SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 54
Download to read offline
Psychoanalytic
Therapy
Russell Resti L. de Villa
MA Psychology
Part I

Introduction and Key
Concepts
Introduction
Among other theories on Human Behavior developed by well
known pillars in the field of Psychology, Sigmund Freud‘s
Psychoanalytic Theory, stands up even until today, as one of
the most controversial, as it included terms and concept on
sex, the unconscious and the interpretation of dreams.
The theory nonetheless, had provided a wide breeding
ground for developing other kinds of theories that aim to
understand human behavior. Such as Carl Jung‘s own mix of
Analytical Psychology, and Erik Erikson‘s Psychosocial
Stages of Development, a more ‗toned down‘ and a greater
supplement to Freud‘s Psychosexual Stages of Development
Introduction
In terms of contemporary psychotherapy, the practice
of Psychoanalysis had radically changed and
properly organized into a more ‗less sensitive‘
method to treat psychological disorders. By making
use of different techniques to conquer the
incongruence of the personality from the
unconscious. Psychoanalysis proves to be one of the
more useful techniques when it comes to handling
internal psychological conflicts that can alter the
person‘s perception of reality.
Sigmund Freud
The proprietor and the original initiator of the
Psychoanalytic approach on Human Behavior.
Eldest among 8 children, Freud was well
known for his utter devotion to devoting and
expanding the borders of his theory.
With the stresses, psychosomatic
occurrences, and paranoia about dying that
he experienced in his early 40‘s led him to
discover new ways to understanding how and
why people behave the way they do. He had
eventually overcome his stresses and then
began devoting the remaining years of his life
developing the Psychoanalytic approach to
discover the unconscious that affects a
Sigmund Freud
Freud was known to be very creative and
productive on his work. He was very dedicated
to his theory, and had very little tolerance to
persons who had thought otherwise or critiqued
his school of thought. Because of this, had had
dismissed two of his closest colleagues, Carl
Jung and Alfred Adler, who had disagreed on
Freud‘s views, and created their own theories
stemming from Freud‘s Work.
Sigmund Freud died in September 1939 due to
an inoperable cancer of the jaw.
Key Concepts
It’s General Psychology all over again.
The View of Human
Nature

In most cases on his work on Psychoanalysis, Freud
has drawn a clear line on two things concerning
Human Nature.
Human nature is ―Purely
Deterministic‖
Simply put, Human Nature ―Happens because it
happens‖, there is no point in time in where we ―call
the shots‖ (or having control over our behavior)
because according to Freud, our behavior is
determined by Irrational forces, unconscious
motivations and biological & instinctual drives that
are stemmed from repressed childhood memories or
experiences that hold a certain degree of impact to
our lives.
―Instincts‖ are essential to the
Psychoanalytic Approach
Instincts are actively displayed in times of survival.
Leaning towards growth, development and creativity.
Freud originally termed this as ―Libido‖, comprising
of sexual energy, but then broadened the term to ―Life
Instincts‖, where all ‗pleasurable‘ acts serves as a
person‘s goal in life to simply gain pleasure and avoid
pain.
―Instincts‖ cont.
Freud also came up with another type of instinct
called the ―Death Instinct‖, mostly responsible for the
aggressive drive where at times some persons
manifest through their behavior, an unconscious wish
to die, or to hurt themselves or to hurt others.
All in all, both Life and Death instincts are powerful
determinants to why people act the way they do.
The Structure of
Personality
Well known and commonly taught in the
annals of the theory of Psychoanalysis.
The theory illustrates the personality
consists of three specific and distinct
systems: the Id, the Ego, and the
Superego.
Bear in mind that the three systems
don‘t function as three separate entities,
but as one whole inter-dependent
The Id
The Id is considered as the primary and
original system of personality, the source of
psychic energy, and the seat of instincts. It
lacks organization, is blind, and very
insistent. It cannot tolerate tension, and
once it does feel tension, it functions to
immediately discharge it. Having ruled by
the Pleasure Principle, it always aims to
avoid pain and gain pleasure.
The Ego
Known as the
―Traffic Cop‖, it has
it‘s touch with
reality, controls
consciousness and
exercises
censorship.
It formulates rational
and logical
decisions and plans
for satisfying needs.

Another duty of the
Ego is to keep in
check, and balance
the demands of the
pleasure-seeking
and unorganized
Id, and of the
perfectionistcentered and
radical moral
objectives of the
The Superego
The Judicial Branch of the three. Comprised of
an individual‘s moral conduct and the concept of
right and what‘s wrong given from earlier life
experiences and the cultural mores given from
the environment. The Superego holds the
Moralistic Principle. It strives to inhibit the Id
and seeking to be ―Perfect‖ by persuading the
ego to replace it‘s realistic goals for the more
―perfectionist‖ ones.
Consciousness & The
Unconscious
The unconscious can be compared to an Iceberg. The
conscious can be on the tip of it, but underneath sea level is
a massive body of the unconscious, where, according to
Freud, is where psychological functioning exists. Experience,
memories, repressed material, as well as needs or
motivations that are out of awareness and control.
Considered as one of the primary concepts to understand
Human behavior. It cannot be normally studied under
ordinary means, but it can mostly be inferred from a person‘s
behavior. From Freud‘s work and clinical evidences, there are
six concepts that are believed to be part of the unconscious
6 Things:
1. Dreams – Symbolic representations of Unconscious
needs, wishes, and conflicts.
2. Slips of the tongue and forgetting
3. Post hypnotic suggestions
4. Material derived from free-association
5. Material derived from projective techniques
6. Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms
What does the Unconscious
relate to Psychoanalytic
Therapy?
Internal psychological conflicts are not easily tackled as

it is repressed deep within the bowels of the
unconscious. Because of this, one of the main goals of
the Psychoanalytic Therapy is to make the unconscious
motives conscious, as this will be the only time where the
individual can understand the role of the unconscious, as
well as exercise choice.
The unconscious is at the root of all forms of neurotic
symptoms and behavior. The ―cure‖ is based on how one
uncovers the meaning of symptoms, causes of behavior
and repressed materials that interfere with healthy
functioning
Anxiety
Also known as the feeling of ―Dread‖ that
results from repressed feelings, memories,
desires, and experience that emerge to the
surface of awareness. Anxiety usually develops
out of a conflict among the Id, Ego, and
Superego over control of the available psychic
energy.
There are 3 kinds of Anxiety
1. Reality Anxiety. Simply put- it is the fear of danger from
the external world
2. Neurotic Anxiety. The fear that the impulses may cause
someone to do something where the person will be
punished.
3. Moral Anxiety. The fear of one‘s own conscience. If a
person does something contrary to their moral code, they
usually feel bad and guilt-ridden of what they have done
Ego Defense Mechanisms
For the individual to cope with anxiety and prevent
the ego from being overwhelmed, self-defense
mechanisms are used. These mechanisms that are
employed depends on how well the individual is
develop, and the level of anxiety. Defenses have 2
things in common: (1) They either deny or distort
reality and (2) They operate on the
preconscious/unconscious level.
Defense Mechanisms
1. Repression – A process of removing something from
awareness and consciousness. Burying it deep within
unconsciousness.

2. Denial – ―Closing one‘s eyes‖ to the existence of a

threatening stimuli. It is where the individual ―distorts‖
what the individual thinks, feels, or perceives in a
traumatic situation.

3. Reaction Formation – Actively expressing the
opposite impulse when confronted with a threatening
impulse.
4. Projection - Attributing to others one‘s own
Defense Mechanisms
5. Displacement - Directing energy toward another object
or person when the original object or person is
inaccessible.
6. Rationalization - Manufacturing ―good‖ reasons to
explain away a bruised ego.
7. Sublimation - Diverting sexual or aggressive energy
into other channels.

8. Regression - Going back to an earlier phase of
development when there were fewer demands.
Defense Mechanisms
9. Introjection - Taking in and ―swallowing‖ the values
and standards of others.
10. Identification - Identifying with successful causes,
organizations, or people in the hope that you will be
perceived as worthwhile.
11. Compensation - Masking perceived weaknesses or
developing certain positive traits to make up for
limitations.
The Development of Personality: The
Importance of Early Development
A significant contribution of the psychoanalytic
model is delineation of the stages of
psychosexual and psychosocial stages of
development from birth through adulthood.
This stage perspective provides the counselor
with the conceptual tools for understanding key
developmental tasks characteristic of the
various stages of life.
The Psychosexual Stages of
Development
Freud had come up with three stages of development
which deals with three areas of personal and social
development—love and trust, dealing with negative
feelings, and developing a positive acceptance of
sexuality, and believed that all three are grounded
within the first six years of life.
When a child‘s needs are not adequately met during
these stages of development, an individual may
become fixated at that stage and behave in
psychologically immature ways later on in life.
The Psychosexual Stages of
Development
The Oral Stage which deals with the inability to trust
oneself and others, resulting in the fear of loving and forming
close relationships and low self-esteem

The Anal Stage which deals with the inability to recognize
and express anger

The Phallic Stage which deals with the inability to fully

accept one‘s sexuality and sexual feelings, and also to
difficulty in accepting oneself as a man or woman.
The Psychosocial Stages of
Development
Erik Erikson‘s theory of development holds that
psychosexual growth and psychosocial growth take place
together, each stage of life we face the task of establishing
equilibrium between ourselves and our social world. He
describes development in terms of the entire life span,
divided by specific crises to be resolved. According to
Erikson, a crisis is equivalent to a turning point in life when
we have the potential to move forward or to regress. At these
turning points, we can either resolve our conflicts or fail to
master the developmental task.
Counseling Implications
When applied in psychotherapy, Freud‘s Psychosexual
Stages of development alone may cause difficulty to the
client to actually recall repressed memories, more so on the
person‘s childhood, Erikson‘s Psychosocial Stages can prove
useful on later stages, but may require a more deeper
approach to explain fixation and behaviors expressed by the
unconscious, but by combining both theories can help
counselors tackle both issues.
While the theory gives implications on the client‘s childhood
and adolescent stages that can affect later development,
counselors can also help the client realize that later
development have their own crises as well. Two birds with
one stone.
Part II

The Therapeutic
Process
Overview
Psychoanalytic therapy typically uses methods to bring
unconscious material out in the open. It‘s main focus is
leaned toward the development of the individual in the
earlier years, where experiences are discussed,
reconstructed, interpreted, and analyzed. With the help of
transference relationship with the therapist, both client
and therapist explores the past of the client, which will
then, lead to character change. The primary tools of the
trade of the Psychoanalytic Therapy is the analytic
framework, free association, interpretation, dream
analysis, analysis of resistance, and analysis of
transference.
Therapeutic Goals
There are two basic goals when applying
Psychoanalytic Therapy. These are:
1) To make unconscious motives conscious, and;
2) To strengthen the Ego to be more aligned with
reality and lessen dependence on the instinctual
cravings of the Id or the irrational guilt provided by
the Superego.
The Therapist‘s Function and
Role

 Therapists usually assume an anonymous kind of role, also
known as the ―Blank-Screen Approach‖, where they limit
self-disclosure that will then promote a ‗transference
relationship‘ with the client, where the client will pour
projections, where, according to Luborsky, et.al (2008)
―refers to the transfer of feelings originally experienced in
an early relationship to other important people in a person‘s
present environment‖.
 In terms of functions, one of the central functions of the
therapist is to assist the client acquire the freedom to love,
work, and play, achieving self-awareness, honesty, dealing
with anxiety realistically. In order to do this, the therapist
must first create a working relationship and do the task of
The Therapist‘s Function and
Role

Particular attention is given to the client‘s resistances. The
analyst listens, learns, and decides when to make appropriate
interpretations of the gathered unconscious material from the
client through listening, and inferred reports from Free
Association and other techniques.
With the gathered unconscious material, it is then, the
therapist‘s role to properly organize the material to properly
formulate the nature of the client‘s problem, and then have it
interpreted to them, so as to give proper insight, increase
their awareness to change, and thus leading them to having
better control‘s over their lives.
Summary
The process of psychoanalytic therapy is somewhat
like putting the pieces of a puzzle together. Whether
clients change depends considerably more on their
readiness to change than on the accuracy of the
therapist‘s interpretations. If the therapist pushes the
client too rapidly or offers ill-timed interpretations,
therapy will not be effective. Change occurs through
the process of reworking old patterns so that clients
might become freer to act in new ways. (Luborsky et
al., 2008).
The Client‘s Experience
In the classical approach to Psychoanalysis, Clients must
commit themselves to long and intensive psychotherapy.
Face-to-Face sessions with the therapist will be the starting
point in initiating a relationship with the client, and from
there, clients will be then be instructed to lie down on a
couch and actively engage Free Association, that is, to say
your inward thoughts without censorship.
Clients must also be in a commitment with the therapist and
that they must stick with the procedures of the therapy.
Clients are not recommended to make any ‗radical‘ changes
in lifestyle while undergoing therapy.
Summary
A successful analysis answers a client‘s ―why‖
questions regarding his or her life. Clients who
emerge successfully from analytic therapy report that
they have achieved such things as an understanding
of their symptoms and the functions they serve, an
insight into how their environment affects them and
how they affect the environment, and reduced
defensiveness (Saretsky, 1978).
The Relationship between the
Client and Therapist
There can be two kinds of therapists that can be seen in a
typical psychoanalytic therapy session: The Classic Analyst,
and the Current Relational Analyst
The Classic Analyst mostly stands outside the relationship,
sometimes gives comments, and provides interpretation to
the client. The Current Relational Analyst is not ‗detached‘
from clients, rather, they are more focused on the here-andnow interaction with the client, and they find it more useful in
creating rapport and gathering background information from
the client.
The Relationship between the
Client and Therapist
Therapists and clients mostly hold a transference
relationship. Transference, again, is the resurfacing of old
experiences that were reactions from significant people from
repressed memory and having them shifted to the therapist.
Clients and therapists go through a working-through
process, where they both tackle unconscious material and
defenses.
Therapists must be well aware of Countertransference where
in the therapist‘s own unconscious conflict comes out and
projects them into the client. Not call countertransference
feelings are bad, but other cases may seem beneficial to both
client and therapist.
Summary
The client–therapist relationship is of vital importance
in psychoanalytic therapy. As a result of this
relationship, particularly in working through the
transference situation, clients acquire insights into
the workings of their unconscious process.
Awareness of and insights into repressed material are
the bases of the analytic growth process. Clients
come to understand the association between their
past experiences and their current behavior. The
psychoanalytic approach assumes that without this
dynamic self-understanding there can be no
The Therapeutic Process
Application: Therapeutic
Techniques and
Procedures
Overview
The techniques of psychoanalytic therapy are
aimed at increasing awareness, providing
insight to the client‘s behavior, and
understanding the meanings of symptoms. The
therapy proceeds from the client‘s talk to
catharsis (or expression of emotion) to insight
to working through unconscious material. This
work is done to attain the goals of intellectual
and emotional understanding and reeducation,
which then leads to personality change.
Psychoanalysis Psychodynamics
As opposed from the classic Psychoanalysis, psychoanalytically
oriented therapists mostly adapt with the Psychodynamic therapy which
includes these features:
• The therapy is geared more to limited objectives than to restructuring
one‘s personality.

• The therapist is less likely to use the couch.
• There are fewer sessions each week.
• There is more frequent use of supportive interventions—such as
reassurance, expressions of empathy and support, and suggestions—
and more self-disclosure by the therapist.
• The focus is more on pressing practical concerns than on working
with fantasy material.
Maintaining the Analytic
Framework

Like a systematic process on how students follow
their class schedules, Analysts must keep in mind in
maintaining the framework as it will provide proper
guidance and a planned course for achieving the
goals of the therapy. The framework includes a wide
variety of procedures and styles on clients, ranging
from the amount of disclosure and anonymity of the
therapist to the consistency of meetings, etc.
Free Association
A central technique used in psychoanalysis. This is
where the client, without censorship, will be
encouraged to say whatever is on their mind. The
therapist will sit by and listen well on what the client
says, listening for significant resistances which may
mean that there are anxiety-arousing material or
surfaced unconscious material which will lead to
discovering the ‗root‘ problem.
Interpretation
A technique where therapists use to explain, point
out, and even teach the meaning of gathered
unconscious material, free association themes,
manifests of dreams, and even the relationship of the
client and therapists. Interpretation is the main line of
communication for the clients to understand their
unconscious and help their ego assimilate the
material to help them further progress into
uncovering more unconscious material.
Dream Analysis
Freud describes dreams as ―The Royal Road To
Unconsciousness‖. While asleep, the person‘s
defenses are lowered, and repressed feelings and
emotions arise in dreams. Material in dreams may
show a person‘s unconscious needs, wishes and
fears. Clients are asked to ‗describe‘ the Manifest
Content of their dreams, and then through Free
Association, the therapist then helps and finds the
client‘s associations with the manifest content to
uncover the latent content.
Analysis and Interpretation of
Resistance
This technique identifies the client‘s restriction,
refusal, and reluctance to bring surface of awareness
any unconscious material that is repressed.
Resistance of any kind coming from Free Association
gets into the way of the progress, and through
interpretation, the therapist should make it clear to the
client that he/she is to unbar any restrictions, as
he/she has to confront the problem in reality than
keeping it repressed.
Analysis and Interpretation of
Transference
Being one of the major cornerstones in
Psychoanalytic therapy, it is important that the
therapist analyze and properly interpret the
transference relationship they hold. This holds one of
the crucial solutions for the client to understand what
exactly made them fixated and deep-rooted on such
anxiety. Transference, again, is where the client will reexperience the emotions felt back at the repressed
experience, and will put the therapist as the person
who would be there experiencing and reacting to the
client‘s re-enactment.
The Therapeutic Process
Last Leg: The Modern
Psychoanalytic Therapy, Limits
and Critiques on the Therapy
The Modern Psychoanalytic
Therapy people with
With the world changing in an ever-rapid pace,
psychological problems also trend in areas such as separation and
individuation, intimacy, dependence versus independence, and identity
have cause many present-day therapists to make alterations to the
psychoanalytic approach and are more on the development of the ego,
are paying attention to the social and cultural factors that influence the
differentiation of an individual from others, and are giving new meaning
to the relational dimensions of therapy.
Marmor (1997), a therapist, demonstrates an openness toward
integrating various methods: ―I try to avoid putting every patient on a
Procrustean bed of a singular therapeutic method but rather adapt my
approach to the patient‘s own unique needs‖
The Modern Psychoanalytic
Therapy

Although contemporary psychodynamic forms
diverge considerably in many respects from the
original Freudian emphasis on drives, the basic
Freudian concepts of unconscious motivation, the
influence of early development, transference,
countertransference, and resistance are still central to
the newer modifications. These concepts are of major
importance in therapy and can be incorporated into
therapeutic practices based on various theoretical
approaches.
The Limitations and Critique of
the Psychoanalytic Therapy
In general, considering factors such as time, expense, and
availability of trained psychoanalytic therapists, the practical
applications of many psychoanalytic techniques are limited
Commitments to such therapy takes a long time to
accomplish an analytic goal.
The anonymous role of the Therapist while applying therapy.
Clashes and issues with feminist psychology
Psychoanalysis and it‘s therapy is now recently criticized
over it‘s irrelevance to contemporary culture.
Thanks for
listening!

More Related Content

What's hot

Person centered therapy
Person centered therapyPerson centered therapy
Person centered therapyanilkumarani
 
Adlerian psychotherapy
Adlerian psychotherapyAdlerian psychotherapy
Adlerian psychotherapyanjunair8211
 
Psychodynamic Model
Psychodynamic ModelPsychodynamic Model
Psychodynamic ModelAamna Haneef
 
History Of Cognitive Psychology
History Of Cognitive PsychologyHistory Of Cognitive Psychology
History Of Cognitive PsychologyAli Hasan
 
Psychodynamic Model/Approach. By Theresa Lowry-Lehnen. Lecturer of Psychology
Psychodynamic Model/Approach. By Theresa Lowry-Lehnen. Lecturer of PsychologyPsychodynamic Model/Approach. By Theresa Lowry-Lehnen. Lecturer of Psychology
Psychodynamic Model/Approach. By Theresa Lowry-Lehnen. Lecturer of PsychologyTheresa Lowry-Lehnen
 
Jung theory of personality in Psychology
Jung theory of personality in PsychologyJung theory of personality in Psychology
Jung theory of personality in PsychologyAli Amad Zulfiqar
 
Karen horney personality theory
Karen horney personality theoryKaren horney personality theory
Karen horney personality theorySajjad Khan
 
Chapter1 Introduction To Cognitive Psychology
Chapter1 Introduction To Cognitive PsychologyChapter1 Introduction To Cognitive Psychology
Chapter1 Introduction To Cognitive Psychologyorengomoises
 
Psychodynamic Approach
Psychodynamic ApproachPsychodynamic Approach
Psychodynamic ApproachCat Pestana
 
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud
Sigmund Freudsai nath
 
Freud & Psycoanalysis Therapy
Freud & Psycoanalysis Therapy Freud & Psycoanalysis Therapy
Freud & Psycoanalysis Therapy Leila Zaim
 
Psychoanalysis & Sigmund Freud by Malik Shahrukh
Psychoanalysis & Sigmund Freud by Malik ShahrukhPsychoanalysis & Sigmund Freud by Malik Shahrukh
Psychoanalysis & Sigmund Freud by Malik ShahrukhShahrukh Malik
 

What's hot (20)

Psychodynamic therapies
Psychodynamic therapiesPsychodynamic therapies
Psychodynamic therapies
 
Person centered therapy
Person centered therapyPerson centered therapy
Person centered therapy
 
Adlerian psychotherapy
Adlerian psychotherapyAdlerian psychotherapy
Adlerian psychotherapy
 
Psychodynamic Model
Psychodynamic ModelPsychodynamic Model
Psychodynamic Model
 
Attention
AttentionAttention
Attention
 
History Of Cognitive Psychology
History Of Cognitive PsychologyHistory Of Cognitive Psychology
History Of Cognitive Psychology
 
CARL JUNG
CARL JUNGCARL JUNG
CARL JUNG
 
Psychodynamic Model/Approach. By Theresa Lowry-Lehnen. Lecturer of Psychology
Psychodynamic Model/Approach. By Theresa Lowry-Lehnen. Lecturer of PsychologyPsychodynamic Model/Approach. By Theresa Lowry-Lehnen. Lecturer of Psychology
Psychodynamic Model/Approach. By Theresa Lowry-Lehnen. Lecturer of Psychology
 
Jung theory of personality in Psychology
Jung theory of personality in PsychologyJung theory of personality in Psychology
Jung theory of personality in Psychology
 
Psychodynamic approach
Psychodynamic approachPsychodynamic approach
Psychodynamic approach
 
Rollo may
Rollo mayRollo may
Rollo may
 
Psychodynamic
PsychodynamicPsychodynamic
Psychodynamic
 
Karen horney personality theory
Karen horney personality theoryKaren horney personality theory
Karen horney personality theory
 
Chapter1 Introduction To Cognitive Psychology
Chapter1 Introduction To Cognitive PsychologyChapter1 Introduction To Cognitive Psychology
Chapter1 Introduction To Cognitive Psychology
 
Psychodynamic Approach
Psychodynamic ApproachPsychodynamic Approach
Psychodynamic Approach
 
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
 
Freud & Psycoanalysis Therapy
Freud & Psycoanalysis Therapy Freud & Psycoanalysis Therapy
Freud & Psycoanalysis Therapy
 
Jung's analytical psychology
Jung's analytical psychologyJung's analytical psychology
Jung's analytical psychology
 
Psychoanalysis & Sigmund Freud by Malik Shahrukh
Psychoanalysis & Sigmund Freud by Malik ShahrukhPsychoanalysis & Sigmund Freud by Malik Shahrukh
Psychoanalysis & Sigmund Freud by Malik Shahrukh
 
Fromm's humanistic psychoanalysis
Fromm's humanistic psychoanalysisFromm's humanistic psychoanalysis
Fromm's humanistic psychoanalysis
 

Viewers also liked

Viewers also liked (20)

Ppt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud
Ppt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund FreudPpt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud
Ppt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud
 
Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychoanalytic TheoryPsychoanalytic Theory
Psychoanalytic Theory
 
psychoanalytic theory
psychoanalytic theorypsychoanalytic theory
psychoanalytic theory
 
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
 
Interpersonal psychotherapy
Interpersonal psychotherapyInterpersonal psychotherapy
Interpersonal psychotherapy
 
Freud's psychosexual development
Freud's psychosexual developmentFreud's psychosexual development
Freud's psychosexual development
 
Freud's Psychosexual Theory of Development
Freud's Psychosexual Theory of DevelopmentFreud's Psychosexual Theory of Development
Freud's Psychosexual Theory of Development
 
Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychoanalytic TheoryPsychoanalytic Theory
Psychoanalytic Theory
 
Psychoanalytic therapy
Psychoanalytic therapyPsychoanalytic therapy
Psychoanalytic therapy
 
Psychoanalysis
PsychoanalysisPsychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis
 
Sigmund freud sociology (psychoanalysis theory)
Sigmund freud   sociology (psychoanalysis theory)Sigmund freud   sociology (psychoanalysis theory)
Sigmund freud sociology (psychoanalysis theory)
 
Sigmund freud- psychoanalysis and psychosexual theory
Sigmund freud- psychoanalysis and psychosexual theorySigmund freud- psychoanalysis and psychosexual theory
Sigmund freud- psychoanalysis and psychosexual theory
 
Sullivan theory
Sullivan theorySullivan theory
Sullivan theory
 
Type theory
Type theoryType theory
Type theory
 
Attitude- Organisational Behaviour
Attitude- Organisational BehaviourAttitude- Organisational Behaviour
Attitude- Organisational Behaviour
 
Unit 4
Unit 4Unit 4
Unit 4
 
Q3L01 - Attitude: definition and components
Q3L01 - Attitude: definition and componentsQ3L01 - Attitude: definition and components
Q3L01 - Attitude: definition and components
 
Attitude
AttitudeAttitude
Attitude
 
Attitudes
AttitudesAttitudes
Attitudes
 
Attitudes
AttitudesAttitudes
Attitudes
 

Similar to Sigmund Freud and The Psychoanalytic Therapy 101

Structural theory of mind and ego defense mechanism
Structural theory of mind and ego defense mechanismStructural theory of mind and ego defense mechanism
Structural theory of mind and ego defense mechanismUdayan Majumder
 
Ch-3 Psychodynamic perspective.pptx
Ch-3 Psychodynamic perspective.pptxCh-3 Psychodynamic perspective.pptx
Ch-3 Psychodynamic perspective.pptxanayanoor28
 
Personality freud - built environment
Personality freud - built environment Personality freud - built environment
Personality freud - built environment guestuser7
 
Theories of Personality
Theories of PersonalityTheories of Personality
Theories of Personalitymkennedy68
 
Psychoanalytical theories
Psychoanalytical theories Psychoanalytical theories
Psychoanalytical theories Manu Melwin Joy
 
Theories of personality
Theories of personalityTheories of personality
Theories of personalityjenne531
 
The Discipline of Psychology
The Discipline of PsychologyThe Discipline of Psychology
The Discipline of PsychologyJadeGamb
 
psychoanalytic theory
psychoanalytic theorypsychoanalytic theory
psychoanalytic theorycivillatoro
 
PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptx
PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptxPSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptx
PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptxROSYCHAWLA2
 
Chapter 13 Personality
Chapter 13 PersonalityChapter 13 Personality
Chapter 13 Personalitykbolinsky
 
Theories of Personality.pptx
Theories of Personality.pptxTheories of Personality.pptx
Theories of Personality.pptxShanuSoni7
 
Freud's psychosexual theory
Freud's psychosexual theoryFreud's psychosexual theory
Freud's psychosexual theoryNisha Yadav
 

Similar to Sigmund Freud and The Psychoanalytic Therapy 101 (20)

psychoanalytic therapy.pdf
psychoanalytic therapy.pdfpsychoanalytic therapy.pdf
psychoanalytic therapy.pdf
 
Personality
PersonalityPersonality
Personality
 
Structural theory of mind and ego defense mechanism
Structural theory of mind and ego defense mechanismStructural theory of mind and ego defense mechanism
Structural theory of mind and ego defense mechanism
 
Psychoanalytic Theory Research Paper
Psychoanalytic Theory Research PaperPsychoanalytic Theory Research Paper
Psychoanalytic Theory Research Paper
 
Chapter15
Chapter15Chapter15
Chapter15
 
Ch-3 Psychodynamic perspective.pptx
Ch-3 Psychodynamic perspective.pptxCh-3 Psychodynamic perspective.pptx
Ch-3 Psychodynamic perspective.pptx
 
Personality
PersonalityPersonality
Personality
 
Personality freud - built environment
Personality freud - built environment Personality freud - built environment
Personality freud - built environment
 
Personality
PersonalityPersonality
Personality
 
Theories of Personality
Theories of PersonalityTheories of Personality
Theories of Personality
 
Psychoanalytical theories
Psychoanalytical theories Psychoanalytical theories
Psychoanalytical theories
 
Theories of personality
Theories of personalityTheories of personality
Theories of personality
 
The Discipline of Psychology
The Discipline of PsychologyThe Discipline of Psychology
The Discipline of Psychology
 
psychoanalytic theory
psychoanalytic theorypsychoanalytic theory
psychoanalytic theory
 
PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptx
PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptxPSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptx
PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY.pptx
 
Chapter 13 Personality
Chapter 13 PersonalityChapter 13 Personality
Chapter 13 Personality
 
Modern psychology
Modern psychologyModern psychology
Modern psychology
 
Theories of Personality.pptx
Theories of Personality.pptxTheories of Personality.pptx
Theories of Personality.pptx
 
Freud's psychosexual theory
Freud's psychosexual theoryFreud's psychosexual theory
Freud's psychosexual theory
 
Chapter 15 ap psych- Personality
Chapter 15 ap psych- PersonalityChapter 15 ap psych- Personality
Chapter 15 ap psych- Personality
 

Recently uploaded

Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media ComponentPaul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media ComponentInMediaRes1
 
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest EntranceFarrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrancejulius27264
 
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase complex and its significance
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase complex and its significancePyruvate Dehydrogenase complex and its significance
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase complex and its significanceTRIDIP BORUAH
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxryandux83rd
 
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17Celine George
 
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdfMJDuyan
 
(Part 2) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 2) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 2) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 2) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdfMJDuyan
 
4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptx
4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptx4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptx
4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptxmary850239
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxAnupam32727
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressMaria Paula Aroca
 
Oxidative phosphorylation and energy calculation of aerobic respiration
Oxidative phosphorylation and energy calculation of aerobic respirationOxidative phosphorylation and energy calculation of aerobic respiration
Oxidative phosphorylation and energy calculation of aerobic respirationTRIDIP BORUAH
 
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17Celine George
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxMadhavi Dharankar
 
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptxTransdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptxinfo924062
 
SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION IN GLYCOLYSIS
SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION IN GLYCOLYSISSUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION IN GLYCOLYSIS
SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION IN GLYCOLYSISTRIDIP BORUAH
 
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media Component
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media ComponentJordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media Component
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media ComponentInMediaRes1
 
Patterns of Evolution Slides for Canvas Notes.pptx
Patterns of Evolution Slides for Canvas Notes.pptxPatterns of Evolution Slides for Canvas Notes.pptx
Patterns of Evolution Slides for Canvas Notes.pptxAlexandraSwartzwelde
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEMISSRITIMABIOLOGYEXP
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptxUmeshTimilsina1
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfChristalin Nelson
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media ComponentPaul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
 
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest EntranceFarrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
 
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase complex and its significance
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase complex and its significancePyruvate Dehydrogenase complex and its significance
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase complex and its significance
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
 
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
 
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
 
(Part 2) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 2) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf(Part 2) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
(Part 2) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf
 
4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptx
4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptx4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptx
4.2.24 Socioeconomic Class and Inequality.pptx
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
 
Oxidative phosphorylation and energy calculation of aerobic respiration
Oxidative phosphorylation and energy calculation of aerobic respirationOxidative phosphorylation and energy calculation of aerobic respiration
Oxidative phosphorylation and energy calculation of aerobic respiration
 
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
 
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptxTransdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
 
SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION IN GLYCOLYSIS
SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION IN GLYCOLYSISSUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION IN GLYCOLYSIS
SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION IN GLYCOLYSIS
 
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media Component
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media ComponentJordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media Component
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media Component
 
Patterns of Evolution Slides for Canvas Notes.pptx
Patterns of Evolution Slides for Canvas Notes.pptxPatterns of Evolution Slides for Canvas Notes.pptx
Patterns of Evolution Slides for Canvas Notes.pptx
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
 

Sigmund Freud and The Psychoanalytic Therapy 101

  • 2. Part I Introduction and Key Concepts
  • 3. Introduction Among other theories on Human Behavior developed by well known pillars in the field of Psychology, Sigmund Freud‘s Psychoanalytic Theory, stands up even until today, as one of the most controversial, as it included terms and concept on sex, the unconscious and the interpretation of dreams. The theory nonetheless, had provided a wide breeding ground for developing other kinds of theories that aim to understand human behavior. Such as Carl Jung‘s own mix of Analytical Psychology, and Erik Erikson‘s Psychosocial Stages of Development, a more ‗toned down‘ and a greater supplement to Freud‘s Psychosexual Stages of Development
  • 4. Introduction In terms of contemporary psychotherapy, the practice of Psychoanalysis had radically changed and properly organized into a more ‗less sensitive‘ method to treat psychological disorders. By making use of different techniques to conquer the incongruence of the personality from the unconscious. Psychoanalysis proves to be one of the more useful techniques when it comes to handling internal psychological conflicts that can alter the person‘s perception of reality.
  • 5. Sigmund Freud The proprietor and the original initiator of the Psychoanalytic approach on Human Behavior. Eldest among 8 children, Freud was well known for his utter devotion to devoting and expanding the borders of his theory. With the stresses, psychosomatic occurrences, and paranoia about dying that he experienced in his early 40‘s led him to discover new ways to understanding how and why people behave the way they do. He had eventually overcome his stresses and then began devoting the remaining years of his life developing the Psychoanalytic approach to discover the unconscious that affects a
  • 6. Sigmund Freud Freud was known to be very creative and productive on his work. He was very dedicated to his theory, and had very little tolerance to persons who had thought otherwise or critiqued his school of thought. Because of this, had had dismissed two of his closest colleagues, Carl Jung and Alfred Adler, who had disagreed on Freud‘s views, and created their own theories stemming from Freud‘s Work. Sigmund Freud died in September 1939 due to an inoperable cancer of the jaw.
  • 7. Key Concepts It’s General Psychology all over again.
  • 8. The View of Human Nature In most cases on his work on Psychoanalysis, Freud has drawn a clear line on two things concerning Human Nature.
  • 9. Human nature is ―Purely Deterministic‖ Simply put, Human Nature ―Happens because it happens‖, there is no point in time in where we ―call the shots‖ (or having control over our behavior) because according to Freud, our behavior is determined by Irrational forces, unconscious motivations and biological & instinctual drives that are stemmed from repressed childhood memories or experiences that hold a certain degree of impact to our lives.
  • 10. ―Instincts‖ are essential to the Psychoanalytic Approach Instincts are actively displayed in times of survival. Leaning towards growth, development and creativity. Freud originally termed this as ―Libido‖, comprising of sexual energy, but then broadened the term to ―Life Instincts‖, where all ‗pleasurable‘ acts serves as a person‘s goal in life to simply gain pleasure and avoid pain.
  • 11. ―Instincts‖ cont. Freud also came up with another type of instinct called the ―Death Instinct‖, mostly responsible for the aggressive drive where at times some persons manifest through their behavior, an unconscious wish to die, or to hurt themselves or to hurt others. All in all, both Life and Death instincts are powerful determinants to why people act the way they do.
  • 12. The Structure of Personality Well known and commonly taught in the annals of the theory of Psychoanalysis. The theory illustrates the personality consists of three specific and distinct systems: the Id, the Ego, and the Superego. Bear in mind that the three systems don‘t function as three separate entities, but as one whole inter-dependent
  • 13. The Id The Id is considered as the primary and original system of personality, the source of psychic energy, and the seat of instincts. It lacks organization, is blind, and very insistent. It cannot tolerate tension, and once it does feel tension, it functions to immediately discharge it. Having ruled by the Pleasure Principle, it always aims to avoid pain and gain pleasure.
  • 14. The Ego Known as the ―Traffic Cop‖, it has it‘s touch with reality, controls consciousness and exercises censorship. It formulates rational and logical decisions and plans for satisfying needs. Another duty of the Ego is to keep in check, and balance the demands of the pleasure-seeking and unorganized Id, and of the perfectionistcentered and radical moral objectives of the
  • 15. The Superego The Judicial Branch of the three. Comprised of an individual‘s moral conduct and the concept of right and what‘s wrong given from earlier life experiences and the cultural mores given from the environment. The Superego holds the Moralistic Principle. It strives to inhibit the Id and seeking to be ―Perfect‖ by persuading the ego to replace it‘s realistic goals for the more ―perfectionist‖ ones.
  • 16. Consciousness & The Unconscious The unconscious can be compared to an Iceberg. The conscious can be on the tip of it, but underneath sea level is a massive body of the unconscious, where, according to Freud, is where psychological functioning exists. Experience, memories, repressed material, as well as needs or motivations that are out of awareness and control. Considered as one of the primary concepts to understand Human behavior. It cannot be normally studied under ordinary means, but it can mostly be inferred from a person‘s behavior. From Freud‘s work and clinical evidences, there are six concepts that are believed to be part of the unconscious
  • 17. 6 Things: 1. Dreams – Symbolic representations of Unconscious needs, wishes, and conflicts. 2. Slips of the tongue and forgetting 3. Post hypnotic suggestions 4. Material derived from free-association 5. Material derived from projective techniques 6. Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms
  • 18. What does the Unconscious relate to Psychoanalytic Therapy? Internal psychological conflicts are not easily tackled as it is repressed deep within the bowels of the unconscious. Because of this, one of the main goals of the Psychoanalytic Therapy is to make the unconscious motives conscious, as this will be the only time where the individual can understand the role of the unconscious, as well as exercise choice. The unconscious is at the root of all forms of neurotic symptoms and behavior. The ―cure‖ is based on how one uncovers the meaning of symptoms, causes of behavior and repressed materials that interfere with healthy functioning
  • 19. Anxiety Also known as the feeling of ―Dread‖ that results from repressed feelings, memories, desires, and experience that emerge to the surface of awareness. Anxiety usually develops out of a conflict among the Id, Ego, and Superego over control of the available psychic energy.
  • 20. There are 3 kinds of Anxiety 1. Reality Anxiety. Simply put- it is the fear of danger from the external world 2. Neurotic Anxiety. The fear that the impulses may cause someone to do something where the person will be punished. 3. Moral Anxiety. The fear of one‘s own conscience. If a person does something contrary to their moral code, they usually feel bad and guilt-ridden of what they have done
  • 21. Ego Defense Mechanisms For the individual to cope with anxiety and prevent the ego from being overwhelmed, self-defense mechanisms are used. These mechanisms that are employed depends on how well the individual is develop, and the level of anxiety. Defenses have 2 things in common: (1) They either deny or distort reality and (2) They operate on the preconscious/unconscious level.
  • 22. Defense Mechanisms 1. Repression – A process of removing something from awareness and consciousness. Burying it deep within unconsciousness. 2. Denial – ―Closing one‘s eyes‖ to the existence of a threatening stimuli. It is where the individual ―distorts‖ what the individual thinks, feels, or perceives in a traumatic situation. 3. Reaction Formation – Actively expressing the opposite impulse when confronted with a threatening impulse. 4. Projection - Attributing to others one‘s own
  • 23. Defense Mechanisms 5. Displacement - Directing energy toward another object or person when the original object or person is inaccessible. 6. Rationalization - Manufacturing ―good‖ reasons to explain away a bruised ego. 7. Sublimation - Diverting sexual or aggressive energy into other channels. 8. Regression - Going back to an earlier phase of development when there were fewer demands.
  • 24. Defense Mechanisms 9. Introjection - Taking in and ―swallowing‖ the values and standards of others. 10. Identification - Identifying with successful causes, organizations, or people in the hope that you will be perceived as worthwhile. 11. Compensation - Masking perceived weaknesses or developing certain positive traits to make up for limitations.
  • 25. The Development of Personality: The Importance of Early Development A significant contribution of the psychoanalytic model is delineation of the stages of psychosexual and psychosocial stages of development from birth through adulthood. This stage perspective provides the counselor with the conceptual tools for understanding key developmental tasks characteristic of the various stages of life.
  • 26. The Psychosexual Stages of Development Freud had come up with three stages of development which deals with three areas of personal and social development—love and trust, dealing with negative feelings, and developing a positive acceptance of sexuality, and believed that all three are grounded within the first six years of life. When a child‘s needs are not adequately met during these stages of development, an individual may become fixated at that stage and behave in psychologically immature ways later on in life.
  • 27. The Psychosexual Stages of Development The Oral Stage which deals with the inability to trust oneself and others, resulting in the fear of loving and forming close relationships and low self-esteem The Anal Stage which deals with the inability to recognize and express anger The Phallic Stage which deals with the inability to fully accept one‘s sexuality and sexual feelings, and also to difficulty in accepting oneself as a man or woman.
  • 28. The Psychosocial Stages of Development Erik Erikson‘s theory of development holds that psychosexual growth and psychosocial growth take place together, each stage of life we face the task of establishing equilibrium between ourselves and our social world. He describes development in terms of the entire life span, divided by specific crises to be resolved. According to Erikson, a crisis is equivalent to a turning point in life when we have the potential to move forward or to regress. At these turning points, we can either resolve our conflicts or fail to master the developmental task.
  • 29. Counseling Implications When applied in psychotherapy, Freud‘s Psychosexual Stages of development alone may cause difficulty to the client to actually recall repressed memories, more so on the person‘s childhood, Erikson‘s Psychosocial Stages can prove useful on later stages, but may require a more deeper approach to explain fixation and behaviors expressed by the unconscious, but by combining both theories can help counselors tackle both issues. While the theory gives implications on the client‘s childhood and adolescent stages that can affect later development, counselors can also help the client realize that later development have their own crises as well. Two birds with one stone.
  • 31. Overview Psychoanalytic therapy typically uses methods to bring unconscious material out in the open. It‘s main focus is leaned toward the development of the individual in the earlier years, where experiences are discussed, reconstructed, interpreted, and analyzed. With the help of transference relationship with the therapist, both client and therapist explores the past of the client, which will then, lead to character change. The primary tools of the trade of the Psychoanalytic Therapy is the analytic framework, free association, interpretation, dream analysis, analysis of resistance, and analysis of transference.
  • 32. Therapeutic Goals There are two basic goals when applying Psychoanalytic Therapy. These are: 1) To make unconscious motives conscious, and; 2) To strengthen the Ego to be more aligned with reality and lessen dependence on the instinctual cravings of the Id or the irrational guilt provided by the Superego.
  • 33. The Therapist‘s Function and Role  Therapists usually assume an anonymous kind of role, also known as the ―Blank-Screen Approach‖, where they limit self-disclosure that will then promote a ‗transference relationship‘ with the client, where the client will pour projections, where, according to Luborsky, et.al (2008) ―refers to the transfer of feelings originally experienced in an early relationship to other important people in a person‘s present environment‖.  In terms of functions, one of the central functions of the therapist is to assist the client acquire the freedom to love, work, and play, achieving self-awareness, honesty, dealing with anxiety realistically. In order to do this, the therapist must first create a working relationship and do the task of
  • 34. The Therapist‘s Function and Role Particular attention is given to the client‘s resistances. The analyst listens, learns, and decides when to make appropriate interpretations of the gathered unconscious material from the client through listening, and inferred reports from Free Association and other techniques. With the gathered unconscious material, it is then, the therapist‘s role to properly organize the material to properly formulate the nature of the client‘s problem, and then have it interpreted to them, so as to give proper insight, increase their awareness to change, and thus leading them to having better control‘s over their lives.
  • 35. Summary The process of psychoanalytic therapy is somewhat like putting the pieces of a puzzle together. Whether clients change depends considerably more on their readiness to change than on the accuracy of the therapist‘s interpretations. If the therapist pushes the client too rapidly or offers ill-timed interpretations, therapy will not be effective. Change occurs through the process of reworking old patterns so that clients might become freer to act in new ways. (Luborsky et al., 2008).
  • 36. The Client‘s Experience In the classical approach to Psychoanalysis, Clients must commit themselves to long and intensive psychotherapy. Face-to-Face sessions with the therapist will be the starting point in initiating a relationship with the client, and from there, clients will be then be instructed to lie down on a couch and actively engage Free Association, that is, to say your inward thoughts without censorship. Clients must also be in a commitment with the therapist and that they must stick with the procedures of the therapy. Clients are not recommended to make any ‗radical‘ changes in lifestyle while undergoing therapy.
  • 37. Summary A successful analysis answers a client‘s ―why‖ questions regarding his or her life. Clients who emerge successfully from analytic therapy report that they have achieved such things as an understanding of their symptoms and the functions they serve, an insight into how their environment affects them and how they affect the environment, and reduced defensiveness (Saretsky, 1978).
  • 38. The Relationship between the Client and Therapist There can be two kinds of therapists that can be seen in a typical psychoanalytic therapy session: The Classic Analyst, and the Current Relational Analyst The Classic Analyst mostly stands outside the relationship, sometimes gives comments, and provides interpretation to the client. The Current Relational Analyst is not ‗detached‘ from clients, rather, they are more focused on the here-andnow interaction with the client, and they find it more useful in creating rapport and gathering background information from the client.
  • 39. The Relationship between the Client and Therapist Therapists and clients mostly hold a transference relationship. Transference, again, is the resurfacing of old experiences that were reactions from significant people from repressed memory and having them shifted to the therapist. Clients and therapists go through a working-through process, where they both tackle unconscious material and defenses. Therapists must be well aware of Countertransference where in the therapist‘s own unconscious conflict comes out and projects them into the client. Not call countertransference feelings are bad, but other cases may seem beneficial to both client and therapist.
  • 40. Summary The client–therapist relationship is of vital importance in psychoanalytic therapy. As a result of this relationship, particularly in working through the transference situation, clients acquire insights into the workings of their unconscious process. Awareness of and insights into repressed material are the bases of the analytic growth process. Clients come to understand the association between their past experiences and their current behavior. The psychoanalytic approach assumes that without this dynamic self-understanding there can be no
  • 41. The Therapeutic Process Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures
  • 42. Overview The techniques of psychoanalytic therapy are aimed at increasing awareness, providing insight to the client‘s behavior, and understanding the meanings of symptoms. The therapy proceeds from the client‘s talk to catharsis (or expression of emotion) to insight to working through unconscious material. This work is done to attain the goals of intellectual and emotional understanding and reeducation, which then leads to personality change.
  • 43. Psychoanalysis Psychodynamics As opposed from the classic Psychoanalysis, psychoanalytically oriented therapists mostly adapt with the Psychodynamic therapy which includes these features: • The therapy is geared more to limited objectives than to restructuring one‘s personality. • The therapist is less likely to use the couch. • There are fewer sessions each week. • There is more frequent use of supportive interventions—such as reassurance, expressions of empathy and support, and suggestions— and more self-disclosure by the therapist. • The focus is more on pressing practical concerns than on working with fantasy material.
  • 44. Maintaining the Analytic Framework Like a systematic process on how students follow their class schedules, Analysts must keep in mind in maintaining the framework as it will provide proper guidance and a planned course for achieving the goals of the therapy. The framework includes a wide variety of procedures and styles on clients, ranging from the amount of disclosure and anonymity of the therapist to the consistency of meetings, etc.
  • 45. Free Association A central technique used in psychoanalysis. This is where the client, without censorship, will be encouraged to say whatever is on their mind. The therapist will sit by and listen well on what the client says, listening for significant resistances which may mean that there are anxiety-arousing material or surfaced unconscious material which will lead to discovering the ‗root‘ problem.
  • 46. Interpretation A technique where therapists use to explain, point out, and even teach the meaning of gathered unconscious material, free association themes, manifests of dreams, and even the relationship of the client and therapists. Interpretation is the main line of communication for the clients to understand their unconscious and help their ego assimilate the material to help them further progress into uncovering more unconscious material.
  • 47. Dream Analysis Freud describes dreams as ―The Royal Road To Unconsciousness‖. While asleep, the person‘s defenses are lowered, and repressed feelings and emotions arise in dreams. Material in dreams may show a person‘s unconscious needs, wishes and fears. Clients are asked to ‗describe‘ the Manifest Content of their dreams, and then through Free Association, the therapist then helps and finds the client‘s associations with the manifest content to uncover the latent content.
  • 48. Analysis and Interpretation of Resistance This technique identifies the client‘s restriction, refusal, and reluctance to bring surface of awareness any unconscious material that is repressed. Resistance of any kind coming from Free Association gets into the way of the progress, and through interpretation, the therapist should make it clear to the client that he/she is to unbar any restrictions, as he/she has to confront the problem in reality than keeping it repressed.
  • 49. Analysis and Interpretation of Transference Being one of the major cornerstones in Psychoanalytic therapy, it is important that the therapist analyze and properly interpret the transference relationship they hold. This holds one of the crucial solutions for the client to understand what exactly made them fixated and deep-rooted on such anxiety. Transference, again, is where the client will reexperience the emotions felt back at the repressed experience, and will put the therapist as the person who would be there experiencing and reacting to the client‘s re-enactment.
  • 50. The Therapeutic Process Last Leg: The Modern Psychoanalytic Therapy, Limits and Critiques on the Therapy
  • 51. The Modern Psychoanalytic Therapy people with With the world changing in an ever-rapid pace, psychological problems also trend in areas such as separation and individuation, intimacy, dependence versus independence, and identity have cause many present-day therapists to make alterations to the psychoanalytic approach and are more on the development of the ego, are paying attention to the social and cultural factors that influence the differentiation of an individual from others, and are giving new meaning to the relational dimensions of therapy. Marmor (1997), a therapist, demonstrates an openness toward integrating various methods: ―I try to avoid putting every patient on a Procrustean bed of a singular therapeutic method but rather adapt my approach to the patient‘s own unique needs‖
  • 52. The Modern Psychoanalytic Therapy Although contemporary psychodynamic forms diverge considerably in many respects from the original Freudian emphasis on drives, the basic Freudian concepts of unconscious motivation, the influence of early development, transference, countertransference, and resistance are still central to the newer modifications. These concepts are of major importance in therapy and can be incorporated into therapeutic practices based on various theoretical approaches.
  • 53. The Limitations and Critique of the Psychoanalytic Therapy In general, considering factors such as time, expense, and availability of trained psychoanalytic therapists, the practical applications of many psychoanalytic techniques are limited Commitments to such therapy takes a long time to accomplish an analytic goal. The anonymous role of the Therapist while applying therapy. Clashes and issues with feminist psychology Psychoanalysis and it‘s therapy is now recently criticized over it‘s irrelevance to contemporary culture.