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process control system

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This presentation gives an overview of how process control system works.

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process control system

  1. 1. SHRI RAMDEOBABA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT
  2. 2. PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM
  3. 3.  WHAT IS PROCESS?  WHAT IS CONTROL?  TYPES OF PROCESS  BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL  PROCESS VARIABLE  PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM  TYPES OF PCS  APPLICATION OF PCS CONTENT WHAT IS PROCESS? WHAT IS CONTROL? TYPES OF PROCESS PROCESS CONTROL PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM(PCS) PROCESS VARIABLES COMPONENTS OF PCS PRIMARY DEVICES OF PCS TYPES OF PCS APPLICATION FUTURE SCOPE CONCLUSION REFERENCES
  4. 4. WHAT IS PROCESS?  A sequence of interdependent and linked procedures  At every stage it consume one or more type of resources (employee time, energy, machines, money etc.) into outputs  These outputs then serve as inputs for the next stage until a known goal or end result is reached
  5. 5. What is control? Control in process industries refers to the regulation of all aspects of the process.
  6. 6. TYPES OF PROCESS CONTINUOUS PROCESS BATCH PRODUCTION INDIVIDUAL OR DISCRETE PRODUCTS PRODUCTION
  7. 7. TYPES OF PROCESSES 1.Continuous process- process itself runs continuously and uninterrupted in time. Example: Production of chemicals, plastics 2.Batch process- operation is performed on the batch to produce a finished product. Example: Production of adhesive and glues 3.Individual or discrete process- a series of operations produces a useful output product. Example: involves the production of discrete pieces of product such as metal stamping.
  8. 8. PROCESS CONTROL  An engineering discipline that deals with architectures, mechanism and algorithms for maintaining the output of a specific process within a desired range’s extensively used in industry  enables mass production of consistent products from continuously operated processes such as oil refining, paper manufacturing etc.  enables automation by which a small staff of operating personnel can operate a complex process from a central control room.
  9. 9. WHY???? Manufacturers control the production process for three reasons: a) Reduce variability b) Increase efficiency c) Ensure safety
  10. 10. Process control system  A process control system an be defined as the functions and operations necessary to change material either physically or chemically.  Process control normally refers to the manufacturing or processing of products in industry.
  11. 11. PROCESS VARIABLES A condition of the process fluid (a liquid or gas) that can change the manufacturing process in some way. Common process variables include:  Pressure  Flow  Level  Temperature  Density  Liquid interface  Mass  Conductivity
  12. 12. Components of process control system Operator-machine interface operator External sensors Process sensors Input signal condi- tioning controller Output Signal Condi- tioning ff Controlled process External actuators Process actuators computer
  13. 13. Programmable logic control Distributed control system
  14. 14. PRIMARY DEVICES OF PCS-1.Programmable Control Logic  Best for controlling machines with several discrete devices such as motor starters, limit switches, etc  Uses a programmable memory to store instructions and execute specific functions that include on/off control, timing, counting, sequencing, etc  It is equipped with special input/output interfaces and a control programming language.
  15. 15. 2. DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM  Central control systems which are good at controlling analog devices.  In this control elements are distributed throughout the system.  A hierarchy of controllers is connected by communications networks for command and monitoring.  Dedicated systems used to control manufacturing processes that are continuous or batch-oriented such as oil refining, petrochemicals, central station power generation, fertilizers etc.
  16. 16. 1. open-loop control system 2. closed loop control system TYPES OF PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM
  17. 17. 1.Open loop system  A control action is applied on the output of the system  It does not receive any feedback signal to control or alter the output status  Set Point-  Controller-  Actuators-  Process-  Disturbance-
  18. 18. 2.Closed loop system  the output of the process affects the input control signal.  The system measures the actual output of the process and compares it to the desired output. 1. Comparator- 2. Error Amplifier 3. Controller- 4. Output attenuator- 5. Sensor Feedback -
  19. 19. APPLICATIONS OF PCS Food Production Telecommunication and IT sector Car wheel manufacturing process Waste water treatment Continuous filling operation
  20. 20. WATER BOTTLE PLANT
  21. 21. Future scope  Improved process modelling technique, more capable performance monitoring tools will produce the “next” generation of PCS with greater economic benefits and improved reliability.  Many automation projects will be implemented within the so called SMART CITY.  In transportation, buildings, and health care will have closer proximity to process control system.
  22. 22. CONCLUSION PCS leads to automation in various fields of industry.  It also provides more reliability and improvement in product.  Lots of work can be done in single minute of time which reduces more time required for that work.  It enables manufacturers to keep their operations running within specified limits and to set more precise limits to maximize profitability, ensure quality and safety.
  23. 23. REFERENCES www.electroniceforyou.com www.http.//.nibusinessinfo.com www.IEEE.org www.wikipedia.org
  24. 24. Presented by- Renuka Deshkar Kanchan Sahu Kanchan Sontakke Pranali Wankhede

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