Overview• Focus on sex and aggression• Gained popularity because of Freud’s faithful followers.• Based on clinical cases handled by Freud, personal dream analyses, and vast readings on sciences and humanities.• Psychoanalysis was not an academic product, nor was it pure science
Sigmund Freud• Born May 6, 1856 in Freiburg, Austria (now Pribor, Czechoslovakia)• Family moved to Vienna when he was 4 y/o• His mother was the Second wife of his father; 20 years his junior• 2 older half- brothers and six younger siblings• Favorite child of his mother• Very intelligent, pursued medicine
Sigmund Freud• Married Martha Bernays, had 6 children• Need for fame and recognition• Private practice in Venice, specializing in Neurology and Nervous System disorders• Affiliated with Joseph Breuer, learned Catharsis.• Published STUDIES IN HYSTERIA – 1895 (Founding of Psychoanalysis)• “Talking Cure” – Anna O.• Studies with Jean Charcot - Hypnosis
Anna O.• Treated for 12 years before publication of STUDIES OF HYSTERIA• Suffered hysterical symptoms (loss of speech, vision disturbances, paralysis)• Breuer used hypnosis to treat Anna• This was the first experience of catharsis: release of pent-up psychic energy that relieves hysterical symptoms• The case of Anna O. is one of the most reported cases in the annals of psychotherapy• However, Breuer’s original description appears to be inaccurate in some of its most important respects• Apparently the woman was not at all cured by Breuer’s hypnosis and psychotherapy• Hospital records were later discovered
Sigmund Freud• Childhood Seduction Controversy• 1900 – The Interpretation of Dreams• 1902 – The Wednesday Group (Adler & Jung)• 1909 – Lectures in U.S. (with Jung)• Considered Jung as his “heir apparent”• 1910 – International Psychoanalysis Association• 1911 – break with Adler• 1914 – break with Jung• 1938 – move to London, England• 1939 – died due to Cancer of the Mouth (20 years)• Heavy cigar smoker• Homosexual issues• Use of cocaine
Levels of Mental Life Indicates both a location and a process.1. Consciousness – Elements in awareness at any given point in time. – Non threatening ideas and well- disguised images.1. Unconsciousness – Preconsciousness – Unconscious – Presence of primary censor and final censor.
The Unconscious• Drives, urges, instincts beyond awareness but nevertheless motivate most of our words, feelings, and actions.• It explains the meaning behind dreams, slips of tongue, and repression.• Phylogenetic endowment – Obtained from previous ancestors – (collective unconscious)
Preconscious• Contains all those elements that are not conscious but can become conscious either readily or with difficulty.• Its sources are conscious perception and the unconscious, often transformed or disguised.
The Id• Completely unconscious• No contact with reality• illogical• The infant seeks gratification of need without regard for what is possible or what is proper.• Pleasure principle
The Ego• The only region of the mind in contact with reality.• Consider unrealistic demands of id and superego.• Reality principle
The Superego• The moral and ideal aspects of personality.• Moralistic/ idealistic principles.• Composed of the conscience and ego- ideal.
Dynamics of Personality - driving forces behind behavior• Drives – Eros (sex, libido) and Thanatos (aggression)• Sex – Erogenous zones (genital, mouth, anus) – Pleasure is not limited to genital satisfaction – Forms: narcissism, love, sadism, masochism – Primary Narcissism and Secondary Narcissism
Dynamics of Personality- driving forces behind behavior• Aggression – Self- destruction – Can take on several forms• Anxiety – Neurotic anxiety, moral anxiety, realistic anxiety – Only the ego can feel anxiety – Warns us of impending danger
• Protects the ego from • Consumes psychic anxiety, energy.• Normal and universally • May lead to used, unless taken compulsive, repetitive, extremely. & neurotic behavior.
Defense Mechanisms• Repression – Most basic defense mechanism – It forces threatening feelings into the unconscious.• Reaction Formation – A repressed impulse is disguised directly opposite of the original form.
Defense Mechanisms• Displacement – Redirecting unacceptable urges unto people or objects so that the original impulse is disguised. – Replacing neurotic symptoms with another.• Fixation – Remaining at the present, more comfortable psychological stage.
Defense Mechanisms • Projection – Attributing one’s unwanted impulse and feelings to an external object, usually another person. • Introjection – Incorporating positive qualities of another person into their own ego.
Defense Mechanisms • Sublimation – Repression of the genital aim by substituting a cultural aim. – Balance between social accomplishments and personal pleasure. • Regression – Reverting back to an earlier stage.
Stages of Development1. Oral Stage – mouth is the first organ to provide pleasure.
Stages of Development2. Anal Stage – anus as the sexually pleasurable zone; toilet training; aggressive and excretory function.
Stages of Development3. Phallic Stage – genital area as the sexually pleasurable zone; male and female distinction; Oedipus complex; castration complex; penis envy
Stages of Development4. Latency Stage – dormant psychosexual development; parents punish their children to prevent sexual activity.
Stages of Development5. Genital Stage – reawakening of the sexual aim; sexual energy is focused on others; reproductive capability
Applications of Psychoanalytic Theory• Free Association• Client lies on a couch and is encouraged to talk openly and spontaneously, expressing every idea that comes to mind, no matter how silly or trivial it may seem• Therapist looks for slips of the tongue or inappropriate reactions to indicate where the unconscious conflict lies• Freud believed there was nothing random about what invaded the client’s mind; these topics were determined by the unconscious conflict the client experienced• Through free association, Freud found that this clients’ memories reached back to childhood and that many of the repressed experiences they recalled involved sexual issues.• Importance of transference and resistance.
Applications of Psychoanalytic Theory• Dream Analysis• Manifest Content – conscious description• Latent Content – the unconscious material• Dreams are wish fulfillment
Applications of Psychoanalytic Theory• Freudian Slips• Slips of the tongue, pen, misreading, incorrect hearing, misplacing objects, and temporarily forgetting names which reveal a person’s unconscious intentions.
Critique of Freud’s Theory• Singular focus on sex drives and aggression.• His theory was male- oriented.• Concepts was based on subjective interpretations of a handful of client, mostly in the upper class.
Critique of Freud’s Theory – Theories are difficult to test – Generated considerable research – Difficult to falsify – Very loose organizational framework – Not a good guide to solve practical problems – Internally consistent theory
Concept of Humanity • Deterministic and Pessimistic • Causality over Teleology • Unconscious over Conscious • Biology over Culture • Equal emphasis on Uniqueness and Similarity