOES NOT apply to single plug & cord equipment when theequipment is unplugged under the exclusive control of the personperforming the work
Category of Employees under LOTO Program1) LOTO Authorized Employees Whose job responsibility include servicing and maintenance on the machine Example: Fitter, Electrician, Technician, plumber etc..2) Affected employees Employees whose does not require servicing and maintenance on machine. Example: Passers by, office employees, supervisors , employee sitting in the area etc..
Why LOTO?• To prevent bodily harm caused by uncontrolled hazardous energy• To prevent accidental equipment startup• To guarantee that equipment stays shutdownWhy some people ignore LOTO Safety Personal Barriers- Lack of knowledge, overconfidence, pride, other priorities Organizational Barriers- Production pressure, poor enforcement, lack of LOTO procedures/equipments Environmental Barriers- Machine design, poor housekeeping Remember: there are no good reasons for not performing LOTO
Energy Control MethodsGrounding Rod Blank or BlindMisalignment Double block & Bleed Spool Piece Removal
Types of LOTO Locks & Tags Red Tag- AD employee or Contractor employee is actively working on the equipment/machine Red Tag with Blue Stripes- Group of persons are actively working onRed Lock & Red Tag Blue Lock & Red Tag equipment/machine (Individual LOTO lock,(Individual LOTO lock, AD Contract Person) Yellow Tag with Blue Stripes AD Employee) Nobody is actively working on the system but the equipment is unsafe to operate (Transition Period) Individual LOTO locks have only one Black Lock & Red Tag Yellow Lock & Yellow Tag with Blue Stripes key with Black Stripes (Group LOTO lock) (Transition LOTO lock)
EID and Lockout Devices• Energy isolation devices (EID) is a device which prevents the transmission of energy e.g. MCB, MCCB, ball valve etc.• The devices which help to lock out and prevent the energization of a machine, equipment or process are called LOTO devices Plug Box-large Hood locking MCB locking Plug Box-small Component Component Valve Locking HT Panel Locking Valve Locking Component Chain Component Component Cylinder locking Hood locking Component (Large) Group LOTO Hasp Component (small)
Affected and Authorized Persons & Training RequirementsWho is Authorized Person(s) ?A person who is having appropriate technical background, has successfully completed thistraining and given the successful demonstration of practical skills is authorized to perform LOTOWho is Affected Person(s) ?An individual who operates equipment on which maintenance or servicing is being performedunder LOTO, or an individual who works in the area where such maintenance or servicing isbeing performed. This individual is not authorized to perform LOTO. What are the LOTO Training Requirements? Training Requirements & Frequency Affected Individual Authorized Individual Initial training Required Required Required (must be observed and verified by Initial demonstration Not applicable another authorized employee, i.e. "hands on") Annual refresher trainingRecommended Required Required Annual demonstration Not applicable (must be observed and verified by another authorized employee)
Time/Duration of LOTO Lock• LOTO lock can be used for duration of work or end of shift whichever is shorter.
Equipment Specific LOTO procedure Labeling of Energy Isolating Points A/B/C/D/E A- Department B- Room or sub area C- Equipment ID D- Energy source E- LOTO Point ID o P1/GF, B2 lab/ HAO-1/E/LPS- 1
Applying LOTO- Six Step Process• Plan & Prepare for shutdown• Shutdown the Equipment• Isolate the Equipment• Apply lockout/tagout devices• Control stored energy• Verify isolation: Zero Energy
Step-1 Prepare for shutdown• Understand the problem – What need to be fixed? – What are the types of hazards involved? – Equipment specific LOTO procedure – Consider downstream effects – Will another piece of equipment be also affected?• Plan – Are proper tools available? – Are proper technical persons available? – Have all affected employees been informed?• Prepare – Is the area clear & warning posted? – Is the person performing LOTO ready physically and mentally? – Have all hazardous energy sources and disconnect points been located?
Step-2 Shutdown the Equipment• Use established procedure• Involve the worker who normally shuts down the equipment• If the work is being performed at customer’s site, customer should shutdown the equipment
Step-3 Isolate the Equipment• Have a qualified person disconnect the equipment• Wear appropriate PPE• Use common isolation techniques – closing valves, opening electrical disconnects• While opening electrical disconnect, stand to one side in the event an electric arc occurs
Step-4 Apply Lockout Tagout Devices• Use only approved locks and tags• Never lend or borrow locks or keys• Never use LOTO locks & tags for any other purpose• Clearly mention the required details on tag
Step-5 Control stored or Residual Energy• Mechanical Motion- Stop any motion• Gravity – Use blocks & pins• Thermal Energy- Allow for heat up or cool down• Stored Mechanical Energy- block, tag & lock springs• Stored Electrical Energy- Drain power from capacitors, release or neutralize potential energy• Pressure- Bleed pressure carefully and slowly
Step-6 Verify isolation: zero energy• Verify that your testing equipments are working properly• Try to turn the equipment on• Test for voltage• Check gauges• Check double block and bleed• Check temperature with an independent device• Return to switched OFF after verifying zero energy• Notify affected person in the area that the work is to begin
Release of Lockout Tagout• Communicate to all affected employee• Verify the safety of the area• Ensure that the safety devices & guards in place• Return system functions• Remove your lock & tag• Communicate the system energization• Reenergize and test the equipment
LOTO Check-ListNOTE- For each servicing & maintenance, use this check list for Lock out & Tag Out. All the questions in column A(3) must have answer -Yes before start working onequipment. Similarly, all questions in column B(3) must have answer Yes except point no. 4 & 5Machine/Equipment: Date:NOTE- Write against each check point Y for Yes and NA for Not Applicable. Cloumn A Column BSl Sl Shut Down Procedure Check list YES Release from Lockout /Tagout Checklist YESNo No 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 Do the equipment has LOTO procedure? 1 Is the visual verification & personnel count performed to verify that personnel are clear from equipment/system and any material/tools are removed ? 2 Has the authorized person read the LOTO procedure, 2 Are all the operational control such as guards / understood isolation points location and LOTO interlocks made operational before release of verification (Try Out) procedure ? equipment ? 3 Has the affected personnel been informed that the 3 Are the LOTO devices removed from each isolation LOTO will be applied to equipment which belongs to point ? them or located in their vicinity ?. 4 Has the equipment/system requiring 4 Have the following sequence of activities followed, Y/NA servicing/maintenance released by the owner of where the equipment require test ? equipment? 5 Has the equipment been shut down using shut down 4(a) Clear tools and materials from equipments. procedure ? 6 Are LOTO devices applied to the all energy isolation 4(b) Clear and notify affected personnel points? (Refer the note overleaf for type of lock and tag required) 4(c ) Remove the LOTO devices 7 Has the equipment /system examined carefully to 4(d) detect & release, disconnect any stored energy? Proceed with the test 8 TRY OUT - Is the equipment attempted to operate by 4(e) pressing the start button. W here switches are not provided, other means of verification as per LOTO De-energize all systems & relock & retag the controls procedure used for try out. 4(f) Re-verify de-energization by try out 4(g) Proceed with the work 9 Is the operating control returned to neutral (OFF) In case of supervisory approach, outside service Y/NA position after try out. contractor has been explained all the steps and LOTO 5 is applied on First On Last Off basisRemarks: Name & Signature of the Authorized person
LOTO Program Office of Design & Construction Responsibilities• Notify contractors to bring their LOTO program to preconstruction meeting; and• Include LOTO as an agenda item & allow contractors & EHS dept. to discuss
LOTO Program Supervisor’s Responsibilities• Complete equipment specific LOTO procedures;• Conduct annual & periodic inspections;• Keep a list of authorized employees;• Issue LOTO devices to employees;• Ensure all affected employees are properly trained on LOTO procedures;• Enforce compliance with AD’s LOTO program; and• Provide employees with copies of the LOTO Program upon request.
LOTO Program Authorized Employee Responsibilities• Attend EHS’s required training;• Follow all LOTO procedures;• Assist supervisor’s in completing equipment specific LOTO procedures;• Consult supervisors when questions or concerns arise; and• Notify all affected employees of LOTO activities.
LOTO Program Contractors• Contractor & on-site employer must exchange LOTO info• AD employee must place his lock first the contractor employee and remove his lock after contractor employee remove his lock under supervisory approach
LOTO Program Equipment • Must be singularly identified; • Must be the ONLY devices for controlling energy; and • Must NOT be used for any other purposes.
LOTO Program Equipment• LO devices must be durable & withstand the environment to which they are exposed. TO devices must be constructed & printed so they do not deteriorate or become illegible;• LO/TO devices must be standardized by color, shape or size;• LO/TO devices must be substantial enough to prevent early or accidental removal and removal without excessive force.
LOTO Program Equipment• Lock out will be accomplished using a lock and key. Chains, or other hardware, may be used in conjunction with the lock to isolate the energy source.
LOTO Program Equipment • One key will be issued to the authorized employee applying the lock. • Additional keys will should be destroyed
LOTO Program Required TO Device Information• Name of authorized employee who locked out equipment;• Authorized employee’s radio or phone number, including contractors;• Date and time of lockout; and• Brief description of work being performed.
LOTO Program Equipment • An approved warning tag will accompany all lockouts. The warning tag will be attached directly to the lockout device by a nylon tie.
LOTO Program Energy Isolation• LO & TO energy isolating sources with assigned locks and tags. Usually requires locking out electrical disconnect.• Be sure to isolate ALL energy sources (secondary as well as primary).
LOTO Program Application of Devices• Use valve covers, plug locks, etc. if the lock can’t be placed directly on the energy control.• When LO is used, every employee in the work crew must attach their personal lock.
LOTO Program Application of Devices A TO system alone is not acceptable at any time unless the equipment is not capable of being locked out. The tag must be placed at the same location that the lockout device would have been attached, and additional measures must be taken to ensure the level of safety is equivalent to that obtained by using a lock.This includes: blocking of a controlling switch, removal of an isolating circuit element, opening of an extra disconnect device, or removal of a valve handle ONLY.
LOTO Program Release of Stored Energy• Inspect the system to make sure all parts have stopped moving.• Disperse stored energy (springs, hydraulic systems, air, gas, water pressure, or steam).• If stored energy can build up again, monitor it to make certain it stays below hazardous levels.
LOTO Program Verifying Equipment Isolation• Make certain all dangerous areas are clear of personnel.• Verify that the equipment cannot be turned to the “on” position. Press all “start” buttons and activating controls on the equipment.• Return all controls to the “off” position after certain that LO is effective.
LOTO Program Removing LOTO Devices/Restoring Equipment• Safeguard all employees by making certain everyone is clear of the equipment. Also notify affected employees of impending re-energization.• Verify that all tools have been removed and all guards reinstalled.• Remove LOTO devices. Each device must be removed by the person who put it on.• Energize equipment.
LOTO Program Troubleshooting• Remove all tools & personnel from the area.• Notify affected employees of impending re-energization.• Authorized employees remove the LO device but MUST leave tag in place.• Energize equipment.• When finished, de-energize & reapply LO device.
LOTO Program- Shift Changes• If servicing lasts more than one shift, LOTO protection CANNOT be interrupted.• The original authorized employee will remove their lock & the incoming employee will place theirs on the isolating device. If the first employee leaves prior to the replacement’s arrival, first employee must place transition lock to ensure safety and handover transition key to supervisor.• The incoming authorized employee must place his own personal lock and MUST VERIFY that ALL energy sources are locked out prior to beginning work.
LOTO Program Abandoned Lock Procedure• Verify authorized employee has left the worksite & notify them that their lock is being removed.• LOTO devices may ONLY be removed if supervisor is present and committee is formed which authorizes removal.• After all communication attempts are complete & the equipment has been inspected, energy can be restored.• An abandoned lock procedure form must be filled out & filed in the Lock Shop.
LOTO Program Equipment Specific ProceduresProcedures must be updated when:• New equipment is installed; or• New energy sources are added to a facility or individual equipment; or• Magnitude of an energy source changes; or• Designated isolation points change.
LOTO Program Alternate Procedure When LOTO can not be applied under certain situation like calibration, trouble shooting etc where power has to be kept on, an alternate method should be adopted:• Develop list of all activities where LOTO can not be applied.• Conduct risk assessment and develop a procedure.• Train employees who will work on machine