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Albumin test

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Albumin test

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Albumin is a large molecule protein found in the blood, under normal circumstances it does not pass into the urine. If albumin occurs in the urine it could indicate infection of the urinary tract, kidney damage as in nephritis and toxemia in pregnancy. A urine for albumin test is a screening test to look for the presence of albumin in the urine .An albumin test cheeks urine for a protein called albumin for urine . Albumin is normally found in blood and filtered by kidneys. When the kidneys are working as the slow, there may be very small amount albumin in the urine .But when the kidneys are damage ,abnormal amounts of albumin leaks in the urine. This is called albuminuria.

Albumin is a large molecule protein found in the blood, under normal circumstances it does not pass into the urine. If albumin occurs in the urine it could indicate infection of the urinary tract, kidney damage as in nephritis and toxemia in pregnancy. A urine for albumin test is a screening test to look for the presence of albumin in the urine .An albumin test cheeks urine for a protein called albumin for urine . Albumin is normally found in blood and filtered by kidneys. When the kidneys are working as the slow, there may be very small amount albumin in the urine .But when the kidneys are damage ,abnormal amounts of albumin leaks in the urine. This is called albuminuria.

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Albumin test

  1. 1. Albumin Test
  2. 2. Albumin is a large molecule protein found in the blood, under normal circumstances it does not pass into the urine. If albumin occurs in the urine it could indicate infection of the urinary tract, kidney damage as in nephritis and toxemia in pregnancy. A urine for albumin test is a screening test to look for the presence of albumin in the urine .An albumin test cheeks urine for a protein called albumin for urine . Albumin is normally found in blood and filtered by kidneys. When the kidneys are working as theslow, there may be very small amount albumin in the urine .But when the kidneys are damage ,abnormal amounts of albumin leaks in the urine. This is called albuminuria.
  3. 3. Urine for albumin test: An albumin test checks throughout the urine for a protein is call urine for albumin test. Or This test looks for a protein called albumin in urine. The test is used to check for kidney damage or disease.Albumin is a protein in blood.
  4. 4. Albumin : Albumin is a protein that is present in high concentration in the blood. Albumin is passed by urine from the body when large amount of albumin present in blood.
  5. 5. Referenceranges (Normal value): Serum orplasma Normal value (gm/dl) Adult>18 years 3.7-4.7 Age group 0-1 year 2.7-4.8 1-18years 3.1-4.8
  6. 6. lead to Purposes of the albumin test: * To measure the amount of albumin in the urine * Used in conjunction with a creatinine test. *To know an albumin – creatinine ratio. *To detect the presence of kidney damage that can kidney failure requiring the patient undergo dialysis. *Todetermine the level of albumin in the urine. *To screen for and help diagnose a liver disorder or kidney diseases *Sometimes to evaluate nutritional status specially in hospitalized patients.
  7. 7. Indication of albumin test: 1)For patients who are suspected to suffer from infection of urinary tract infection or kidney disease. 2)For female patients who are suspected to suffer from toxeamia of pregnancy. Other symptoms of kidney disease include…. -Swelling the stomach and legs or around the eyes. -Shortness of breath. -Frequent need to urine at the night. -Itching the skin.
  8. 8. Some other test should be done along with this test. These include… -Total protein -Pre-albumin -Globulins -Urine protein electrophoresis.
  9. 9. Serum protein electrophoresis : Causes of albumin test if health care provider suspects that anyone has liver or kidney disease. Symptoms of these diseases include…. -Jaundice or yellowish skin -Fatigue -Weight loss -Fever -Vomiting and diarrhea -Dark urine or gray, pale stools -Pain below the right ribs, including the stomach area. -Tenderness below the right ribs
  10. 10. Precaution of albumin test: To fill up the tube, two third of the test tube 2-3 drops acitic acid in the test tube Wiring the sun glass to protect eye To hold the test tube 300 angle Do not jerk the test tube at the time of heating Chronic kidney disease Hypertension High blood pressure Jaundice Liver cirrhosis nephriticsyndromes
  11. 11. An albumin urine test can be done on sample of urine that is collected- 1)At random time this usually after the first time we urinate in the morning. 2)Over a 24 hours period. 3)Over a specific period of time such as 4 hours or over night.
  12. 12. Urine Collection : Define Urine: A watery, typically yellowish fluid stored in the bladder and discharged through the urethra. Collection Characteristics of Urine : Volume Appearance Odor Color Reaction Sediment Specific gravity : 700-2500 ml excreted in 24hrs : Clear/Transparent : Pungent, ammonia smell. : Straw or amber in color. : Acidity : Absent : 1.010- 1.025
  13. 13. Constituents of urine: 96% water, 2% Urea, 2% Uric acid common renal function test with normal urinary findings by chemical examination of albumin.
  14. 14. Procedure of urine collecting for examination : A)Equipment Clean, Wide mouthed container Bed pan orurinal Appropriate laboratory form Laboratory requisition form Soap and water Gloves B)Procedure: Check the physician order and nursing care plan. Identify the patient proper hand washing.
  15. 15. … Explain procedure to the patient with specific instructions about washing the genital area (skin around the urethra meatus) with soap and water and give the labeled container. Instruct patient not wet the label on the outside. Ask the patient to direct the first and last part of the urine stream into a urinal or toilet and to collect the middle part of the stream into the special container. Have the patient place the specimen container in proper/designated place. With gloved hand place the specimen container in polythene bag. After collecting the urine specimen, starting the procedure of albumin test.
  16. 16. … After completing the test removes the gloves and wash the hand. Record the procedure in the nurse’s notes and other appropriate forms. Equipment of urine for albumin test: -Spirit lamp -Acetic acid -Match box -Mask -Test tubewith rack -Kidney tray -Gloves -Dropper -Test tube holder
  17. 17. e: Explain about the procedure to the client. Collect all equipment for albumin test. Proper hand washing. Put the gloves. Collect the urine from the client. Taking urine two to third (2/3) of the test tube. Take test tube and fixed in the folder &put the lamp. Hold thetest tube by holder and heat the upper portion of the test tube. Then put 2-3 drops acitic acid into the test tube and then further heat and then measure of the protein….. a)Less cloudy –Protein+ b)Moderate cloudy curd like- Protein 2+
  18. 18. Cont….. c) Like white protein of the egg – Protein 3+ d)If cloudy ness disappear after giving acitic - acid protein less. Clean all the equipment and kept proper place. Inform the result to the client. Hand washing and record the result.
  19. 19. Nursing careplan: Nursing Diagnosis Goal Nursing intervention Evaluatio n 1.Fear and anxiety about the test Reduce fear and anxiety a)Explain theprocedure to the patient. b)Maintain the privacy. c)Provide mental support. Gradually reduced fear and anxiety .
  20. 20. Cont.. 2.Prorein imbalance due to disease process Maintain the protein balance a)Monitor the serum albumin level of the patient. b)Check the laboratory values. c)Administer the supplementary protein. Gradually maintai n the protein balance .
  21. 21. Cont.. 3.Deficit knowledge about the disease Provide the knowledg e about the disease a)Inform the patient about which condition required medical attention. b)Advice to provide nutritionally adequate diet. c)Explain about the fluid requirement. d)Encourage to maintain cleanliness and hygiene. Gradually increase knowledge about the disease.
  22. 22. Urinalysis or urine testing is used to look for abnormalities such as an excess amount of protein , blood , pus , bacteria or sugar . Aurine test can help detect a variety of kidney and urinary tract disorders , including chronic kidney disease , diabetes , bladder infection and kidney stones . Atrace of one type of protein , albumin in urine is an early sign of chronic kidney disease . Persistent amounts of albumin and other proteins in the urine indicate kidney damage . The presence of albumin is also risk factor for cardiovascularevents ands death .
  23. 23. References: 1. National kidney and urologic diseases information clearing house. Proteinuria accessed17/02/2015. 2. National kidney foundation. Proteinuria accessed 17/02/2015. 3. American Association for clinical chemistry. Lab test online. Proteinuria accessed17/02/2015. 4. Lerma EVchapter 1.Approach to the patient with renal disease. 5. Beckman Coulter Synchron a clinical systems chemistry information manual,2007. 6. Fundamentals of Nursing Alphona Jacob, Vol-1,P-55.

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