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Mall Road of Hill Stations

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This study examines Mall Roads as a form of popular communication, and popular spatial resistance that connects cities and the people in them.

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Mall Road of Hill Stations

  1. 1. DISSERTATION ON MALL ROAD OF HILL STATIONS (Darjeeling Mall road as a case to explore) Submitted By – Sheetu Goel M.Arch – Third Semester (Recreational Architecture) FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE & EKISTICS JAMIA MILLIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI – 110025 2016 Guided By – Ar. Ruknuddin Mirza Submitted in partial fulfilment of the Requirement for the award of degree of Master of Architecture
  2. 2. Page | Department of Architecture Faculty of Architecture & Ekistics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. Certificate In the partial fulfilment of M. Arch degree program, this is to certify that ‘Sheetu Goel’ has worked on the Dissertation project entitled “MALL Road of Hill Stations” under my guidance and supervision. Ar. Ruknuddin Mirza Prof. S. M. Akhtar Guide Dean External Examiner 1 Abdul Halim Babbu HOD External Examiner 2 External Examiner 3 i
  3. 3. Page | ii DECLARATION I, Sheetu Goel hereby declare that the Dissertation entitled “Mall Road of Hill Stations” submitted in the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Masters of Architecture is my original research work and that the information taken from secondary sources is given due citations and references. [Signature] Sheetu Goel M.Arch, Second Year 2015-16 Date: Place:
  4. 4. Page | ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This Dissertation has been a coordinated effort. In this regard I owe a depth of gratitude to my inspiration & guide Ar. Ruknuddin Mirza, who has cultivated devotion & determination in me & has been a helping hand at every moment to support & motivate me. I am Grateful to my parents, my sister who kept ultimate faith in me & always provided me backup with their love & best wishes. Above all, I am highly grateful to God, who provided me such a golden opportunity, brilliant guidance, & kind support. I would finally thank my friends for the much needed pep talks and discussions and all those who made this dissertation come alive. At last I beg pardon from all those who helped me but, my self- centred mind escaped their names. With Regards Sheetu Goel M-arch Final Year iii
  5. 5. P a g e | iv Mall roads | Dissertation 2015 – 16 Abstract The art of the man that coexisted happily with the art of nature, has now become a contradiction of the latter. Most of the once almost finite and predominantly pedestrian hill stations of the British days including Shimla are now melancholy shadows of their past. This study examines Mall Roads as a form of popular communication, and popular spatial resistance that connects cities and the people in them. Located on peaks that look like sentinels over heat-shimmering plains, hill stations remain among the most curious monuments to the British colonial presence in India. The study begins by offering a theoretical discussion defining hill stations of British India and evolving history of Hill stations followed by the introduction and significance of Mall roads. First I plan to investigate the contexts of art and culture as a part of the visual culture found in hilly areas, aiding in the identification of components of culture and how they are related to the components of recreation. The first half of the study focuses on the analysis of various types and typologies of the spaces associated with mall roads of hill stations; and change in the functionality of the same by examining mall roads of three different hill stations. The second half of the dissertation focuses on analyses of quantitative data for the identification of cultural heritage resources connecting people and communities. Information gathered by examining the case of Darjeeling Mall road or the Chawrasta, the results produce several matrices and visualizations representing the ways how a mall road forms a lifeline of a city and binds the communities together and promotes not only the culture but boosts the economy too. Furthermore, I have argued that cultural and social spaces like mall road provides education about the historical and cultural context of a community and opportunities for participation through festivals, events and performances, interactive sessions and workshops, and a variety of other activities. They are the display of cultural changes that the place has faced over years. This includes the way members of a group understand and interpret the world around them, their ideas and beliefs, how they relate to other people and organize their daily activities, including leisure, recreation and sport.
  6. 6. Page | v TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................1 1.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................1 1.2 Aims ..........................................................................................................2 1.3 Objectives..................................................................................................2 1.4 Scope of the study ....................................................................................2 1.5 Methodology.............................................................................................2 Chapter 2 CHARACTER, EVOLUTION AND FUNCTION OF MALL ROADS.....5 2.1 Hill Stations of British India.......................................................................5 2.1.1 Types of Hill stations............................................................................................6 2.1.2 Origin of Hill stations ...........................................................................................6 2.2 Mall Roads – Evolution and Functionality ..............................................10 2.3 Examples of Mall Roads ..........................................................................11 2.3.1 Mall road, Shimla ...................................................................11 2.3.2 Mall road, Mussoorie .............................................................13 Chapter 3 CASE STUDY ...............................................................................15 3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................15 3.2 History of Darjeeling ..............................................................................16 3.3 Location...................................................................................................17 3.4 Accessibility ............................................................................................18 3.5 Climate ...................................................................................................19 3.6 Flora and Fauna.......................................................................................19 Chapter 4 CULTURAL RESOURCE IDENTIFICATION....................................21 4.1 Built Heritage .........................................................................................21 4.2 Intangible heritage..................................................................................29 4.3 Natural heritage......................................................................................35 Chapter 5 Tourism profile ..........................................................................36 5.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................36 5.2 Tourism in Darjeeling...............................................................................36
  7. 7. Page | vi 5.2.1 Pre-Independence Perspective................................................36 5.2.2 Post-Independence Perspective ..............................................36 5.1.3 Foreign tourists........................................................................37 5.1.4 Age of tourists..........................................................................38 5.1.5 Language..................................................................................38 5.1.6 Religion ...................................................................................39 Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendations...........................................41 5.1 Conclusions...........................................................................................................41 5.2 Recommendations................................................................................................42 References...............................................................................................................................43
  8. 8. P a g e | vii Mall roads | Dissertation 2015 – 16 List of Figures Figure 2.1 Administrative functions of Hill Station in Early 20th century………………………. 9 Figure 2.2 Map of Mall Road, Shimla………………………..………………………..………………………….11 Figure 2.3 Scandal Point, 1980…………………..………………………..………………………………………..12 Figure 2.4 Scandal Point, 2015……………………..………………………..………………………………..…… 12 Figure 2.5 Map of Mall Road, Mussoorie……………………..………………………..……………………….13 Figure 2.6 Band Stand, Mussoorie……………………..………………………..……………………………….. 14 Figure 2.7 Public Library, Mussoorie……………………..………………………..……………………………..14 Figure 3.1 Map of West Bengal……………………..………………………..……………………………………. 17 Figure 3.2 Darjeeling District Map……………………..………………………..……………………………….. 17 Figure 3.3 View of Darjeeling……………………..………………………..………………………………………. 17 Figure 3.4 Guide Map of Darjeeling……………………..………………………..………………………………18 Figure 3.5 Connectivity Routes of Darjeeling……………………..………………………..……………….. 19 Figure 3.6 Flora of Darjeeling……………………..………………………..………………………………………. 20 Figure 4.1 Map of Chawrasta……………………..………………………..………………………………………. 21 Figure 4.2 Fountain at Chawrasta……………………..………………………..…………………………………22 Figure 4.3 Hawa Ghar at Chawrasta……………………..………………………..…………………………….. 22 Figure 4.4 Chawrasta, 1980……………………..………………………..…………………………………………. 23 Figure 4.5 Schematic Plan of the Mall, Showing nearby attractions………………………………..24 Figure 4.6 Heritage Shops at Chawrasta……………………..………………………..………………………. 25 Figure 4.7 Oxford Book Store, Chawrasta……………………..………………………..……………………. 25 Figure 4.8 Habeeb Mullik and Sons……………………..………………………..………………………………26 Figure 4.9 Chawrasta stores……………………..………………………..…………………………………………26 Figure 4.10 Mahakal Temple, Mall Road……………………..………………………..………………………26 Figure 4.11 Cave at Mahakal Temple……………………..………………………..……………………………26 Figure 4.12 The Raj Bhawan, Mall road……………………..………………………..………………………..27 Figure 4.13 Gorkha Rang Manch Bhawan, Mall road……………………..………………………..……27 Figure 4.14 St. Andrew's Church……………………..………………………..………………………………....27 Figure 4.15 Tourist Lodge, Mall Road……………………..………………………..…………………………..28 Figure 4.16 Deshbandhu District Library, Mall Road……………………..………………………..…….28 Figure 4.17 Nepalese of Darjeeling……………………..………………………..………………………………29 Figure 4.18 Gorkhas, People of Darjeeling……………………..………………………..……………………29 Figure 4.19 Entrance of Mahakal Temple……………………..………………………..…………………….30 Figure 4.20 Cuisines of Darjeeling……………………..………………………..………………………………..30
  9. 9. P a g e | viii Mall roads | Dissertation 2015 – 16 Figure 4.21 Momo, Food of Darjeeling……………………..………………………..…………………………30 Figure 4.22 Handicrafts of Darjeeling……………………..………………………..…………………………..34 Figure 4.23 View of Mall Road, Darjeeling……………………..………………………..……………………35 Charts and Tables Table 4.1 Fairs, Festivals and rituals of Darjeeling………………………………………………………31 Table 4.1.2 Fairs, Festivals and rituals of Darjeeling…………………………………………………..32 Table 4.2 Music and dance – forms of Darjeeling…………………………………..………………….33 Table 4.2.2 Music and dance – forms of Darjeeling………………..………………………………… 34 Chart 1 Percentage distribution of tourists on the basis of languages……………………….38 Chart 2 Classification of users on the basis of Religion………………………………………………39 Chart 3 Purpose wise distribution of tourists…………………………………………………………… 40

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