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Analytical psychology Theories of Personality Carl Jung

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A presentation on the Carl Jung's Theory of Personality

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Analytical psychology Theories of Personality Carl Jung

  1. 1. ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY CARL GUSTAV JUNG
  2. 2. Biography of Carl Jung Levels of the Psyche Dynamics of Personality Psychological Types Development of Personality Jungs Method of Investigation Critiques
  3. 3. LEVELS OF THE PSYCHE
  4. 4. Psyche • total personality • nonphysical space with its own special reality • psychic energy → flows continuously in various directions → real and interchangeable with libido (life process energy) → like physical energy → operates according to the ~principle of opposites ~principle of equivalence ~principle of entropy
  5. 5. Psyche The aim of individual development is self- realization, the integration of all aspects of the psyche.
  6. 6. Psyche EGO • force in the personality responsible for feelings of identity and continuity • personal sense of identity • contains conscious thoughts of our own behavior, feelings, memories of our experiences
  7. 7. PERSONAL UNCONSCIOUS • all repressed, forgotten, or subliminally perceived experiences • contains repressed infantile memories and impulses, forgotten events and experiences originally perceived below the threshold of our consciousness • unique to each of us • complex – emotionally toned conglomeration of associated ideas • example: mother complex Psyche
  8. 8. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS • storehouse of latent memories of our human and prehuman ancestry • consists of instincts and archetypes that we inherit as possibilities and that often affect our behavior • archetypes – themes that have existed in all cultures throughout history; ancient or archaic images; universal • responsible for people’s myths, legends, religious beliefs, dreams • examples: mother-child relationship, love at first sight, deja vu Psyche
  9. 9. Archetypes • ancient or archaic images that derive from the collective unconscious • emotionally toned collections of associated images (similar to complexes) • unlearned tendency to experience things in a certain way • instinct – unconscious physical impulse • psychic counterpart to an instinct • both instinct and archetype can help shape personality • modes: dreams, fantasies, delusions
  10. 10. Archetypes • Persona • Shadow • Anima • Animus • Great Mother • Wise Old Man • Hero • Self
  11. 11. Archetypes: Persona • mask • universal manifestation of our attempt to deal appropriately with other people • “To be oblivious of one’s persona is to underestimate the importance of society, but to be unaware of one’s deep individuality is to become society’s puppet.”
  12. 12. Archetypes: Shadow • darkness, repression • qualities we do not wish to acknowledge but attempt to hide from ourselves and others • positive side may be seen when a person feels unaccountably vital, spontaneous, and creative • first test of courage “realization of the shadow”
  13. 13. Archetypes: Anima • feminine archetype in men • “woman from within” • second test of courage • positive: “his inspiration” • negative: irrational moods and feelings • appears in dreams, visions, and fantasies in personified forms
  14. 14. Archetypes: Animus • masculine archetype in women • positive: reason and logic • negative: irrational thinking and illogical opinions • appears in dreams, visions, and fantasies in personified forms
  15. 15. Archetypes: Great Mother • fertility and nourishment • power and destruction • example: Cinderella’s fairy godmother
  16. 16. Archetypes: Wise Old Man • wisdom and meaning • humans’ preexisting knowledge of the mysteries of life • symbolized by life itself • example: wizard in Baum’s Wizard of Oz
  17. 17. Archetypes: Hero • person who conquers an evil foe but who also has a tragic flaw • often undone by some insignificant person or event • examples: Achilles and his heel, Superman and kryptonite
  18. 18. Archetypes: Self • innate blueprint that is capable of being realized • inherited tendency to move toward growth, perfection, and completion • “archetype of archetypes” • pulls together and unites the other archetypes to self-realization • transcendent function – provides stability and balance to the various systems of the personality • symbol: mandala
  19. 19. DYNAMICS OF PERSONALITY
  20. 20. Dynamics of Personality Causality Teleology Present events have their origin in previous experiences Present events are motivated by goals and aspirations for the future that direct a person’s destiny vs
  21. 21. Dynamics of Personality Progression Regression Adaptation to the outside world involves the forward flow of psychic energy Adaptation to the inner world relies on backward flow of psychic energy vs
  22. 22. PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPES ATTITUDES -INTROVERSION -EXTRAVERSION FUNCTIONS -THINKING -FEELING -SENSING -INTUITING
  23. 23. Extraversion - turning outward of psychic energy, oriented towards the objective - more influenced by the surroundings
  24. 24. Introversion -turning inward of psychic energy with an orientation toward the subjective - tuned into their inner world with all its biases, fantasies, dreams
  25. 25. INTROVERTED EXTRAVERTED
  26. 26. feeling sensing intuiting thinking FUNCTIONS tells people that something exists enables them to recognize meaning tells them its value or worth allows them to know about it without knowing how
  27. 27. Functions Attitudes extraverted introverted Thinking rely heavily on concrete thoughts interpretation of n event is colored more by the internal meaning they bring with them Research scientists, accountants, mathematicians Philosophers, theoretical scientists, inventors Feeling - guided by external values and widely- accepted standards of judgment base their value judgments on subjective perceptions Real estate Movie critics, art
  28. 28. Functions Attitudes extraverted introverted Sensation perceive the stimuli in much the same way that these stimuli exists in reality subjective sensations ,interpret stimuli rather than the stimuli themselves Wine tasters, proof readers, house painters Artists, classical musicians Intuition Oriented towards facts Guided by unconscious perception of facts that are subjective Inventors, religious reformers Prophets, mystics, religious fanatics
  29. 29. SAMPLE ITEMS FROM THE MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR
  30. 30. Introversion (I) ---Extraversion (E) items 1. When you have to meet strangers, do you find it A. pleasant, or at least easy B. something that takes a good deal of effort? 2. Are you naturally A. a good mixer B. rather quiet and reserved in company? 3. In a large group, do you more often A. introduce others B. get introduced? (E) (I) (E) (I) (E) (I)
  31. 31. Sensing (S) ---Intuition (N) items 1. Do you usually get along better with A. imaginative people B. realistic people?? 2. Do you get more annoyed at A. fancy theories B. people who don’t like theories? 3. Would you rather be considered A. A practical person B. An ingenious person? (N) (S) (S) (N) (S) (N)
  32. 32. Thinking (T) ---Feeling (F) items 1. Which of these two is a higher compliment? A. He is a person of real feeling? B. He is consistently reasonable 2. Do you think it is a worse fault A. to show too much warmth? B. not to have enough warmth? 3. Do you more often let A. your heart rule your head B. your head rule your heart? (F) (T) (T) (F) (F) (T)
  33. 33. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Jung compared the trip through life to the journey of the sun to the sky with the brightness of the sun representing consciousness.
  34. 34. Anarchic – chaotic and sporadic consciousness Monarchic – development of the ego; beginning of logical and verbal thinking Dualistic – ego is divided into subjective and objective Early Morning Sun full of potential, lacking in brilliance
  35. 35. Period of increased activity, maturing sexually, growing consciousness, and recognition that the problem-free era of childhood is gone forever Major difficulty: CONSERVATIVE PRINCIPLE – desire to live in the past Morning Sun climbing toward the zenith
  36. 36. begins at approximately age 35 to 40 May fight desperately to maintain their youthful appearance and lifestyle Early Afternoon Sun brilliant yet headed for sunset
  37. 37. diminution of consciousness; fear of death Evening Sun markedly dimmed
  38. 38. SELF-REALIZATION process of becoming an individual or whole person realization of the self, minimized their persona, recognized their anima/animus, acquired balance between introversion and extraversion, elevated all functions to a superior position
  39. 39. SELF-REALIZATION Brought about by TRANSCENDENCE – conflict is resolved by bringing opposing forces into balance with each other with understanding
  40. 40. SELF-REALIZATION Self-realization is an ideal state and not something to be attained. It is the process that is important, not the achievement of the goal. By undergoing this painful struggle to reconcile the conflicting sides of their nature, patients become integrated, whole personalities. They do not become perfect human beings; they become, instead, what they were destined to become—individuals with unique set of strengths and limitations.
  41. 41. METHOD OF INVESTIGATION/ ASSESSMENT
  42. 42. Dream Analysis -are spontaneous and involuntary eruption of repressed materials -attempts at resolving current problems and conflicts (If the dream helps in the resolution of the problem, it should not occur again.) -compensatory in nature (attempts at rectifying deficiencies in personality (feelings and attitudes not expressed during waking life will find its outlet through the dream process)
  43. 43. Word Association Test - presented patients with stimulus words and each verbal response, time taken to make a response, rate of breathing and galvanic skin response are recorded -Areas of conflict were assumed to be present if the patient (a) repeated the stimulus word several times as though the it had not been heard (b) gave a response of more than one word (c) gave a meaningless reaction (d) failed to respond
  44. 44. Active Imagination - requires a person to begin with any impression—a dream, an image, vision, or fantasy – and to concentrate until the impression begins to move
  45. 45. Psychotherapy Stages: 1. Confession – acknowledging his/her limitations to another 2. Elucidation – the patient bring to surface certain contents of the unconscious which the therapist clarifies; learning the origins of the problems 3. Education – incorporation of insights into one’s personality in order to adapt to social environment 4. Transformation – interplay between therapist and patient leads to change that move beyond adaptation to environment and towards self- realization
  46. 46. Painting Therapy a means of encouraging them to express their unconscious feelings or thoughts
  47. 47. CRITIQUES of JUNG Nearly impossible to either falsify or verify (The collective unconscious remains a difficult concept to test empirically.) Many of its concepts are highly ambiguous (Regression and introverted are so closely- related that they can be said to describe the same process)

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