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Nuclear battery


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A quick seminar on nuclear battery including its types,pros and cons & various Applications

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Nuclear battery

  1. 1. WELCOME
  2. 2. Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi Jain College of Engineering, Belagavi Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Seminar on: Nuclear Battery Under the guidance: Prof. Vireshkumar Mathad Submitted by: Shruti Sawant USN:2JI12EE050
  3. 3. CONTENT  Introduction  Historical Development  Conversion techniques  Types of nuclear batteries  Radioisotope used  Advantages  Disadvantages  Applications  Conclusion  References
  4. 4. Introduction  In recent advancement of technology, there is a great need of small, compact, light weighted and reliable power supplies.  Nuclear Battery: These are devices which uses energy from the decay of radio isotopes to generate electricity.  Unlike nuclear reactor there is no nuclear chain reaction taking place inside the battery therefore no radioactive waste produced.  They are mainly used as power sources for equipment that must operate unattended for long period of time.
  5. 5. Historical Development  Nuclear battery technology began in 1913, when Henry Moseley first demonstrated the beta cell.  A radio isotope electric power system was developed by inventor Paul Brown which was scientific break through  The field received considerable in-depth research attention for applications requiring long-life power sources for space needs during the 1950s and 1960s.  In 1954 RCA researched a small atomic battery for small radio receivers and hearing aids.
  6. 6. Conversion techniques  Thermal conversion The thermal converters (whose output power is a function of a temperature differential) include thermoelectric and thermionic generators.  Non-thermal conversion The non-thermal converters (whose output power is not a function of a temperature difference) extract a fraction of the incident energy as it is being degraded into heat rather than using thermal energy to run electrons in a cycle.
  7. 7. Types of Nuclear batteries Thermionic converter Radioisotope thermoelectric generator Beta voltaic Reciprocating Electromechanical Atomic Batteries
  8. 8. Thermionic converter  A thermionic converter consists of a hot electrode which thermionically emits electrons over a space charge barrier to a cooler electrode, producing a useful power output.  Caesium vapor is used to optimize the electrode work functions and provide an ion supply (by surface ionization) to neutralize the electron space charge
  9. 9. RADIOISOTOPE THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR  This converter uses thermocouples  Each thermocouple produces only small voltage(millivolt).Number of Thermocouples are connected in series to produce larger voltage
  10. 10. BETAVOLTAIC  These are generators of electric current, using energy from a radioactive source emitting beta particles (electrons)  use a non-thermal conversion process.  Converts the electron-hole pairs produced by the ionization trail of beta particles traversing a semiconductor
  11. 11. RECIPROCATING ELECTROMECHANICAL ATOMIC BATTERIES  Electromechanical atomic batteries use the buildup of charge between two plates to pull one bendable plate towards the other, until the two plates touch, discharge, equalizing the electrostatic buildup, and spring back.  The mechanical motion produced can be used to produce electricity through flexing of a piezoelectric material or through a linear generator
  12. 12. RADIOISOTOPES USED Atomic batteries uses radio isotopes producing low energy beta particles and sometimes alpha of varying energies  Tritium  Nickel-63  Promethium-147 tested  Technetium-99  Plutonium-238  Curium-242  Curium-244 used  Strontium-90
  13. 13. Advantages…  Reliable  Lighter with high energy density  Life span : minimum of decades  Efficient use of end-product obtained post nuclear fission and nuclear fusion process as fuel in nuclear batteries  Energy obtained is high  Reduces green house effect and related effects.
  14. 14. Disadvantages…  High initial cost of production  Energy conversion methodologies not much advanced  To gain social acceptance  Regional and country specific laws regarding the use and disposal of radioactive materials
  15. 15. Applications..  Space  Automobiles  Medical  Underwater sea probes or sea sensors  Military
  16. 16. Space Applications  Unaffected by long period of darkness and radiation belt like Van-belt  High power for long time independent of the atmospheric conditions  Used in long duration missions where fuel cells, batteries and solar arrays would be too large and heavy
  17. 17. Automobiles  It is on initial stages of development  Nuclear batteries could replace conventional fuels then there will be no case of running out of fuel
  18. 18. Medical Application  Due to increased longevity and better reliability it is used in pacemakers ,implanted deep fibrillators and other implanted devices
  19. 19. Underwater sea probes and sea sensors  Provides power in inaccessible places like deep sea that should keep working for long time or under extreme condition like earthquake and tsunami
  20. 20. Military application  Radioisotope power sources to provide very high density battery power to radio frequency equipment tags, sensors and ultra wide-band communication
  21. 21. Conclusion  The current research of nuclear batteries shows promise in future applications  Implementation of this new technology, feasibility of the device will be available for wide range of application  Nuclear cells are going to be the next best thing ever invented in human history
  22. 22. References 1. Brown, Paul: "Resonant Nuclear Battery Supply", Raum&Zeit, 1(3) (August-September, 1989). 2. “Nuclear and radiochemistry”, Gerhardt Friedlander, Joseph.W.Kennedy and Julian Malcolm Miller,A Wiley-Interscience publication. 3. “Atomic Batteries: Energy from Radioactivity”,Suhas Kumar, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. 4. “Nuclear batteries with tritium and promethium-147 radioactive sources”,Galina N. Yakubova, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, 2010.
  23. 23. THANK YOU