Analytical Psychology (Jung) “It is sufficient to know that the human psyche is both individual and collective, and that its well-being depends on the natural co-operation of these two apparently contradictory sides.”
Life• Father was a parson, mother had a history of mental illness (may have been psychotic), generally unavailable• Difficult childhood – Had an experience of mysticism early on – Developed repeated fainting problems in relation to school, but “cured” himself of this problem as a child• Became a doctor, did his early work with schizophrenia• Close collaborative relationship with Freud for 6 years – Broke due to negativity of Freud’s beliefs, and his developing belief in the collective unconscious• Had five children, difficult relationship with his wife (he had several affairs)
The Red Book• Following his break from Freud, Jung entered a period of intense introspection, scholars disagree about its nature, arguing that it represents everything from a creative period to a psychotic break.• The result is 205 pages of drawings and illuminations, from peering directly into his own unconscious.• He never publishes it, and his family doesn’t allow its publication under 2008.
• Aside from his theory: – Influenced Freud as well as Freud influenced him, developed the idea of “the complex” – Was one of the first to utilize psychological and physiological testing • Word Association Test • Galvanic skin response – Influenced modern-day personality testing (the 16-type model used on the MBTI comes from Jung) – Somewhat inadvertently was responsible for the spiritual component of AA • Later, after a client from “the Oxford group”, the forerunner of AA came to see him, her sent them back, stating “I can’t do better than Jesus.”• “I am not a Jungian” – Saw his theory as a contribution to psychology, not a complete theory in its own right – Stated that he only used Jungian work with about a third of his clients (used Freudian theory with another third, and Adlerian with the final third).
Jungian Theory• Humans motivated by forces beyond personal experience (by repeated experiences of ancestors)• Humans possess a variety of opposing qualities: introversion/extraversion, masculinity/feminin ity, rational/irrational.
Levels of the Psyche• Conscious (ego, which is secondary to the Self)• Personal unconscious (like Freud’s concept. Contents called complexes, which are emotionally toned groups of related ideas) – Shadow• Collective unconscious (originates from the repeated experience of our ancestors, innate tendency to react in particular way)
Complexes• As a result of Jungs early word association research, he came to recognize the existence of clusters of ideas, thoughts, memories, and perceptions, organized around a central affective and archetypal core.• Each carrying a splinter consciousness of its own, a degree of intentionality, and the capability of pursuing a goal.• They are like real personalities in that they contain images, feelings, and qualities, and if they engulf the ego, they determine behavior as well – “I don’t know what got into me” – “I was beside myself.” – “A part of me . . .” – Pet peeves, etc.
Archetypes: Contents of the CollectiveUnconscious (like Plato’s Ideal Forms)• Expressed in dreams, fantasies, delusions, and hallucinations.• Persona• Shadow• Anima• Animus• Great Mother (nourishment and destruction)• Wise Old Man• Hero• Self (comprehensive archetype, self-realization)
Psychological Types• Attitudes: Introversion/Extraversion• Functions: Thinking, Feeling, Sensation, Intuition• Individuals have one preference in each of the four personality dimensions: – Focus of attention & energy – Extra or Introversion – Taking in info – Sensing or Intuition – Making decisions – Thinking or Feeling – Lifestyle – Judging or Perceiving
Development of Personality• Stages of Development: Childhood, youth, middle life, old age.• Self-Realization or Individuation (a psychological rebirth and integration of various parts of psyche into unified or whole self) – Self-ego axis: ongoing tension between individuation and communion – Emblematic of “the hero’s journey”, in which an individual separates from the community to further its goals
Jungian Therapy• Active Imagination• Psychotherapy goal: neurotic into healthy and healthy into direction of self-realization. – Balance and wholeness – a resolution and integration of opposites – Transcendent Function – an aspect of human growth and the therapeutic process in which difficult, opposing aspects of the psyche are confronted and then integrated.• Eclectic in technique – Sandtray/Mandala• “Eventually the unconscious will begin to provide not only descriptions of the existing impasse but also positive suggestions for possibilities of development which could reconcile the opposing positions, showing us what avenues of development are available to us, what paths are required of us or closed to us, according to the inherent plan of the Self”
• Jungian theory understands the psyche as containing a drive toward balance and wholeness, differentiating and incorporating the various elements of the personal unconscious and establishing access to the collective unconscious• Technique is eclectic
Concept of Humanity• People are extremely complex beings who are a product of both conscious and unconscious personal experiences.• People are motivated by inherited remnants that spring from the collective experiences of their early ancestors.• A psychology of opposites• Synchronicity
Other Jungian Terms• Constellate• Inflation• Participation mystique• Projection• Puer Aeternus / Puella• Senex• Symbol• Transcendent function• Transference and countertransference• Uroboros• Enantiodromia