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Wine Tourism

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Exploring wine tourism in India, A potential to be uncorked!

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Wine Tourism

  1. 1. DISSERTATION ON EXPLORING WINE TOURISM IN INDIA – A Potential To Be Uncorked Submitted By – Sheetu Goel M.Arch – Fourth Semester (Recreational Architecture) Guided By – Ar. Asma Hamid FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE & EKISTICS JAMIA MILLIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI – 110025 2016 Submitted in partial fulfilment of the Requirement for the award of degree of Master of Architecture
  2. 2. Page| Department of Architecture Faculty of Architecture & Ekistics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. Certificate In the partial fulfilment of M. Arch degree program, this is to certify that ‘Sheetu Goel’ has worked on the Dissertation project entitled “EXPLORING WINE TOURISM IN INIDA – A Potential to be uncorked” under my guidance and supervision. Ar. Asma Hamid Prof. S. M. Akhtar Guide Dean External Examiner 1 Abdul Halim Babbu HOD External Examiner 2 External Examiner 3 i
  3. 3. Page| ii DECLARATION I, Sheetu Goel hereby declare that the Dissertation entitled “Exploring Wine Tourism in India – A Potential to be uncorked” submitted in the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Masters of Architecture is my original research work and that the information taken from secondary sources is given due citations and references. [Signature] Sheetu Goel M.Arch (R.A.), Final Semester 2015-16 Date: Place:
  4. 4. Page| iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This Dissertation has been a coordinated effort. In this regard I owe a depth of gratitude to my inspiration & guide Ar. Asma Hamid, who has cultivated devotion & determination in me & has been a helping hand at every moment to support & motivate me. I am Grateful to my parents, my sister who kept ultimate faith in me & always provided me backup with their love & best wishes. Above all, I am highly grateful to God, who provided me such a golden opportunity, brilliant guidance, & kind support. I would finally thank my friends for the much needed pep talks and discussions and all those who made this dissertation come alive. At last I beg pardon from all those who helped me but, my self-centred mind escaped their names. With Regards Sheetu Goel M-Arch (R.A.) Final Semester
  5. 5. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 Page| iv Thus, the aim of this dissertation is to explore the significance of a certain part of the tourism broader offering in local development, that of wine tourism. To be more precise, the role of wine tourism as a potential for economic development is going to be examined. Moreover, the concept of wine routes is also going to be examined within the framework of wine tourism. The concept of wine tourism is relatively recent and there is still need for academic research upon it. Hence, the aim of this study is to shed light on the means wine tourism contributes to the revitalization of rural areas and identify the success determinants to do so. Thus, the basic research question refers to the ways in which wine tourism is able to induce regional economic development. This dissertation aspires to answer the problem statement through the case of a specific area, that of Nashik and Rural Bangalore. Consequently, the approach of the study will come in two phases. Some initial conclusions will be drawn through an extensive literature review. The later will constitute the first part of the research which will be followed by a several case studies. The existing literature will also provide data to be acquainted with the way wine tourism is being approached by other countries and what has been implemented relative to it. The last part of the methodology includes the conduction of primary qualitative research that will be held in Nashik and Rural Bangalore, in which the marks of the recent financial crisis are apparent. Despite the economic recession of the country, tourism has long been an engine of generating income and job opportunities. Therefore, it will be very interesting to explore the dynamic of an alternative form of tourism, other than mass tourism, which is the dominant one in Mumbai. The research strategy is that of a case study while the primary data will be collected from personal in-depth interviews from actors representing the supply side of wine tourism. These will be both winemakers and cooperative actors like local authorities. Furthermore, I have argued that Arts and cultural programming provides education about the historical and cultural context of a community and opportunities for participation through festivals, events and performances, interactive classes and workshops, and a variety of other activities. Abstract
  6. 6. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | v TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Aims .......................................................................................................................................... 2 1.3 Objectives.................................................................................................................................. 2 1.4 Need of the study...................................................................................................................... 3 1.5 Methodology............................................................................................................................. 4 Chapter 2 WINE, HERITAGE AND TOURISM................................................................................. 5 2.1 What is Wine Tourism............................................................................................................... 6 2.1.1 Wine Tourism definition .......................................................................................... 6 2.2 Growing interest in wine tourism.............................................................................................. 6 2.3 Components of wine tourism .................................................................................................... 7 2.4 Demand and supply sides of wine tourism................................................................................ 8 2.5 Advantages and disadvantages of wine tourism ...................................................................... 9 2.6 Relationship between Wine, Heritage and Tourism................................................................ 11 2.7 Wine Routes............................................................................................................................. 11 Chapter 3 ENVISAGED USER PROFILE ........................................................................................ 13 3.1 Wine Tourist............................................................................................................................ 13 3.2 Segmentation of wine tourists................................................................................................. 13 3.3 Motivations for wine tourists to visit....................................................................................... 15 3.4 Wine tourism experience......................................................................................................... 16 3.4.1 Thematic ................................................................................................................. 17 3.4.2 Comprehensive ...................................................................................................... 17 3.4.3 Participatory ........................................................................................................... 18 3.4.4 Uniqueness ............................................................................................................. 18 Chapter 4 INDIAN CONTEXT OF WINE AND WINE TOURISM.................................................... 20 4.1 Indian culture, Religion and Wine........................................................................................... 20 4.2 History and use of wine in ancient India.................................................................................. 20 4.3 Wine tourism in India............................................................................................................... 23 4.4 Indian wine market.................................................................................................................. 25
  7. 7. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | vi 4.4.1 SWOT Analysis of Indian wine market ................................................................... 25 4.4.2 PESTEL Analysis of Indian wine market................................................................... 27 4.5 Current scenario ...................................................................................................................... 29 4.5.1 Wine production..................................................................................................... 30 4.5.2 Wine consumption.................................................................................................. 31 4.5.3 Wine exports........................................................................................................... 32 4.5.4 Wine imports .......................................................................................................... 33 4.6 Conclusion................................................................................................................................ 34 Chapter 5 CASE STUDIES............................................................................................................. 36 5.1 SOMA wine village .................................................................................................................. 36 5.1.1 Location and approach ........................................................................................... 36 5.1.2 Site attractions ....................................................................................................... 37 5.2 SULA Vineyards ....................................................................................................................... 42 5.1.1 Location and approach ........................................................................................... 42 5.1.2 Site attractions ....................................................................................................... 43 Chapter 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS............................................................... 47 6.1 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................. 47 6.2 Recommendations .................................................................................................................. 48 References..................................................................................................................................... 51
  8. 8. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 Grover Vineyards ........................................................................................................... 5 Figure 2.2 Grape stomping in Vineyard.......................................................................................... 5 Figure 2.3 Characteristics of wine tourism ..................................................................................... 5 Figure 3.1 Characteristics of wine tourism experience ................................................................ 16 Figure 3.2 Process of theme of wine tourism experience ........................................................... 17 Figure 3.3 Comprehensive types of experience ........................................................................... 17 Figure 3.4 Participation in wine tourism....................................................................................... 18 Figure 3.5 Uniqueness of wine tourism experience ..................................................................... 18 Figure 3.6 Wine Tourism Experience from the Consumer Perspective........................................ 19 Figure 4.1 Major Wine producing regions of India....................................................................... 24 Figure 4.2 Wine production in India (2000 - 2014)....................................................................... 30 Figure 4.3 Wine consumption in India (2000-2014)..................................................................... 31 Figure 4.4 Wine exports from India (2003-2014) ......................................................................... 32 Figure 4.5 Wine exports from India (2002-2014) ......................................................................... 33 Figure 4.6 Wine imports by India (2003-2014)............................................................................. 33 Figure 4.7 Wine imports by India (2003-2008)............................................................................. 33 Figure 4.8 Wine imports by India (2009-2014)............................................................................. 34 Figure 5.1 Soma Wine Village ....................................................................................................... 36 Figure 5.2 Location Map of Soma Wine Village............................................................................ 36 Figure 5.3 Site Plan of Soma Wine Village.................................................................................... 37 Figure 5.4 Site Attractions ............................................................................................................ 37 Figure 5.5 Wine Tasting Lab.......................................................................................................... 38 Figure 5.6 Accommodation at SOMA vine village......................................................................... 38 Figure 5.7 Restaurant at SOMA vine village ................................................................................. 38 Figure 5.8 Beyond Resort at SOMA vine village ........................................................................... 39 Figure 5.9 Sula Vineyards.............................................................................................................. 42 Figure 5.10 Location plan of Sula Vineyards................................................................................. 42 Figure 5.11 Route Map of Sula Vineyards ..................................................................................... 42 Figure 5.12 Site plan of SULA Vineyards........................................................................................ 43
  9. 9. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | viii Figure 5.13 Tasting Lab.................................................................................................................. 43 Figure 5.14 Amphitheatre ............................................................................................................. 44 Charts and Tables Table 2.1 Definitions of Wine Tourism ........................................................................................... 6 Table 2.2 Components of Wine Tourism ........................................................................................ 7 Table 4.1 Areas of grape production in India ............................................................................... 29 Table 4.2 Indian Wine regions and major producers ................................................................... 30
  10. 10. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 1 CHAPTER 1 - SYNOPSIS 1.1 Introduction Today, travelers are more experienced, have more disposable income and more leisure time to travel, and thus tourism allows them to escape the daily routine of their usual environment and immerse themselves in a world of freedom and novelty. Thus, more and more tourists in the world are looking for concrete learning experiences, and in this endeavor the gastronomic experience, in highly diverse ways, is playing an increasingly prominent part. As sourced by world travel and tourism council there will be a stupendous growth of 10 years from 2009 to 2018 which will make India a tourism hot spot alluring more and more international tourist to its own avenues. With modern trends in tourism Indian has taken a giant leap by venturing into the new forms of tourism. Though India has a strong legacy of being a country of temples and palaces, but country is promoting and exploring new forms of tourism like culinary tourism and wine tourism. Wine tourism involves tasting, consumption or purchase of wine, visits to wineries and vineyards, organized wine tours, wine festivals and other special wine-related events. Although relatively new, it is gaining popularity by competing with other beverages and tourism themes. Wine tourism is gaining significant momentum in India. Many vineyards in India have in place their own tasting rooms so that the wine lovers can enjoy travelling to and exploring the wine regions in India. India is a country with an ancient winemaking tradition but a very new and emerging wine producing industry. The first vines were planted long before the 20th Century and, as incredible as it sounds, wine-making has existed throughout most of India's history, encouraged by the Portuguese and subsequent British colonizers. Yet, India must be the country people least associate with wine, which makes its discovery and exploration all the more exciting for the wine lover. Since food and wine have always been an indispensable part of a tourist experience, through time it turned into a strong, distinct travel product that is attracting millions of visitors and generates a wide range of socio-economic benefits, in the same time contributing to a deeper acquaintance and revelation of the destination by both local and international visitors and in this way extending the length of their stay period and spending (Raut, Bhakay, 2012).
  11. 11. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 2 Wine tourism today is a flourishing industry and constitutes a challenge for the regions that encompass the requisite dependencies to implement it. Potential difficulties in applying wine tourism lye in the false estimation that it is just a visit to a winery. On the contrary, visiting a winery is only one of the components that formulate the practice of wine tourism. In fact, the term refers to a class of theme tourism, in which contact with the wine is the focus, not the end in itself (Hall et al., 2000). The promising potential of wine tourism can be attributed to the fact that it is a synergy of two very successful sectors: those of wine and tourism. Under that perspective, wine tourism is a substantial marketing tool for wine-related economic activities to increase revenues and for wine regions to establish a brand name of origin and boost rural economy. The latter implies the contribution of the wine sector to that of tourism. Wine constitutes an important element of the attractiveness of a destination region since gastronomy is part of touristic activities and motives (Hall et al., 2002). After all, cuisine is a strong feature contributing to the creation of strong image perceptions to the non-locals. Thus, the benefits of wine tourism can develop regional economies. The very nature of the wine industry allows the creation of a relationship with the tourism industry, since wine is associated with relaxation, communication, nutrition and hospitality (Sharples, 2002); activities sought by tourists during their holiday. Consequently, the field of wine tourism seems to attract the interest of scholars and public and private authorities and wine producers as well. 1.2 Aim To explore the potential of upcoming niche tourism - Wine Tourism in India and to make it popularize like other forms of tourism. 1.3 Objectives  To study the concept of Wine Tourism and its evolution,  To explore the wine tourism concept among the domestic as well as international tourist and make it popularize like other forms of tourism.
  12. 12. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 3  To explore the wine tourism destinations of India,  To identify the major stakeholders and their contribution in promoting the wine tourism,  To analyze the present growth and potential of wine tourism in India, and at the same time chalk out the strategy for the destination development,  To investigate whether wine tourism is an opportunity to increase international awareness towards the country,  To prepare inventory for multiple activities associated with this form of tourism,  To showcase its authenticity of activities for strengthening the culinary image, identification, heritage, cultural, status of a particular destination.  To analyse the impact on the economy, employment and local heritage 1.4 Need for the study  In developed countries like France, Italy, USA etc. have emerged the wines sales with the tourism aspects which used to go hand in hand.  In the wine map of the country Bangalore always had a prominent position and never thought of exploring its prospects as a wine tourism destination.  In 2009 Mumbai have emerged themselves as a market leader in wine tourism  Bangalore was always described as a heritage destination or an IT Hub. Though Bangalore is famous for the wines they produce.
  13. 13. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 4 1.5 Methodology Literature study / Background study of cultural centers Analysis of existing literature review to understand the scenario of Wine Tourism Site study of the selected area (Study location, planning, connectivity, facilities, etc.) Case studies & Prepare inventory (Listing for type of activities, spaces, etc.) Analysis of effective factors – people, economy, environment & identify the issues related with these factors. Analysis of components of wine tourism that attract visitors, how these components attract the people Data compilation and map generation Generate solutions to the issues and achieve a set of guidelines for development of wine tourism in India
  14. 14. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 5 CHAPTER 2 - WINE, HERITAGE AND TOURISM 2.1 What Is Wine Tourism Tourism has long been associated with gastronomy, since one of the ways to experience a new culture is through tasting the local cuisine and drinks. A culinary or a wine tour is often part of the holiday activities, once dining and wining is perceived by tourists as a pleasant way of exploring foreign traditions. Apparently, gastronomy has become an integral part of the touristic experience. Hence, gastronomical delights are usually sought by tourists in search for new products and experiences of high-quality standards (Kivela and Crotts, 2006). Wine tourism is one concrete example of a niche market developed to serve this type of sophisticated tourist demand. Thus, it reasonably derives from the term, that wine is the main component of wine tourism. It seems that wine tourism covers a large range of characteristics, namely a lifestyle experience, an educational feature, linkages to art, wine and food, an incorporated tourism-destination and a marketing opportunity as well for the region to develop its economic, social and cultural values. (Charters and Ali- Knight, 2002). The very nature of wine industry allows creating relationship with the tourism industry, since wine is associated with relaxation, communication, nutrition, hospitality and others, which tourists seek to satisfy during their holiday (Dodd, 1995). Fig 2.1 Grover Vineyards Source; blog.antilogvacations.com Fig 2.2 Grape Stomping in Vineyard Source - travelingtres.wordpresscom Fig 2.3 Characteristics of Wine tourism
  15. 15. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 6 2.1.1 Wine tourism definitions 2.2 Growing interest in wine tourism Wine tourism has been growing because of interest in wine in general. Additionally, in many cases, government provides assistance to wine producers. The Resource Guide for start-up suggests that “as government officials have become aware of the wine industry’s potential to create economic opportunities in rural communities, they have increasingly supported initiatives such as plantings of vines, other capital investments and sales and marketing campaigns”. Governments realized the benefits of wine production for the local economy. Hence, the governments are promoting wine tourism realizing the returns it provides. Another reason for the increased response to the wine industry is due to the change of values in society resulting in an increased interest in environmental issues. The ‘green’ tourist activities are gaining popularity due •Travel for the purpose of experiencing wineries and wine regions and their links to the lifestyle. Wine tourism encompasses both service provision and destination marketing Western Australian Wine Tourism Strategy (2000) •Travel related to the appeal of wineries and wine country, a form of niche marketing and destination development, and an opportunity for direct sales and marketing on the part of the wine industry Getz (2000, in Sharples, 2002: 45) •Visitation to vineyards, wineries, wine festivals and wine shows for which grape wine tasting and/or experiencing the attributes of a grape wine region are the prime motivating factors for visitors Hall and Macionis (1998, in Sharples, 2002: 45) •Wine tourism embraces and includes a wide range of experiences built around tourist visitation to wineries, wine regions or wine-related events and shows – including wine tasting, wine and food, the enjoyment of the regional environs, day trips or longer term recreation, and the experience of a range of cultural and lifestyle activities Geiβler (2007, in Pikkemaat et al., 2009: 239) •The development and marketing of wineries as places to visit, and of destinations based on the appeal of wine Getz and Brown (2006a: 79) Author Definition of Wine Tourism Table 2.1 Definitions of Wine Tourism
  16. 16. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 7 to increased interest in environmental issues. That is why agro- and eco-tourism have become a popular trend.[1] 2.3 Components of Wine Tourism Apparently, since wine tourism is a branch of the tourism broader offering, it is reasonable to present some of the basic features of general tourism. In fact, almost every component of the tourism system is also found in wine tourism as well, but under a more specialized form as illustrated in Table 2.2 In fact, wine tourism can be of major importance for small and medium wineries facing an increased global competition in wine production along with tighter margins (Carlsen, 2004). Thus, wine tourism can be the core business for such wineries whereas it constitutes a secondary business activity for other wineries (Hall et al., 2000). At this point then it is necessary to define a wine tourism firm; as a wine tourism firm then, is considered a firm which owns a vineyard and 1 Dr. Liz Thach (August 15, 2007), Wine Business Monthly Trends in Wine Tourism- Discover the motivations of wine tourists and the challenges, benefits and trends in wine tourism. •The wine touristThe Tourist •Wine tourism generating regions •Wine tourism destination regions •Transit routes Geographical Component •Grapevines, vineyards, wineries, wine producers, oenological workers and tourist operators The built environment & Natural resources •Destination planning, wine marketing, accommodation, wine amenities, wine festivals and shows, miscellaneous services, regulations and legislations The industrial component •HospitalityHospitality Component Description Table 2.2 Components of Wine Tourism
  17. 17. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 8 produces wine while it provides authentic experiences for its visitors, through a wide range of services and products that the firm organizes and manages. It can even provide hospitality and catering, tours and information, cooking classes and wine production. It is also possible to organize special events and offers recreational infrastructure such as playgrounds, picnic area, conference rooms and retail selling points for various products and craftwork (Presenza et al., 2010). 2.4 Demand and Supply Sides of Wine Tourism Getz (2000) defines the supply side of wine tourism as services, attractions, organizational development and infrastructure. Hall et al. (2000) defines the supply side as “all the resources utilize by tourists for the purpose of wine tourism and the businesses and institutions which transform those resources intro a wine tourism product.” In particular, such resources can be wineries, winery amenities, vineyards, festivals and shows, provided by the wine sector. Resources provided by the tourism industry include wine tours, accommodations and associated sectors such as restaurants and hotels (Hall et al., 2000). Wine producers, oenological workers and tourist operators are also included in the supply industry forming the human resources. Finally, the surrounding environment- infrastructure, scenery, local cuisine and social and cultural components of the wine region- are also part of the supply side. Moreover, institutional bodies are also included in the supply of the due industry since regulations, legislations and planning frameworks affect wine tourism. In fact, the role that government plays on wine tourism across different part of the world is a determinant when it comes to creation of appellation controls, the institution of health and safety regulations as well as planning regulations concerning the construction of facilities at certain locations. Furthermore, governmental aid is sometimes provided for infrastructure and networks support. On the other hand demand for the wine tourism as described by Hall et al. (2000) is the “motivations, perceptions, previous experiences and expectations of the wine tourist. However Alonso et al. (2007) states that demand side for wine tourism is to study the tourist’s motivations in visiting wineries and their increasing knowledge development and further contribution to the wine tourism demand. According to Hall et al.(2000) consumer behavior analysis is important for wine tourism stakeholders as it helps by providing important information into the who the wine tourist is, its behavior and motivations, allowing managers to target and develop effectively the markets. Also he states that although the research in wine tourism is growing it is relatively small comparing to
  18. 18. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 9 researches from other service industry niches, and the focus of researches is prevalent from supply side actors (wine industries and makers) rather than from demand side (wine tourists). 2.5 Advantages and disadvantages of wine tourism The development of wine tourism can impact throughout the local economy. The greatest stimulus for its growth can be derived from an understanding of the range of the significant benefits that can be offered across the region where wine tourism is developing (Correia, 2006). Wine tourism acts positively throughout the socio-economic structure of the rural area where it is practiced, adding value to the region, generating employment opportunities while increasing human capital and consequently, increasing the regional income (Gatti et al., 2003). According to Macionis and Cambourne (1998) and Szivas (1999), the benefits of wine tourism are the following:  It can contribute to the development of tourism in a destination  It can attract visitors who are interested in wine and thus, create new demand for a country or a region  The development of tourism around the theme of wine can improve the image of the destination where food and wine are part of this image  It may scatter tourist flows geographically away from entrenched tourist centers, relieving them from the stress and also providing the motives for development in more remote areas  It contributes to raising the profile and image of wine  It contributes to strengthening the perception of consumers on wine  It Increases the commercial potential of wineries through direct sales at the cellar door and other distribution channels  It adds value to landscapes, gastronomy and local culture of the rural areas  It offers opportunities for development in traditional depressed rural areas that are in need of an economic stimulus. It is generally accepted that wine tourism is important for tourism destinations, although it is debatable which one of the two industries, those of wine or tourism, is the primary beneficiary. This inevitably varies from destination to destination and depends on factors such as the history of the development and the nature of the wine and tourism industry (Szivas, 1999). Moreover, Dodd and Bigotte (1995) and Day (1996, in Hall et al., 2000) have identified certain advantages and disadvantages of wine tourism for wineries in particular. As far as the advantages are concerned, these can be presented as follows:
  19. 19. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 10  More potential customers and more opportunities for the wine producers to test their products  Greater awareness and loyalty towards their products from their customers through direct contact between the producer and the consumer  More direct sales at the cellar door, where the cost of the intermediary is not transferred to the customer  An additional point of sale, or for smaller wine producers who cannot guarantee a sufficient volume or supply stability, the only feasible point of sale  Business intelligence with regard to wine products. Wine producers can directly acquire valuable information for their products from consumers’ reactions  Visits to wineries help create awareness and appreciation for the wine and the wine industry itself while knowledge and interest generated by these visits have resulted in increased wine consumption. On the other hand wine tourism is not always beneficial for wineries and wine producers are even hesitant or skeptical towards wine tourists. Wine producers are sometimes cautious towards tourists that are motivated by the opportunity to drink for free whereas they are not interested in educational benefits. These tourists are often called “mobile drunks” by the winery owners. Furthermore, there are some conflicts concerning the issue of land-use for wine tourism attractions at the expense of vine land (Carlsen and Ali-Knight, 2004, in Carlsen, 2004). However, apart from the aforementioned, other disadvantages for the wineries as identified by Dodd and Bigotte (1995) and Day (1996, in Hall et al., 2000) are the following:  Increased costs and time-consuming management associated with the functions of a visited winery. Running a tasting room can be costly, especially if it requires the employment of paid staff. Moreover, while profitability is high on directly to the consumer sales, profit may be reduced if the wineries do not charge for the tasting  The substantial capital investments required to build facilities in order to accommodate visitors  The inability of a substantial increase in sales. The number of visitors that a winery can attract is limited and in the case that a winery cannot sell all its stocks, it will probably need to use other distribution points. Despite the fact that the wine and the tourism industry are «actually diametrically opposed economic activities» (Carlsen, 2004: 6), these two economic sectors have managed to create a
  20. 20. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 11 synergy of actions to benefit both industries. Notwithstanding challenges and difficulties of wine tourism, most of the relevant literature (Charters and Ali-Knight, 2002, Carlsen, 2004 and Hall et al., 2000) emphasize its advantages with growth of the depressed rural areas and increased revenues for the wineries being the most frequently mentioned ones. 2.6 Relationship between Wine, Heritage and Tourism Wine today is the most sought after lavish and most luxurious dynamic product creating a socio economic bondage among the locals and also spreading the aura of happiness and celebration in the society. The heritage of a particular destination is also leveraged by significance of wine and winery visitation and vineyards. The richness of the particular place is also enhanced by the strength of the wine and its reputation; even the cultural and heritage experience of the tourist is again envisaged by the perfect mix of wine and winery visitation culminating the local tradition and practices. It is the case of some itineraries that have been built under the programme of the Council of Europe for cultural Routes, like ‘The Routes of the Olive Treb=ge ae’ or the “Iter Vitis – Wine Routes in Europe”, which encourages thematic tourism as well as the protection of cultural heritage through the exploitation of typical products (Asero and Patti, 2009b). The relationship of wine and heritage very closer when the wine and its brand is very specific and defined to the particular destinations or place ,and even the wine carries the identification of the particular place regards to its heritage , culture and its local practice which also proclaims its heritage and historical value among the tourist. Wine is one of the best valuable resources which generate a constant flow of tourists, whose only motive is to discover an enchanting experience of winery sojourn and wine production. 2.7 Wine Routes The term “wine route” is used to describe a tourist route that connects several wine estates and wineries in a given area. This route is further characterized by natural attractions, like mountains or scenery, physical attractions like wineries, vineyards, and roads and markers like signposts directing the tourist to the individual wine route estate enterprises. The majority of wine routes imply a delimited space of a usually demarcated wine region that has an identity on the form of a distinctive brand name like Champagne in France or Stellenbosch in South Africa. The mixture of environmental, cultural and social features attributes a distinctive identity to each wine route so the tourist is able to recognize the difference when moving from one route to another (Hall et al., 2000, in Vlachvei and Notta, 2009).
  21. 21. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 12 In other words tourist following the wine route gets the opportunity to enjoy the wide range of experience like visiting vineyards, tasting of wine, wine making process, wine and food harmony, and local food and tradition. They can even try the culinary specialties of the region and buy products that characterize the area whilst enjoying the scenery (Brunori and Rossi, 2000). A Wine Route almost always accompanied by a brochure with a map showing the route and its various stages. This is a factor of particular importance since it is often what initially motivates tourists to follow a wine road (Gatti and Incerti, 1997). According to Bruwer (2003) the development of Wine Roads forms an inextricable part of the wine tourism industry. In essence, as he claims, the Wine Routes «are the ‘roadways’ to the core attraction in wine tourism—the wines and the winery production facility» (Bruwer, 2003: 424).
  22. 22. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 13 CHAPTER 3 - ENVISAGED USER PROFILE 3.1 Wine Tourist Wine tourists are the main demanding actors for wine tourism. For analyzing their behavior and motivation, several studies were held around the world to class them into different categories or in other words profiles. Several authors Getz et al. (2006), Marzo-Navaro et al. (2010) noticed the lack of the specific researches in this field, but it is plausible the increasing interest in the subject. Mitchell et al. (2000) stated that tourist main characteristic, motivations and profiles may change depending on the destination where wine tourism is held. 3.2 Segmentation of wine tourists To develop and market wine destinations and wine tourism products, it is essential to understand who winery visitors are, by understanding their perception regarding the important attributes within wineries and wine regions, which might include a wide range of attractions and activities. This insight may provide managerial and marketing tools for wineries and wine regions. There are three main categories of wine tourists- 1. Accidental visitors or curious tourists  A cellar door visit is an opportunity for a social occasion with friends or family.  Below average knowledge of wines, but moderately interested in wine.  Interest and curiosity aroused by drinking wine, road signs, brochures or general tourism promotion  Moderate income and education.  May purchase at winery but unlikely to join mailing list. 2. Interested wine tourists  Cellar door visit is an enhancement to their trip, but not the prime motivation for visiting the region.  Moderate to high interest in wine.  Moderate to high income, usually tertiary educated.  Likely to have visited other wine regions, purchase wine at winery and to join a mailing list. 3. Dedicated wine tourists  Wine lovers who visit wine regions frequently as an integral part of a trip.  Above average knowledge of wine.
  23. 23. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 14  Extremely interested in wine and winemaking.  Mature, high income, high education level.  Likely to purchase wine at winery and to join mailing list. The various segmentations of wine tourists are summarized in Table 3.1. However, to serve the purposes of this study, any tourist or day traveler who visits wineries and/or participates in other wine related activities during his stay at a wine region regardless of the primary purpose of his visit, is regarded as a wine tourist. Author Proposed profile Profile description Hall et al. (1996) Wine Lover - Huge interest in all wine tourism activities. Wine, food and wineries the main reason for visit - High education and income level - Interested in specialized literature - Most likely to buy wine related products and to visit other wine tourism destinations Wine Interested - Big interest in wine related products - Moderate education and income level - Maintain some interest in specialized literature - High probability of buying wine related products and may visit other wine tourism destinations Wine Curious - Moderate interest in wine, moderate income and moderate education - Wineries and wine products are not the main reason for visiting - Not very familiar with wine traditions, culture and destinations Brown et al. (2006) Demanding gourmet Men, middle to high income and education, usually self employed - Good trip and route planning - Regular wine products consumption, attend different wine related activities, try to establish friendly connections with directors of wineries Hedonic aficionados - Men, middle income and education - Regular wine products consumption
  24. 24. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 15 Prudent enthusiasts - Women, middle to high income and education - Consume less wine related products than first categories, usually take pre-established trips Functional differentiator - Women, retired Corigliano (1996) in Charters et al. (2002) Professional - Good knowledge of wine and wine related products - Good literature and technical knowledge about wine - Interested in different activities and take regular part in them - Middle age between 30 and 35 Passionate newcomer - Middle to high income - Passionate for gastronomy and wine related activities - Between 25 and 30 years - Some knowledge of specialized literature, consults guides - Usually travels with friends or groups Follower - Moderately to high income and education - Basic knowledge of wine and specialized literature - Attracted by famous wine brands and appearances - High income, between 40 and 50 years Drinker - Visits the wineries on weekends usually in groups - Tastes wine in good quantities, buys wine in bulk - Between 50 and 60 years old 3.3 Motivations for wine tourists to visit The motivation for tourists visiting wine regions varies depending on interest, age and nationality. There ten major reasons why people go visit wineries –  To taste wine.  To gain the knowledge about a product/ industry. Table 3.1 Segmentation of Wine Tourist Source; Adapted from Popp (2013)
  25. 25. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 16  To experience wine setting, this can include meeting a winemaker and tour of vineyards and wine cellars.  To enjoy the beauty of countryside, learn about farming and agro-tourism.  To appreciate the combination of local food and wine. This kind of vacation has its own name, which is culinary tourism.  To enjoy yourself, have fun. More emphasis is put on festivals and special events.  To enjoy the romance and elegance of wine culture.  To appreciate agriculture and art.  To gain knowledge about “green” and eco-tourism.  To enjoy the health aspects of wine. The study of Getz and Brown reveals five primary features which vineyard visitors take into account when searching for a place to go. Firstly, tourists take into consideration whether a winery is visitor friendly or not. Secondly, it is important if the region is rich in attractions and activities. Thirdly, visitors are concerned about attractiveness of scenery. Fourthly, they would like to make sure that winery staff are knowledgeable about wine. Finally, travelers want to know if wineries are offering group tour options. 3.4 Wine tourism experience Wine tourism experience is a departure for people from the day-to-day experience of living environment to understand and participate in tours of wine tasting, liquor buying and various activities through having a visit on the Vineyards and wineries. Tourists are immersed in the wine culture baptism and nurtured and acquire listen, materials, tours range of sensory stimulation in order to get the spirit of self-improvement and enjoyment. The main characteristics of the wine tourism experience are divided for aspects, namely thematic, comprehensive and participatory and uniqueness. Fig.3. 1 Characteristics of wine tourism experience
  26. 26. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 17 3.4.1 Thematic Experience with the new theme highlighting characteristics is the first step to attract tourists. The distinctive and mysterious theme of wine tourism experience around grape wine cultural is curious to tourists, which can integrate various experiences in tourism process to create a sense of unity and wholeness of wine culture. The experience from tasting to eat (only), drink and then to experience the culture, learning and finally a high integrated, by which the thematic of wine tourism can see that this is a tourism by providing wine experience elements, giving the value of aesthetic and pleasant experience. 3.4.2 Comprehensive Wine tourism runs through the whole process from grapes to wine brewing, visit and appreciation integrates agriculture, industry and services closely. This has greatly enriched the contents of experience and visitors will be comprehensive and truly experience the essence of wine culture. In addition, the wine tourism process in creating a cultural atmosphere is exceptionally warm and friendly, which let people to get to know the wines in a special casual and relaxed state of mind and to know more about the wine and intuitive to feel profound, as well as the kind of wine culture, for which people cannot forget and difficult to resist the lasting charm with the comprehensive types of experience. Fig. 3.2 Process of theme of wine tourism experience Fig. 3.3 Comprehensive types of experience
  27. 27. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 18 3.4.3 Participatory Participation is an important part of the tourism experience without it tourists easily have a superficial visit (Frochot, 2011). Wine tourism experience of picking, brewing and tasting, appreciating can fully mobilize the eyes, ears, mouth, nose and other senses involved (Johnson, 1998). Experiencing in the participation and thinking in experience give People unforgettable memories. The winery tourism can allow consumers into the winery as a tourist, witnessed winery wine production process and understand the true meaning of the wineries wine, intuitive feel of visitors through the winery wine and personally taste, it will wineries wine good feeling, thus bred for the winery wine consumption market a stable and loyal customer base, as well as the winery cultural awareness and promote the winery tourism (King, 2007). 3.4.4 Uniqueness The wine experience tourism should establish and perfect the winery internal service facilities, recreational facilities, but also do a good job in the winery internal staff training (Thevenin, 2006), with full- time departments, professional guides, in addition to that also take the initiative to go out, please come in to strengthen propaganda of the winery's own image, you can invite the influential in stream media personnel to the winery folk songs and then use the most effective forms of media to the public a comprehensive publicity winery cultural showcase winery image. Fig. 3.4 Participation in wine tourism Fig. 3.5 Uniqueness of wine tourism experience
  28. 28. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 19 Fig. 3.6 Wine Tourism Experience from the Consumer Perspective Source; As. J. Food Ag-Ind. 2012, 5(02), 141-155
  29. 29. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 20 CHAPTER 4 - INDIAN CONTEXT OF WINE AND WINE TOURISM 4.1 Indian culture, religion and wine India has forever known for the land of spiritual and religious insignia and of course the Taj Mahal, the symbol of eternal love. But it is lesser known for the wine production. But it has changed rapidly and India is now the world class wine producer and many fine wines are exporting to the foreign lands. The ancient history of India has rooted with the wine and its culture, the evidence has been found in the Harappan and Indus civilization. Even in the India’s religious scriptures evokes about the wine and its use and it’s termed as Somarasa and associated with Indra, the king of gods. It was poured as a libation and drunk in many festivals and auspicious occasions. However, contrary to the ancient historic evidence, the culture of alcohol is the social taboo in India. During the Moghul conquest and settlement in 12th century onwards the rulers refrain from the drinking of alcohols as per their religious norms, but wine in India became very popular and accepted due to the British influence, and vineyards were established and a number of Indian wines were exhibited and received great acclaim by the visitors. 4.2 History and use of wine in ancient India Today alcohol occupies an unusual position within Indian culture, its consumption being both permitted and proscribed across different sections of the population (Mohan and Sharma 1995, 128). However, in ancient India, the drinking of intoxicating beverages was very common practice for most people. Many liquors and intoxicating drinks are mentioned in the Vedic Literature (the body of Indian Sanskrit texts composed between 1500–500 BC) and both males and females are frequently depicted with drinking cups in ancient Indian art. Lovers enjoyed Madhupana (the consumption of sweet mead-like beverages) in each other’s company (Mahdihassan 1981, 223) and it seems that every occasion for celebration and social gathering, be it religious or secular, and was turned into a drinking party. Although few other castes besides the Kshtriya and Brahmins are recorded as imbibing alcohol in historical texts, it is certain that almost the entire population was accustomed to drinking. Intoxicating drinks held an important position in religious as well as secular life in ancient India, indicated by the frequent references to liquor made in the Vedic Literature, such as the Mahabharata, Rgveda, Gath-Saptasati, and Puranas and in the works of classical Sanskrit authors
  30. 30. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 21 such as Kalidasa. These texts reveal that intoxicating beverages were known by various names: the most common drinks were Sura and Soma (Mohan and Sharma 1995) as well as Parisrut (Mahdihassan 1981) but others include Madya, Madira, Asava, Madhu, Surasava, Gaudasava, Madhasava, Kailavat Madhu, Phaljam, Madhu, Madhumadhavi, Madhavika, Sauviraka, Suviraka, Sidhu, Maireya, Varuni, Madhuparka and Kadambari (Joshi 1979a, 103; Lad 1979, 181). Long before European countries woke up to the “incredible taste of fermented grape juice”, prehistoric Indian communities were fully conversant with the intoxicating wines they could distill from plants and fruits. Beginning with the Rigveda, the first among Indian’s ancient Vedas, and ending with the poetry of Mirza Ghalib, eminent Urdu poet of the 18th century, India’s tradition and history prove that the temporal joys offered by a glass of wine and its complex spiritual symbolism were equally familiar to generations of Indians! In the Rig-Veda we find mention of wine. Wine or beer was stored up in leather vats for the use of public. In the sacrifice called Sautramani-yajna wine was drunk. But the chief intoxicating drink of those days was Soma-juice. According to the Rig Veda the Golden-Winged Hawk, brought Soma from the Heavens. Soma juice was the fermented milky juice of a creeper called Soma (Aaclepias- acida or Sarcostemna viminale) a plant of the family of milk-weeds. It was taken with butter, curd, milk, fried or parched grains. Let me quote a few hymns of Rig Veda about Soma (IX. 66). 2. "O Soma! Your two leaves alternated and you attained a wonderful glory thereby. 3. O Soma! The leaves covered thee, a creeper on all sides, and you flourished in all seasons. 7. O Soma 1 you have been crushed, you flow as a stream to Indra, scattering joy on all sides, you bestow immortal food. 8. Seven women stir thee with their fingers blending their voices in a song to thee, you remind the sacrificer of his duties at the sacrifice." Another – "Thou Soma art the real Lord, Thou King and Vrita slayer too. Thou art strength that gives success; and Soma let it be thy will For us to live, nor let us die. Thou lord of plants, who lovest praise." "Of all the drinks that Indra have, you are the most pleasant and intoxicating" (IX. 96). In Yajur Veda we find that Vishva-rupa the son of Tuashtar, while performing the Soma sacrifice drank so much of the juice that he vomited over the sacrificial beasts! We see from this that the
  31. 31. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 22 Soma juice was quite an ardent spirit. Soma was the Vedic poets' chief drink till the end of the period when Sura (barley beer) was discovered. In the Atharva-Veda we find in the after-life i. e. after death the devout are provided with seas of wine, butter, sugar, milk etc, (4-34-6.) With a hymn of Soma we retire from the Vedas, "Where there is eternal light, in the world where sun is placed, in that immortal, imperishable world place me, O Soma! Flow thou for Indra. "Where the son of Vivasvat reigns as King where the secret place of heaven is, where the mighty waters are, there make me immortal. Flow thou for Indra! "Where life is free in the third heaven of heavens, where the worlds are radiant, there make me immortal! Flow thou for Indra! "Where wishes and desires are, where the bowl of the bright Soma is, where there is food and rejoicing, there make me immortal 1 Flow thou for Indra! "Where there is happiness and delight^ where joy and pleasure reside, where desires of our desires are attained, there make me immortal! Flow thou for Indra!” (Rig Veda IX, 113). Despite the many perceived benefits of Sura and Soma, excessive consumption was frequently associated with violent clashes. For example in the epic legend Mahabharata the mythical characters Sundha and Upasunda killed each other in a drunken mace duel over the beautiful Tilottama. In the Mahabharata, the princesses Draupadi and Subhadra, along with their female attendants, accompanied Krishna and Arjuna to the bank of the river Yamuna where they abandoned themselves to drunken joy. Draupadi figures in another story of drunkenness when Queen Sudeshana sent Draupadi to fetch wine from her brother Kichak’s palace – when Draupadi approached Kichak with a jar, he promptly invited her to drink with him. &e women most addicted to wine, however, appear to have been those from north-western India, from the kingdoms of Bahlika and Madra. According to the Mahabharata, they sang and danced in public places in drunken parties, threw off their clothes, and were even prepared to part with their jewellery (Lad 1979, 182).
  32. 32. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 23 Muslim influence The Koran is said to have only two references to drinking (Hassan, 1922). One is said to indicate that there is both profit and sin in drinking, only the sin is greater than the profit. The second exhorts believers to shun wine, gambling and statues stating that they are an abomination of Satan’s works. Although Prophet Muhammad’s teachings created a Muslim antipathy towards drinking, in the later Caliphate rule, the use of intoxicants increased. Although emperor Jehangir forbad wine for his subjects, he is said to have allowed himself a license, as he ‘had become accustomed to take wine from his eighth year’ and had considerably reduced his intake when ‘it took great effect on me I set about reducing its quantity’ (Jahangir’s memoirs quoted in Atreya, 1938). The East India Company The East India Company introduced in 1790, for the first time, excise duty on alcohol as a regular source of revenue. According to Hassan, it was the advent of the East India Company that provided a fresh stimulus for intemperance in India. The Company’s ‘insatiable passion for money, led it to look to excise as a legitimate source of revenue’. It began to ‘encourage the drinking habits of the people and devised ways and means to enhance this revenue regardless of the baneful effects of such a policy’. 4.3 Wine tourism in India Wine tourism is gaining significant momentum in India. Many vineyards in India have in place their own tasting rooms so that the wine lovers can enjoy travelling to and exploring the wine regions in India. India is a country with an ancient winemaking tradition but a very new and emerging wine producing industry. The first vines were planted long before the 20th Century and, as incredible as it sounds, wine- making has existed throughout most of India's history, encouraged by the Portuguese and subsequent British colonizers. Yet, India must be the country people least associate with wine, which makes its discovery and exploration all the more exciting for the wine lover. Eighty percent consumption of wine in India is confined to major cities such as Mumbai (39%), Delhi (23%), Bangalore (9%) and the Goa (9%).
  33. 33. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 24 Wine tourism in Maharashtra Maharashtra has always been viewed as a commercial state as it includes the commercial capital Mumbai, semi-urban areas of importance and historical monuments. However, to truly market it internationally as a tourism haven, one needs to diversify tourism products and offer products of international standards. Wine tourism, with its gaining popularity globally, would completely fit the bill, especially with regards to meeting international demand. Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) at this point is on a very high drive to achieve that and even the state government is very encouraging towards this endeavor. In an attempt to put Maharashtra on the world wine map and position it as a new world wine destination, wine producers and the MTDC are to promote the Sahyadri Valley region as a wine tourism hub, using Napa Valley and the likes as models. Wine tourism in Karnataka Karnataka is India’s second largest producer of grapes. The state cultivates different varieties of the fruit. It has prominent grape growing regions like Nandi Valley, Cauvery Valley and Krishna Valley. The climate of the state is also conducive for grape cultivation. As such, the state has several vineyards and enjoys a healthy production of high quality grapes every year. The introduction of the new Karnataka Grape Wine Policy 2008-09 has opened a range of opportunities to wine farmers. Karnataka is all set to promote wine tourism. One can stroll through the picturesque landscape of vineyards and take part in the process of making wine. Not to mention that they can carry some fresh wine and special memories with them. We can come across such tours in Napa Valley, California and New Zealand, Melbourne, Bordeaux (France), Cape Town and Florence. In the state, horticulture department has recognized the grape-growing districts of Bangalore (Urban and Rural) and Kolar, called Nandi Valley and those of Bijapur, Bagalkot and Belgaum known as the Krishna Valley. This is in view that the serene Valley will be of more prominence since it is close Fig. 4.1 Major Wine producing regions of India
  34. 34. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 25 to tourist hot spots like Goa, and the heritage centers like Bijapur and Belgaum. Government aims at increasing grape cultivation, and encourages more wineries. 4.4 Indian wine market Wine tourism has emerged as the latest trend in the Indian wine industry with active participation of the major wine players. Wine players are extensively marketing wine tourism for monetary gains and transforming their wineries into inns/hotels for promoting wine tourism. Despite the country’s vast population of around 1.2 Billion, the per capita consumption of wine is quite low. The low per capita consumption level indicates a huge potential for growth in the Indian wine market in the coming years. 4.4.1 SWOT Analysis of Indian wine market SWOT model is used to analyze the internal and external factors affecting the industry. Strengths and weaknesses are internal factors. Opportunities and threats are external factors. SWOT model is often used in marketing analysis because it is quick, easy, and intuitive. The Indian wine market has great potential and attracting the investors to invest in the domestic industry. The international firms are also willing to invest in Indian market, realizing the market potential. India is the second largest population country in the world. Now a small percentage of Indian total population has exposure to the wine. However this small percentage is also amounts to approximately 24 million people and there are more potential customers to tap. Strengths  Over a period of five years statistical data of the industry has announce that the wine consumption in Indian has grown 25-30% annually. It is a positive sign for the Indian wine industry.  From northwestern region to southern region, the climate of India is very good for the Cultivation of grapes.  For the employment and education purpose, people from rural areas are moving to urban are resulting in increasing of urban population. In urban region, people are getting more exposure to the western culture in comparison to the people from rural area and which is leading to increase in consumption of wine. Youth are consuming the alcohol at an early age because of various reasons. They are craving an alternative to hard liquors and developing a more refined taste and switching to wine.  Now more number of women is part of the multinational corporation and they are also adopting the western culture. Wine is becoming more acceptable to women and youth
  35. 35. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 26 because of its taste. India has very favorable demographics which are contributing towards the industry growth. Due to change in consumer tastes and preferences also the wine marketing is growing.  India is known for its incredible tourist locations. Tourism industry is growing because of low cost air fare and the marketing of the tourist places. Foreign tourists are getting attracted and visiting India. Foreign tourists are also contributing towards growth of the wine industry.  Cities are expanding rapidly because of growth in infrastructure industry. More number of shopping malls and bars are coming up in the cities which are easy access to purchase.  Foreign Players are also investing in the Indian market because of high potential of the wine industry. Weaknesses  Wine remains an elite taste and most of the people prefer hard liquor taste.  Due to lack of proper infrastructure, wine is difficult to store in India. Wine required cellars and refrigeration for storage purpose in which Indian wine industry is lacking.  In India, less than 50 percent of the total population is legally old enough to drink (25 yrs. old) as per the government rules in various states.  In India, 400 million persons are 18 years old or younger and they are legally not allowed to sallow wine.  Due to poor awareness of wine and infrastructure, people preferring other drinks. Opportunities  In the next 5 years, 100 million persons will be legally allowed to drink alcohol (25 yrs. old). This will give rise to the consumption volume of wine.  Supermarkets are emerging. This will give support to wine distribution in an effective way.  Domestic market is rising and because of increasing disposable income of people.  Growing tourism industry is also a factor which can contribute significantly towards growth of wine industry.  Through merger, joint venture, or strategic alliance the size of the market can be increased.  Market trends are changing and giving new opportunities to do more profitable business.  New technologies are coming up and improving in productivity.  Social changing is also an opportunities to tap more number of consumers for wine market.
  36. 36. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 27 Threats  India is known for its traditional cultures and values. These values of India do not allow taking wine and it consider as a bad habit. The Indian constitution discourages alcohol consumption.  Wine consumption is viewed as a “sin” by many people so it may hamper the business of wine market.  Indians still prefer whisky rather than wine.  Promotional activities for alcoholic are banned in India and specifically in various states.  Domestic wine production is coddled by state governments. Even though the Indian wine industry has a high growth rate but there are many challenges for its development. The biggest obstacle can be reforming government policies for the wine industry. Infrastructure limitations are also great issues in this sector that should be addressed. 4.4.2 PESTEL Analysis of Indian wine market PESTEL model is to provide a framework for understanding the macro environment in which the drinks industry operates. PEST analysis identifies the political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, environmental and legal influences in the industry. 1. Political factors Political factors affect the way of doing business in an industry. The ruling party changes and so as the policies related to the business. Now the central government has changed the taxation policy to encourage the wine business. In some states, local government has also taken initiatives for funding and infrastructure supports to the wineries. 2. Economic factors The rising incomes of the middle class family in India and their growing exposure to the western culture are some of the important factors. In coming years, Indian middle class will be considered as a great contributor in the wine industry growth because of its growing consumption. Now young mass are earning at an earlier age and highly influencing by the western culture. At a young age they want to adopt a sophisticated life style and consuming alcohol for fun. The price fluctuation can be dictated by global commodity markets which gives multi-nationals an advantage to the wine market. Increasing price differential between on and off trade is also a factor for growth of Indian market. There are other factors which decided the growth of industry such as business cycles, interest rates, inflation, unemployment, disposable income, wage cost, and devaluation.
  37. 37. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 28 3. Socio-cultural factors In India, earlier wine was not considered as the first choice of drink because of the culture. But now the time has changed and so as the culture of the society in India. At current scenario, the rate of wine sales is increasing each year by 34 percent. The wine industry in India is an emerging market. Indians has adopted the habits of British people of having strong drink. Before the meals, Indian loves to enjoy a drink. Wine is now considered as a fashionable drink among young generation mostly in urbanites. The young executives working in the international corporations, they take wine through wine testing and classes. This is done to impress colleagues and clients at the time of corporate dinner. Now this practice has become the important part of the corporate people. Earlier, in our Indian culture, taking wine was acceptable for a male person only. But in the 21st century now more numbers of women are part of the corporations whether it is international or domestic. Young professional women are the significant art of the Indian wine market. Now drinking is built into the social fabric. The recent upsurge in café culture is also encouraging youth to consume alcohol. Increase in eating out and in holidaying overseas is also impacting on consumption of wine. Drinking wine is giving a great snob value. 4. Technological factors Packaging and bottling of the wine is very attractive. Influence of the Internet and ecommerce has affected the business of the wine in a positive way. From the wine park people can order their preferred wine easily. 5. Environment factors Now there is increasing focus on the sustainability agenda and corporate social responsibility by the corporations. Environmental impacts affect the business of the wine. The other factors are environmental legislation, energy availability and cost, energy consumption which can affect the industry performance. 6. Legal factors There are various legal factors involved in the business of wine. After coming of licensing Act 2003, private Security Industries Act 2003, beer orders and other changes to Competition Law in the 1990s, the business of wine has become simpler. Advertising laws has become liberal in some extent. The other legal factors which affect the wine business are employment laws, competition laws, health and safety laws, regional legislation, taxation (VAT, Social), subsidy policy, and foreign trade and investment regulations.
  38. 38. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 29 4.5 Current scenario The market of alcoholic beverage is changing globally. The distribution market behavior is changing due to the rising of retail industry and falling on trade consumption. Many new markets are emerging and redefining the distribution patterns and helping the wine market to reach the potential customers. The consumption of wine is now growing at a faster rate. The Indian middle class is burgeoning and going to be a great catalyst in the growth of the wine industry. Wine consumption has boosted by the exposure to the western trends and the growing acceptance of this culture. There is now growing level of social gathering and social drinking. Wide exposure to western culture through television, cinema, and travelling abroad at an early age is contributing towards growing of alcohol consumption. Indian wine industry is targeting these potential customers and organizing events for testing of wines and setting up wine clubs. These events and clubs are getting media converge to reach greater mass and to participate. These events have helped the industry to attract more number of customers. Average drinkers are getting knowledgeable about the different kind of wines and the correct combination of taking drink. Indian wine market is sensitive about the price hence the wine producers are trying to lower the price and to grab more customers. A range of products are offering by the players in the industry to tap potential customers from regular brands in affordable price to premium brands in premium price. The knowledge about the wine and food pairing are growing through the events and sessions and boosting the beverage consumption to greater extent. Table 4.1 Areas of grape production in India Source; Indian Grape Processing Board
  39. 39. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 30 Due to the fundamental changes have contributed towards growth of wine industry such as: 4.5.1 Wine production In India the three major wine producing regions are Maharashtra, Karnataka and Himachal Pradesh (Figure 4.1). Of these, Maharashtra is the largest producer and consumer of wine. After a decade of steady growth from 2000 to 2010, India‘s wine production dropped Government regulations Consumer behaviour Higher incomes Industry advancements Media and increased globalization Fig. 4.2 Wine production in India (2000 - 2014) Source; J Food Processing & Beverages October 2015 Table 4.2 Indian Wine regions and major producers Source; Indian Grape Processing Board
  40. 40. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 31 from 13.0 million liters (ML) in 2010 to 11.0 ML in 2011 and improved slightly in 2012 to 11.5 ML (1.3 million cases). The wine production estimates of Maharashtra and Karnataka is 14.2 ML (1.58 million cases) in 2014, as cooler temperatures during February and March improved grape yields and quality. The expanded production of key wineries has steadily raised the production of Karnataka and was estimated at 5 ML (555,000 cases), a jump of 1.3 ML (145,000 cases) from the previously has eased the license requirements and regulations for establishing wineries and wine retail outlets and established two wine industrial parks to facilitate investment in the industry.[2] 4.5.2 Wine consumption India ranks 77th in terms of world wine consumption. The per capita consumption in India is only 0.07 L/person/year. The country accounts for 0.8% of the total wine consumed in Asia. In India 80% of wine consumption is confined to major cities such as Mumbai (39%), Delhi (23%), Bangalore (9%) and Goa (9%).[3] Major factors adding to the higher wine consumption are growing population, higher disposable incomes, relaxation on government regulation and policies. Red wine is the most popular type of wine consumed in India followed by white and Rose wines. The consumption pattern of wine varieties is as follows: red wine accounting for 45% of consumption followed by white wine at 40%, sparkling wine at 10-15% and rosé at 1-5%. There was an increase of 16.3% wine consumption between 2012 and 2013. More than 61% of wine consumption is of red category and is expected to grow by 71.6% between 2013 and 2017. In 2013 it was reported that 0.93 million cases of Indian wines were consumed as against to 0.28 million cases of imported wines. [4] Wine consumption appeared to be nil from 2000-2002 and improved slightly in a progressive manner from 2003, dropped in 2009 and slightly improved in 2010 and then the consumption levels reached gradually to 15 ML in 2014 (Figure 4.3). 2 Sathish BS, Chandra S (2012) Wine marketing an untamed market in India. Radix Int J Res Soc Sci 1: 1-17. 3 Thaliath A, Kumar DN (2014) Impact of quality factors and internal factors in the buying decisions of wine patrons: Critical factors in bench marking wine tourism development and management. Int J Recent Scientific Res 5: 1091- 1097. 4 Bhaduri S (2014) Wine consumption in India to increase 73.5% in four year. Fig. 4.3 Wine consumption in India (2000-2014) Source; J Food Processing & Beverages October 2015
  41. 41. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 32 According to the reports of All India wine associations, Indian wine consumption is expected to rise at a CAGR of around 18% during 2014-2015. The forecast of Vinexpo survey reveals that consumption of wine in India is expected to reach 2.1 million cases by 2017, an increase of 73% from 2013. Indians will consume 1.15 million cases of red wine, 0.63 million cases of white wine and 0.10 million cases of Rose wine by 2017.[5] According to the IWSR, wine consumption in India is expected to grow gradually and could reach 2.4 million cases by 2020.[6] Wine tourism, will play a pivotal role in changing the market trends of Indian wine industry in near future. In India, wine tourism has emerged as the latest trend as is gaining significant momentum in creating economic opportunities in rural communities and the government should provide favorable government policies to make wine tourism a populous one. 4.5.3 Wine exports Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon Blanc and Chenin Blanc are the export quality wines to raise the stature of Indian wine in the global market. China, Singapore, Japan, Nepal and Bhutan are the potential markets for Indian wines and is gaining greater acceptance in US and France also. Presently, Indian wines are largely being imported by Malaysia, UAE, Bhutan, Germany, UK, Sri Lanka, Maldives and New Zealand. There was a modest rebound of 2.6 ML in Indian wine exports during 2010 and had reached 739,000 L (2,100 cases) in 2012. The country’s wine export was accounted for about र 80 to 100 Crores and is expected to increase by र 500 Crores in the next five years.[7] India has the potential to become one of the major exporters of wine not only in Asia but also the world 5 Vinexpo Asia-Pacific (2014) Hong Kong: The wine and spirits market in Asia- Pacific and worldwide with prospects until 2017. From the VINEXPO* market study. 6 Sheth H, Pereira KA, Thomas TS, Kumar VK, Kelapanda MC, et al. (2014) Wine festival and wine consumerism-A perspective study on influence and awareness in the growth and acceptance of wine in Indian market. Int J Eng Technol Manag Appl Sci 2: 20-36. 7 APEDA (2012) APEX update showcasing Indian agri exports. Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA). Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Govt. of India 18. Fig. 4.4 Wine exports from India (2003-2014) Source; J Food Processing & Beverages October 2015
  42. 42. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 33 because of innovativeness in wine quality and marketing. According to the data of Ministry of Commerce, wine exports in 2013 were approximately 1.8 ML valued at nearly US $7 million. In the first seven months of 2014, exports have increased by 20% especially for sweeter wines to Bhutan and Vietnam and export sales have grown by almost 40% by value compared to 2013 and have reached nearly US $ 4.4 million[8] (Figures 4.4 & 4.5). 4.5.4 Wine imports Current Indian reported trade data suggests that the top three wine suppliers to India are France, Australia, and Italy and wine imports from “New World” wine countries is growing especially for Australian, American, South African and New Zealand products while imports from France and Italy have fallen. [8] After the setbacks of 2001 and 2008 due to the ban on imported wines and Mumbai terror attacks, there was a huge drop in Indian wine imports. Sales of imported wine are through hospitality (63%) and retail (30%) sectors, the two major marketing segments.[9] There was an increase in wine imports since 2009 8 Dhruv S, Adam B (2014) Wine production and trade update. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, GAIN Report Number IN4095, Global Agricultural Information Network. 9 (2012) Indian wine industry report prepared by Western Australian Trade Office-India, Department of Agriculture and Food-WA Mumbai: 1-22. Fig. 4.5 Wine exports from India (2002-2014) Source; J Food Processing & Beverages October 2015 Fig. 4.6 Wine imports by India (2003-2014) Source; J Food Processing & Beverages October 2015 Fig. 4.7 Wine imports by India (2003-2008) Source; J Food Processing & Beverages October 2015
  43. 43. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 34 and reaching a high of 44,000 hL in 2011 and are on pace to match that level in 2012.10 The Indian Ministry of Commerce reports the wine imports in 2013 equaled nearly 4 ML and totaled almost US $25 million. In the first seven months of 2014, imports were just over 1.7 ML and have totaled just over US $10 million. In comparison with the first seven months of 2013, import volumes and values were down by over 27% and 28% respectively 8 (Figures 4.7 & 4.8). Lower domestic production and persistent promotion efforts appear to be yielding results for imported wines. 4.6 Conclusion The budding Indian wine market has witnessed promising growth in the last five years. But, there are still lot more exciting challenges to face ahead. The Indian market and research institutes should concentrate on storage, transport facilities, wine exports, promotion through media campaigns and wine festivals, environmental issues regarding agrichemical usage, genetic resources and improvement, production technology, plant health management, pre and post- harvest technology, cascading effect due to climatic changes on grape cultivation, grape juice composition, yeast ecology of wine production, fermentation kinetics and wine character. The Indian government has identified wine as a booming and blooming sector and has extended support in terms of subsidizing processing facilities and reducing VAT. The government should support research and development and encourage educational institutes to practice wine biotechnology for the genetic improvement of grape wines, wine yeasts and wine bacteria. Indian wine has travelled a long adventurous way through time from Persia, Europe, Mughals, Portugal and Britain to India. The fledgling Indian wine market is ready to claim its deserving place in the colorful global wine market. 10 Sood D (2012) Wine market update 2012. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, GAIN Report Number N2162, Global Agricultural Information Network: 1-23. Fig. 4.8 Wine imports by India (2009-2014) Source; J Food Processing & Beverages October 2015
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  45. 45. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 36 CHAPTER 5 - CASE STUDIES 5.1 SOMA Wine Village Soma vine village is a boutique winery and resort, which offers the best quality of wines for the connoisseur as well as the novice wine tasters. Guests can experience the process of wine making, treat yourself to some great wines, enjoy a host of other recreational activities at the resort and wallow in a blissful holiday. Soma has created history in the Indian Wine Industry by being the only winery to win the prestigious Decanter Asia Wine Award in its maiden year. 5.1.1 Location and Approach Soma Vine Village, located along the edge of the backwaters of Gangapur Dam, as it flows majestically by the pastoral hamlet surrounded by the magnificent Sahyadri Ranges, Address - Survey No. 1, Village Ganghavare, Gangapur-Ganghavare Road, Nashik. It is located 24 km from the main entry of the Nashik, accessed by self-owned vehicle. Fig. 5.2 Location Map of Soma Wine Village Fig. 5.1 Soma Wine Village
  46. 46. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 37 5.1.2 Site Attractions Soma Vine Village is more than just a scenic property. The picturesque property houses three villas, Beyond Vineyard Resort, a winery, two multi-cuisine restaurant, two conference halls Soma’s and the White Room and Madeira, a private dining overlooking the lush green vineyards. The winery is located behind the restaurant complex and this is where Soma wines are made and preserved. Fig. 5.3 Site Plan of Soma Wine Village Fig. 5.4 Site Attractions
  47. 47. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 38 1. Winery Tour & Wine Tasting India's first boutique winery's guided tour in which our Sommelier educate you upon wine making and take you through the processes of making Whites, Reds, Rose as well as sparkling wines (method champanoise), followed by wine tasting session in which they provide you an expert training upon techniques of tasting a wine and offers some finest boutique wines to taste. The tours and tastings goes on 7 days a week. Timings: 11:30 am to 6:30 pm, Prices: 200 for 5 wines and 400 for 7 wines. 2. Accommodation Each Villa features a King size bed, a comfortable lounge area, a spacious en-suite, a private balcony overlooking the backwaters of the Gangapurdam and the Swimming pool. An in-room set breakfast is provided to enjoy. 3. Restaurant Known for its stunning setting amongst the vines, the vineyard restaurants offer the perfect ambience for lovers of good food and wines. Menu features an abundance of fresh, local produce from the surroundings along with Indian fusion cuisine. 4. Conference Halls Private function rooms have glass windows overlooking the vineyards and the backwaters of Gangapur Dam. The rooms can accommodate up to 150 guests for a cocktail party and up to 100 Fig. 5.5 Wine Tasting Lab Fig.6.5 Accommodation at SOMA vine village Source; http://www.somavinevillage.com/ Fig.5.6 Accommodation at SOMA vine village Source; http://www.somavinevillage.com/ Fig.5.7 Restaurant at SOMA vine village Source; http://www.somavinevillage.com/
  48. 48. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 39 guests for conferences. The private function rooms are fully equipped with Audio Visual systems for the conferencing. 5. Adventure Sports Zonkers Adventure Sports located 2 minutes away from the vineyards will make you challenge your limits, testing sporting stamina and pumping up adrenaline at the same time. 6. Swimming Pool Outdoor swimming pool for relaxation and enjoyment facing the vineyard and over-viewing the backwater of the Gangapur Dam. 7. A Dream Wedding Destination The beautiful and lush vineyards provide the picture perfect setting for any occasion from a romantic dinner for two to the most beautiful, exquisite and special weddings in Nashik, corporate events, product launches, cocktail parties and many more. 8. Beyond Resort Beyond is a 32 room getaway resort - the excellent sanctuary of peace for stressed out city folk. Take a dip in the vineyard pool or simply take a leisurely bicycle ride on the rugged country roads, soak up the serene and picturesque view or simply enjoy delectable food while sipping on Soma wines. Enjoy a slice of paradise at Beyond. 9. Gymnasium A well-equipped gym overlooking the infinity pool, vineyards and lake, just enough to motivate to get some exercise. Spa by Touché- spa is the perfect accompaniment to the resort with modern massage rooms, a Jacuzzi and exclusive services. Relaxing treatments and environs rejuvenate mind, body & soul. Red Room- A game and chill-out room to keep the kids and adults busy all day, play with favourite glass of Soma! Fig.5.8 Beyond Resort at SOMA vine village Source; http://www.somavinevillage.com/
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  51. 51. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 42 5.2 SULA Vineyards Sula vineyards is an Indian winery located in Nashik, Maharashtra, India. Sula wines was the valley’s first commercial winery. Sula vineyards was awarded with a silver medal for biggest wine maker in India. The vineyard also houses a resort to live amid the winery and a tasting room in which to sample the varieties of wines produced at the winery. Sula vineyards is spread over 160 acres of area in Nashik. 5.2.1 Location and Approach Nashik is 180 km from Mumbai, reachable by car, bus or train and 210 km from Pune, reachable by car or by bus. SULA Vineyard is located 21km from the main entry of the Nashik, accessed by self-owned vehicle. Address - Gat 36/2, Govardhan Village, Off Gangapur- Savargaon Road, Nashik, Maharashtra Fig. 5.9 Sula Vineyards Fig. 5.10 Location plan of Sula Vineyards Fig. 5.11 Route Map of Sula Vineyards
  52. 52. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 43 5.2.2 Site Attractions 1. Tasting lab India’s first – located atop winery. Tasting room boasts a blue – mosaic balcony bar with a panoramic view of the rolling vineyards surrounded by the hills and picturesque Gangapur Lake in the distance. The 34ft bar continuously runs from the inner room to the open balcony, and is softly lit by wine bottle lamps hanging from the ceiling. Fig. 5.12 Site plan of SULA Vineyards Fig. 5.13 Tasting Lab
  53. 53. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 44 2. The Amphitheatre The amphitheatre at Sula is designed to accommodate the needs for any special; events. With over 1.5 acres of professionally landscaped green lawns, permanent semi-circular seating and a stage at the centre, it is a tastefully designed setting for any celebration. It is most famous for being the venue for Sula fest – annual music and harvest festival which boasts of getting more than 10,000 happy guests every year now. 3. Winery Tours Tours are conducted seven days a week throughout the year. Winery tours and wine tastings take place daily between 11:30 a.m. – 6:30 p.m. Vineyard and winery tour and a wine tasting of 4 premium wines cost Rs. 150 per person and for just rs.100 extra per person, taste 2 more special wines. Wine tour followed by wine tasting takes 40 – 45 minutes. Fig. 5.14 Amphitheatre
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  56. 56. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 47 CHAPTER 6 – CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6.1 Conclusion Wine tourism constitutes a niche market of general tourism revolving around the wine theme, originated from the agro-tourism development and often associated with gastronomy experiences sought during visitation to tourism destinations. In particular though, wine tourism is seen as a means of rural resurgence and enhancement of the wine sector’s income. The former is achieved through the increased viniculture income itself, the improvement of the region’s image, the increased tourist flows and overall tourism development in the region, the leverage of investments on infrastructure and other tourism facilities and the increased local employment rates. Nevertheless, the contribution of wine tourism on rural development, if well managed, is long-term and thus may be readily long-lasting since the overall image of the region is improved based on local distinctive features. This in turn, allows for differentiation of the local economy founded on the region’s own natural resources. The wine tourists are usually occasional tourists of male gender who have the prospect however to become wine lovers. They are mainly domestic visitors but there is a significant presence of international visitors directed mostly to wineries located to regions. Moving on, the marketing campaigns run at two levels: firstly at a collective level through the “Wine Producers Association” and then at an individual level run by each entrepreneur separately. The former aims at promoting wine products and wine tourism at international markets while the later are more introspective, targeting the domestic market. Furthermore, wine tourism is beneficial both for the enhancement of the viniculture income and rural development. However, the impact of wine tourism in the wine industry is greater than it is in the local economy. Yet, its contribution effect to rural areas is long-term and thus more sustainable. Finally, this type of tourism cannot yet stand alone as a single tourism offering. Thus, further wine tourism development lies in its combination with the exploitable particularities and natural resources of the region and on current tourism trends. Consequently, as a general conclusion for the case, it can be said that wine tourism initiated as a means of rural restructuring and economic enhancement of the vinous income and it has achieved its initial goal to a certain extent. Hence, future prospects of wine tourism in India as a
  57. 57. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 48 consequence, are enormous. It lies though in the power of the competent authorities to overcome those barriers and utilize the existing valuable wine tourism material. 6.2 Recommendations India, as a new world wine country, cannot replicate the wine tourism model developed by old world countries, despite having a culture and traditions stretching back for many centuries. The model of the new world was created to generate new customers and it better adapted to wine tourism because it was developed in parallel with the creation of new markets. The wine tourism in India is still at a nascent stage and needs a proper tourism development plan. Conscious collaborative efforts are required from the wine and tourism industries to come together and form a wine tourism development board. Such board or body should own the overall wine tourism road map and will remain committed to finance and support its implementation. A long term development program needs to undertake which includes development of overall road infrastructure for better accessibility, affordable accommodation and restaurants, accessibility to airports, uninterrupted access to basic amenities like water and electricity, tourism information centre for tourist guidance, enthusiastic wine clubs and tasting centers, Indian wine history museum, corporate tie up for corporate events, theme-based wine festivals, wine by-products i.e. beauty products, souvenirs and spas etc. The wine tourism board also needs to undertake measures which include integrating wine tourism marketing with other state and national level tourism marketing drives. Wine tourism marketing should be taken to the next level of using international tourism channels like Incredible India, Agro-tourism and Indian tourism. The overview of the literature so far and the case studies analysis reveal the multi-complexity of the factors determining wine tourism development. As Getz et al. (1999) also argue for, there is a plethora of various factors influencing the success of the wineries alone and the destination’s success in growing its market share in the wine tourism filed. Nevertheless, a country’s or a region’s distinctive features along with the wine industry’s characteristics indicate different success factors or barriers for each. After all, these factors determine a successful wine tourism development. Hence, taking these determinants in consideration, some policy recommendations can be derived. These are the following: 1. The establishment of a national wine tourism body To begin with, the most significant barrier of wine tourism development in general is the inertia of the State. The literature and the case studies as well, indicate that an active role of the
  58. 58. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 49 government at a national level and of the municipalities at a regional level is necessary to make the stakeholders of wine tourism aware of its benefits, coordinate wine tourism actions and strategies among these actors and provide them with financial support when the cost of entry is prohibitive for entrepreneurs. 2. Coordinated action among the wine industry, tourism and other cultural competent bodies Since wine tourism is a multidimensional phenomenon with many ramifications, coordination among the different actors is an impetus. 3. Aggressive and penetrating wine tourism marketing into the foreign markets A strong presence of the Indian bottled wines in international fora and fairs will first make the wine industry’s professionals aware of the Indian quality wine. This in turn induces international interest for the location and methods of production. Then, after putting the bottled wine of India in the world wine consumption map, an aggressive marketing is needed to turn this interest into actual visitation to the Indian wine regions. Wine tourism marketing campaigns thus deserve equal attention and quality with those of general tourism. 4. A well-trained and educated staff completes the wine tourism experience The scientific training of the winery staff is an impetus to support the whole wine tourism experience for the visitor. A well-trained staff is capable of communicating all the wine-related knowledge to the visitors and thus trains the future wine consumers. Additionally, a qualified staff is also in position to provide gastronomic advice to visitors. Anyhow, a culinary experience is also a motive for wine tourism and tourism in general. Furthermore, the presence of highly educated personnel is also capable of increasing cellar door sales and positively influencing the word of mouth reputation of the wineries. 5. Effective sign-posting of the Wine Roads Good sign trails will facilitate the wine tourism experience of visitors who is often a frustrating one due to insufficient signage and lack of information about the various activities/attractions at the region. A good and comprehensible signage of the Wine Roads will both improve the travel experience to wine regions and motivate visitation to a winery or vineyard even if this was not the primary aim of the travel.
  59. 59. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 50 Some general recommendations are -  The incorporation of the wine education in the curriculum will help in creating awareness among the present and the future generation, thereby wine tourism can be nurtured in a bigger scale.  State tourism Development Corporation can come up with a tourist’s circuit which would connect the major wine producing regions of the state.  To facilitate wine production and its related activities wine parks should be established in different parts of the city.  The new entrepreneurs in wines as well as allied wine products should be encouraged to bring forth new concepts in terms of innovation as well as creativeness.  Offering technical assistance to the farmers, easy license and tax concessions to investors is likely to increase consumption and exports.  The vineyards/wineries will need to develop innovative deals and competitive packages for the tourists.
  60. 60. Wine Tourism | Dissertation 2015 - 16 P a g e | 51 REFRENCES [1] Dr. Liz Thach (August 15, 2007), Wine Business Monthly Trends in Wine Tourism- Discover the motivations of wine tourists and the challenges, benefits and trends in wine tourism. [2] Sathish BS, Chandra S (2012) Wine marketing an untamed market in India. Radix Int J Res Soc Sci 1: 1-17. [3] Thaliath A, Kumar DN (2014) Impact of quality factors and internal factors in the buying decisions of wine patrons: Critical factors in bench marking wine tourism development and management. Int J Recent Scientific Res 5: 1091- 1097. [4] Bhaduri S (2014) Wine consumption in India to increase 73.5% in four year. [5] Vinexpo Asia-Pacific (2014) Hong Kong: The wine and spirits market in Asia- Pacific and worldwide with prospects until 2017. From the VINEXPO* market study. [6] Sheth H, Pereira KA, Thomas TS, Kumar VK, Kelapanda MC, et al. (2014) Wine festival and wine consumerism-A perspective study on influence and awareness in the growth and acceptance of wine in Indian market. Int J Eng Technol Manag Appl Sci 2: 20-36. [7] APEDA (2012) APEX update showcasing Indian agri exports. Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA). Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Govt. of India 18. [8] Dhruv S, Adam B (2014) Wine production and trade update. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, GAIN Report Number IN4095, Global Agricultural Information Network. [9] (2012) Indian wine industry report prepared by Western Australian Trade Office-India, Department of Agriculture and Food-WA Mumbai: 1-22. [10] Sood D (2012) Wine market update 2012. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, GAIN Report Number N2162, Global Agricultural Information Network: 1-23.

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