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  1. 1. pallavpareek m.d.<br />carl gustav jung26 july 1875 – 6 june 1961<br />
  2. 2. Early Life<br />Carl Jung was born Karle Gustav II Jung in Kesswil, to Paul Achilles Jung and Emilie Preiswerk<br />Disturbed childhood due to mother’s depression, mother was predictable and nice in the daytime, but was very eccentric and bizarre during the evenings and night time (would isolate self)<br />Many months of hospitalization near Basel for an unknown physical ailment (conversion???)<br />Later stayed with maternal aunt due to mo’s illness<br />
  3. 3. Inspiration from dreams<br />Jung had many strange childhood dreams including: which had a deep impact in his outlook and future development as a psychiatrist<br />Man loosing head(s)<br /> God defecating<br />Large Penis<br />
  4. 4. Influence of Spirituality<br />Child of the 19th century rural Switzerland: Where Christianity and superstition were intertwined<br />Great influence from Ministers and Pastors in the family. Father was a Pastor too (but no influence)<br />First Spiritual experiences were organizing séances with cousins<br />It puzzled him as a child that other people were not going all out to discover the purpose of life “Whenever we look for the real reason we reach the great void, an area of vaguest hypotheses. Our flimsy intelligence stops functioning at the point where the true explanation starts”<br />
  5. 5. Fall in School: Learning Neurosis<br />Shortly before the end of his first year at school @ age 12 was pushed to the ground by another boy so hard that he was for a moment unconscious. <br />The thought then came to him that "now you won't have to go to school any more”<br />From then on, whenever he started off to school or began homework, he fainted. <br />Remained at home for the next six months <br />Overheard father<br />He immediately went into his father's study and began poring over Latin grammar He fainted three times, but eventually he overcame the urge and did not faint again. <br />This event, Jung later recalled, "was when I learned what a “neurosis” is”<br />
  6. 6. Split Personality<br />Personality #1<br />12 year old boy<br />Obeys seniors , understands his incompetence with algebra<br />Shy, timid<br />Interested in learning objective realities in Zoology, Paleontology or Geology<br />Personality #2 (Fantasy)<br />Important man of 18th century<br />Had wisdom of a mature man<br />Skeptical and mistrustful<br />More interested in focusing on the spiritual problems in Greco-roman, Egyptian or Prehistoric Archaeology<br />
  7. 7. Explanations of the “Split”<br />Jung himself later describes that he had two simultaneous lives but says<br /> “Play and counter play between personalities number 1 and 2 which persisted throughout my life has nothing to do with dissociation in the ordinary medical sense”<br />A different view is suggested by R.D. Laing (Scottish Psychiatrist) in his book Divided Self<br /> “A Schizoid person is scared that other people want to destroy or corrupt the core of his identity, the schizoid puts one of his two selves at risk in order to shelter the other more valuable self”<br />
  8. 8. Joining Medical School<br />Completed his medical training at the University of Basel medical school, he received his degree in 1900<br />
  9. 9. Jung’s C.V. just out of medical school<br />Curriculum vitae <br /> My home is Basel-City. I was born on 26 July 1875 in Kesswil, Canton Thurgau. In 1879 I came to Basel, where I completed primary school, Gymnasium, and Paedagogium & passed the Maturität examination on 30 March 1895. Thereupon I began the study of medicine at the University of Basel and passed the natural sciences exam on 17 Oct. 1896 and the anatomical-physiological exam for physicians on 2 Nov. 1897, after I had taken the post of junior assistant for microscopic anatomy at the Anatomical Institute the previous semester. During the winter semester 1897/98 I worked at the same place as a junior assistant for macroscopic anatomy. From 1 April 1899 until 30 Sept. 1899 I was a junior assistant at the Surgical Clinic at Citizens Hospital in Basel and from 1 Oct. 1899 until 31 March 1900 at the Medical Clinic at the same hospital. On 26 Nov. 1900 I passed the advanced examination in medicine in Basel and on 11 Dec. 1900 took on the post of second-level assistant physician at the Burghölzli Mental Hospital. On 1 April 1902 I was named first-level assistant physician, which is my current position. <br /> C. G. Jung. pract. phys.Burghölzli-Zurich.27.IV.02.<br />Ref : Bull Hist Med. 1996 Summer;70(2):296-302.Carl Gustav Jung's curriculum vitae from the year 1902.Wilhelm HR.<br />
  10. 10. Why and when did Jung decide to choose a career in psychiatry, then? He himself answered this question in his autobiography: <br />Though I had attended psychiatric lectures and clinics, the current instructor in psychiatry was not exactly stimulating, and when I recalled the effects which the experience of asylums had had on my father, this was not calculated to prepossess me in favour of psychiatry. In preparing myself for the state examination, therefore, the textbook on psychiatry was the last I attacked. I expected nothing of it, and I still remember that as I opened the book, by Krafft-Ebing [Richard von Krafft-Ebing, LehrbuchderPsychiatrie auf klinischerGrundlagefürpraktischeAerzte und Studirende, 4th ed. (Stuttgart: F. Enke, 1890)], the thought came to me: "Well, now let's see what a psychiatrist has to say for himself." The lectures and clinical demonstrations had not made the slightest impression on me. I could not remember a single one of the cases I had seen in the clinic, but only my boredom and disgust. [. . .] Beginning with the preface, I read: "It is probably due to the peculiarity of the subject and its incomplete state of development that psychiatric textbooks are stamped with a more or less subjective character." A few lines further on, the author called the psychoses "diseases of the personality." My heart suddenly began to pound. I had to stand up and draw a deep breath. My excitement was intense, for it had become clear to me, in a flash of illumination, that for me the only possible goal was psychiatry.<br />
  11. 11. The Book that changed his life<br />
  12. 12. After Medical school <br />As mentioned above: He had no interest in Psychiatry<br />He was influenced by PsychopathiaSexualis by Richard von Krafft-Ebing, professor in Vienna<br />Joined the as a doctor under the psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in Burghölzli<br />Burghölzli is the psychiatric hospital of the University of Zürich, Switzerland. The hospital is located on "Burghölzl", a wooded hill in the district of Riesbach of southeastern Zürich.<br />Famous people associated with Burghölzli : Eugene Blueler, CG Jung, Adolf Meyer, Ludwig Binswanger<br />
  13. 13. Trivia<br />What two famous terms were coined in the book PsychopathiaSexualis, which are in parlance till date in sexual literature<br /> H.I.N.T »»<br />What is BDSM<br />
  14. 14. TRIVIA<br />What is Ludwig Binswanger famous for?<br />
  15. 15. Marriage and later life<br />In 1903, Jung married Emma Rauschenbach<br />They had a strained marriage<br />They had five children: Agathe, Gret, Franz, Marianne, and Helene. The marriage lasted until Emma's death in 1955<br />Maintained a more or less open relationship<br />
  16. 16. Relationship with Sabina Spielrein<br />Sabina Naftulovna Spielrein (1884-1942) was Jung’s first patient, later lover and further his mentee <br />Born into a wealthy Jewish middle-class family, Sabina at age nineteen was taken to Zurich to be treated for severe hysteria. She was hospitalized at Burghölzli, under Eugene Bleuler. <br />
  17. 17. My Name Was Sabina Spielrein<br />A documentary, Ichhieß Sabina Spielrein (My Name was Sabina Spielrein), was made in 2002 by the Hungarian-born Swedish director Elisabeth Marton<br />Released in the United States in late 2005<br />
  18. 18. Trivia? <br />What rule was changed in Psychoanalytical Psychotherapy after the relationship between Jung and Spielrein came to the fore. <br />
  19. 19. Relationship with Sigmund Freud<br />Jung was thirty when he sent his Studies in Word Association to Sigmund Freud in Vienna in 1906. The two men met for the first time the following year, and 'Jung recalled the discussion between himself and Freud as interminable<br />According to Jung’s own account they talked for thirteen hours, virtually without stopping<br /> Jung later described his initial impressions of Freud as "…extremely intelligent, shrewd, and altogether remarkable."<br />
  20. 20. Friends <br />Remained friends for 6 yrs.<br />1905, Freud sent a collection of his latest published essays to Jung in Zürich, which marked the beginning of an intense correspondence and collaboration that lasted six years. <br />Jung proposed (with Freud's support) on 27th April 1908 and Jung named it the "First Congress for Freudian Psychology" and it is later reckoned to be the first International Psychoanalytical Congress<br />Freud helped in treatment of Sabina Spielrein, to help his friend Jung in this difficult situation. This possibly contributed to the widening of the schism between the two during later time<br />Became president of the IPA in 1910<br />
  21. 21. Split between the Titans<br />"One repays a teacher badly if one remains only a pupil." – Nietzsche Jung said to Freud<br />"Kreuzlingen gesture." : At the end of May, 1912, when tensions between the two men were fairly high, Freud made a trip to Kreuzlingen (only a short distance from Zurich) to visit Binswanger who was undergoing surgery for cancer. Jung did not know of the illness, but understood the trip as a pointed signal that Freud was shunning him, over "displeasure at my development of the libido theory" (McGuire: 509). The exchange of letters drops off immediately. After five months of silence from Freud, Jung writes, "Your Kreuzlingen gesture has dealt me a lasting wound. I prefer direct confrontation" <br />
  22. 22. Friends to Foes<br />Tensions grew between Freud and Jung, due in a large part to their disagreements over the nature of libido and religion<br />After Jung published The Psychology of the Unconscious (Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido)in 1912, their theories diverged and Jung developed his own school of "analytical psychology."<br />Also Jung saw Freud's theory of the unconscious as incomplete and unnecessarily negative. Proposed Collective Unconcious<br />Resigned from the IPA in 1912<br />Jung and Freud personally met for the last time in September 1913 for the Fourth International Psychoanalytical Congress, also in Munich. Jung gave a talk on psychological types, the introverted and the extraverted type, in analytical psychology<br />
  23. 23. First Experiments WORD ASSOCIATION TESTS<br />Jung began his scientific work with word-association experiments while at the Burghölzli Clinic. He discovered consistent patterns of expression and inhibition when select words were given to a subject who was instructed to react with the first word that came to mind<br />Excellent depiction in the documentary (hand)<br />In the word association tests, a researcher reads a list of words to the subject, who would be asked to say, as quickly as possible, the first thing that came to mind in response to each word. Researchers would time subjects' responses, and note any unusual reactions—hesitations, slips of the tongue, signs of emotion. <br />Jung was interested in patterns he detected in subjects' responses, hinting at unconscious feelings and beliefs.<br />
  24. 24. Important contributions<br />ARCHETYPES: is an original model of a person, ideal example, or a prototype upon which others are copied, patterned, or emulated; a symbol universally recognized by all. <br />Jungian Archetypes: Jung outlined five main archetypes;<br />The Self the regulating center of the psyche and facilitator of individuation<br />The Shadow the opposite of the ego image, often containing qualities that the ego does not identify with but possesses nonetheless<br />The Anima the feminine image in a man's psyche; or:<br />The Animus the masculine image in a woman's psyche<br />The Persona how we present to the world, is another of 'the subpersonalities, the complexes and usually protects the Ego from negative images (acts like a mask)<br />
  25. 25. Collective Unconscious<br />It is proposed to be a part of the unconscious mind, expressed in humanity and all life forms with nervous systems, and describes how the structure of the psyche autonomously organizes experience. Jung distinguished the collective unconscious from the personal unconscious, in that the personal unconscious is a personal reservoir of experience unique to each individual, while the collective unconscious collects and organizes those personal experiences in a similar way with each member of a particular species.<br />
  26. 26. Introvert v/s Extrovert<br />Carl Jung popularized these two terms , and related them to the psychic energies. Published in his 1921 work : Psychological types<br />According to him introversion and extraversion refer to the direction of psychic energy. If a person’s psychic energy usually flows outwards then he or she is an extravert, while if the energy usually flows inwards, the person is an introvert. Extraverts feel an increase of perceived energy when interacting with a large group of people, but a decrease of energy when left alone. Conversely, introverts feel an increase of energy when alone, but a decrease of energy when surrounded by a large group of people <br />
  27. 27. TRIVIA<br />What Psychometric test is based on the above mentioned personality types? <br />
  28. 28. ANSWER<br />MBTI<br />Myers-Briggs Type Indicator<br />CPP Inc., the publisher of the MBTI instrument, calls it "the world’s most widely used personality assessment, with as many as two million assessments administered annually <br /> Created during World War II, believing that a knowledge of personality preferences would help women who were entering the industrial workforce for the first time to identify the sort of war-time jobs where they would be "most comfortable and effective”<br />
  29. 29. Individuation<br />According to Jung individuation is a process of psychological integration, having for its goal the development of the individual personality. "In general, it is the process by which individual beings are formed and differentiated [from other human beings]; in particular, it is the development of the psychological individual as a being distinct from the general, collective psychology."<br />
  30. 30. Political views<br />Jung stressed the importance of individual rights in a person's relation to the state and society<br />He saw that the state was treated as "a quasi-animate personality from whom everything is expected" but that this personality was "only camouflage for those individuals who know how to manipulate it", and referred to the state as a form of slavery<br />
  31. 31. Controversy: Anti-Semitism pp311-312<br />In his work Civilisation in Transition, Collected Works Volume X, however, Jung wrote of “... the Aryan bird of prey with his insatiable lust to lord it in every land, even those that concern him not at all<br />At other times strong opinion about “personal leadership”<br />Parliament: “aimless chit-chat”<br />HIS REPLY in an interview with Carol Baumann in 1948 “ It must be clear to anyone who has read any of my books that I have never been a Nazi sympathizer and I never have been anti-Semitic, and no amount of misquotation, mistranslation, or rearrangement of what I have written can alter the record of my true point of view. Nearly every one of these passages has been tampered with, either by malice or by ignorance. Furthermore, my friendly relations with a large group of Jewish colleagues and patients over a period of many years in itself disproves the charge of anti-Semitism”<br />
  32. 32. Explanation by Ronald HaymanAuthor of “A life of Jung”<br />Though not admirable Jung’s behavior is understandable . He disliked what he saw of the Nazis especially Goebbels, but he did not know how long they were going to be in power. Now that Freud was handicapped by age (age 77) and by the Jewishness. He thought Analytical psychology could take over psychoanalysis, at least in the German speaking world, and Jung who was not yet 58 could become the leading depth psychologist if he managed not to antagonize Germany’s new rulers.<br />
  33. 33. The Red Book<br />a.k.aLiberNouves : The New book<br />205-page manuscript written and illustrated by Swiss psychiatrist Jung between approximately 1914 and 1930<br />After feud with Freud Jung experienced a horrible "confrontation with the unconscious". He saw visions and heard voices. He worried at times that he was "menaced by a psychosis" or was "doing a schizophrenia". He decided that it was valuable experience, and in private, he induced hallucinations, or, in his words, "active imaginations". He recorded everything he felt in small journals. Jung began to transcribe his notes into a large, red leather-bound book, on which he worked intermittently for sixteen years<br />
  34. 34. Contd:<br />Not published or shown to the public until 2009<br />It was published in October 2009 in German with separate English translation along with SonuShamdasani'sintroduction and footnotes at the back of the book<br />NY TIMES review: "The book is bombastic, baroque and like so much else about Carl Jung, a willful oddity, synched with an antediluvian and mystical reality.“<br />The Rubin Museum of Art in NYC displayed the original Red Book from October 7, 2009 to January 25, 2010<br />
  35. 35. Jung the Voyager: USA <br />1st trip outside Europe: Clark University 1909 ( Organized by G Stanley Hall)<br />Subsequently had various trips to the US. <br />Most influenced by his visit to : Taos Pueblo (or Pueblo de Taos) is an ancient pueblo belonging to a Taos speaking Native American tribe of Pueblo people. It is approximately 1000 years old and lies about 1 mile north of the modern city of Taos NM<br />
  36. 36. Trip to Africa<br />October 1925, Jung embarked on his most ambitious expedition, the "Bugishu Psychological Expedition“<br />Bugishu aka Gisu or Bugisu (Uganda), related to Bukasu (Kenya) are Primitive tribes<br />Jung hoped to increase his understanding of "primitive psychology" through conversations with the culturally isolated residents of that area<br />Found it somewhat uncontributory<br />
  37. 37. Father India<br />Jung left Zurich again for an extensive tour of India with Fowler McCormick. <br />In India, he felt himself "under the direct influence of a foreign culture" for the first time. (c.f Africa: language)<br />Hindu philosophy became an important element in his understanding of the role of symbolism and the life of the unconscious. <br />Unfortunately, Jung became seriously ill on this trip and endured two weeks of delirium in a Calcutta hospital<br />“Father India” by Jeffery Paine: A book that explores the influence of Indian culture on Many thinkers including Jung<br />
  38. 38. Father of AA<br />Jung treated an American alcoholic patient Rowland Hazard<br />Later Hazard joined Oxford Group<br />One of the alcoholics Rowland brought into the Oxford Group was Ebby Thacher, a long-time friend and drinking buddy of Bill Wilson<br />AA was founded in 1935 by Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob Smith in Akron, Ohio<br />Jung Wrote in The Symbolic Life: "For instance, when a member of the Oxford Group comes to me in order to get treatment, I say, ‘You are in the Oxford Group; so long as you are there, you settle your affair with the Oxford Group. I can't do it better than Jesus’.”<br />