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FLOUR
Is a powdery substance produced by
finely grinding grain through a process
called milling.
The classification of flour is based on
the amount of protein that each type
contains.
 Protein determines the gluten strength of
the flour.
Gluten gives the dough its shape and form.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF FLOUR
BREAD FLOUR
 Has the highest amount
of protein thus, has high
gluten content, so it is
used for breads. Bread
flour is creamy in color
and is rather rough and
granular.
CAKE FLOUR
 Sometimes called soft
flour as it is milled from
soft white wheat. It is
described as weak
because the products
made from it are tender
with delicate texture.
ALL-PURPOSE FLOUR
 Is made from a
combination of bread
and cake flour sources
and has medium gluten
strength. It is suitable for
almost any baking
purposes.
SELF-RISING FLOUR
 Contains baking
powder and salt
RYE FLOUR
 Has a distinctive
flavor many people
like and it contains no
gluten
DIFFERENT TYPES OF FLOUR
Flour should be stored in a high
ventilated room free from insects
and rodents!
Flour should be kept away from
products with strong aromas such
as spices and onions!
Use the oldest flour first! “First in,
first out”
Flour should be kept in a dry tin or
glass container in a cool dry place!
SHORTENING
Is another word for fat used in baking.
The taste of the baked product
depends greatly on the flavor of the
shortening.
1) It surrounds the gluten in the dough; it
shortens the strands and makes it a
more tender product.
2) It makes the product lighter with
greater volume.
3) It oils the structure of the product so it
is easier to chew and swallow.
4) It helps prolong the shelf life of baked
goods.
1) Plasticity – readily mixed, worked
or spread
2) Waxiness – soft and smooth
3) Pleasant Odor – no odor at all
4) Pleasant flavor – no unnecessary
flavor
SUGAR
 Is responsible for the attractive golden brown color
of baked products. It contributes to the
development of good flavor and aroma.
ULTRAFINE
 Is used for cakes and
cookies. Sometimes this
sugar is called “baker’s
special”
GRANULATED SUGAR
 is the sugar
commonly found on
the table at home
POWDERED SUGAR
 Is frequently called
confectioner’s sugar
because it is used in
making frostings and
icings.
BROWN SUGAR
 Is often called “soft
sugar” because of its
moisture content. Its
color may vary from
light to dark brown.
1) It tenderizes the gluten.
2) It makes browner, crisper
crust.
3) It helps baked products stay
fresh longer because it retains
moisture.
LEAVENER OR LEAVENING AGENT
Is a substance used in baking to make
a product rise so it becomes light a
proportion to its size.
Leavening agents produce a gas that
expands when heated.
AIR!!!!!!!
Air works as a leavener because it
expands when heated. It can be
incorporated into the product by:
 Beating
 Folding in beaten egg whites
 Sifting the flour
 Creaming the shortening
STEAM!!!!
Is considered to be the most powerful
leavener.
Water changes to steam when heated
causing the mixture to rise.
CHEMICAL LEAVENING AGENTS
 Certain chemicals react to moisture and heat to
form carbon dioxide such as:
 Baking Soda – a leavening that reacts to acid to
produce carbon dioxide
 Baking Powder – most widely used leavener because of
its sure results
YEAST
Is a single-celled plant that feeds
on starch and sugar.
It is different from other leavening
agents because it is ALIVE!
COMPRESSED YEAST
 Also called cake yeast;
it can be stored for
four to five weeks in a
refrigerator
DRY YEAST
 Is granular and darker
in color than cake
yeast. It is purchased
in sealed packs or
envelopes to ensure
freshness.
WATER
 Gives different texture to
baked items especially
breads and rolls. The
texture of a baked
product is coarse and
chewy if water is used
instead of milk.
MILK
 Has definite functions
in baking. It gives finer,
more velvety grain. It
adds flavor. It helps the
product stay longer.
EGGS
 Eggs perform important functions in cakes that
other ingredients cannot do.
 Eggs are essential because they maintain tender
the structure of the cake or baked product.
 Eggs hold together the other ingredients during
mixing and baking.
SALT
 Is essential in
producing a
satisfactory yeast
product.
 It gives a finer texture
to bread and removes
flatness or lack of
flavor in it.
CHOCOLATE AND COCOA
 Are highly prized for
their flavor, aroma
and deep brown
color.
FRUIT FLAVORS AND SPICES
 Are extracts from the
base of fruits.
 They add pleasant
odor to baked
products.
Basic Baking Ingredients and Their Functions

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Basic Baking Ingredients and Their Functions

  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3. FLOUR Is a powdery substance produced by finely grinding grain through a process called milling. The classification of flour is based on the amount of protein that each type contains.  Protein determines the gluten strength of the flour. Gluten gives the dough its shape and form.
  • 5. BREAD FLOUR  Has the highest amount of protein thus, has high gluten content, so it is used for breads. Bread flour is creamy in color and is rather rough and granular.
  • 6. CAKE FLOUR  Sometimes called soft flour as it is milled from soft white wheat. It is described as weak because the products made from it are tender with delicate texture.
  • 7. ALL-PURPOSE FLOUR  Is made from a combination of bread and cake flour sources and has medium gluten strength. It is suitable for almost any baking purposes.
  • 8. SELF-RISING FLOUR  Contains baking powder and salt
  • 9. RYE FLOUR  Has a distinctive flavor many people like and it contains no gluten
  • 11. Flour should be stored in a high ventilated room free from insects and rodents!
  • 12. Flour should be kept away from products with strong aromas such as spices and onions!
  • 13. Use the oldest flour first! “First in, first out”
  • 14. Flour should be kept in a dry tin or glass container in a cool dry place!
  • 15.
  • 16. SHORTENING Is another word for fat used in baking. The taste of the baked product depends greatly on the flavor of the shortening.
  • 17.
  • 18. 1) It surrounds the gluten in the dough; it shortens the strands and makes it a more tender product. 2) It makes the product lighter with greater volume. 3) It oils the structure of the product so it is easier to chew and swallow. 4) It helps prolong the shelf life of baked goods.
  • 19.
  • 20. 1) Plasticity – readily mixed, worked or spread 2) Waxiness – soft and smooth 3) Pleasant Odor – no odor at all 4) Pleasant flavor – no unnecessary flavor
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24. SUGAR  Is responsible for the attractive golden brown color of baked products. It contributes to the development of good flavor and aroma.
  • 25.
  • 26. ULTRAFINE  Is used for cakes and cookies. Sometimes this sugar is called “baker’s special”
  • 27. GRANULATED SUGAR  is the sugar commonly found on the table at home
  • 28. POWDERED SUGAR  Is frequently called confectioner’s sugar because it is used in making frostings and icings.
  • 29. BROWN SUGAR  Is often called “soft sugar” because of its moisture content. Its color may vary from light to dark brown.
  • 30.
  • 31. 1) It tenderizes the gluten. 2) It makes browner, crisper crust. 3) It helps baked products stay fresh longer because it retains moisture.
  • 32.
  • 33. LEAVENER OR LEAVENING AGENT Is a substance used in baking to make a product rise so it becomes light a proportion to its size. Leavening agents produce a gas that expands when heated.
  • 34.
  • 35. AIR!!!!!!! Air works as a leavener because it expands when heated. It can be incorporated into the product by:  Beating  Folding in beaten egg whites  Sifting the flour  Creaming the shortening
  • 36. STEAM!!!! Is considered to be the most powerful leavener. Water changes to steam when heated causing the mixture to rise.
  • 37. CHEMICAL LEAVENING AGENTS  Certain chemicals react to moisture and heat to form carbon dioxide such as:  Baking Soda – a leavening that reacts to acid to produce carbon dioxide  Baking Powder – most widely used leavener because of its sure results
  • 38.
  • 39. YEAST Is a single-celled plant that feeds on starch and sugar. It is different from other leavening agents because it is ALIVE!
  • 40.
  • 41. COMPRESSED YEAST  Also called cake yeast; it can be stored for four to five weeks in a refrigerator
  • 42. DRY YEAST  Is granular and darker in color than cake yeast. It is purchased in sealed packs or envelopes to ensure freshness.
  • 43.
  • 44. WATER  Gives different texture to baked items especially breads and rolls. The texture of a baked product is coarse and chewy if water is used instead of milk.
  • 45. MILK  Has definite functions in baking. It gives finer, more velvety grain. It adds flavor. It helps the product stay longer.
  • 46.
  • 47. EGGS  Eggs perform important functions in cakes that other ingredients cannot do.  Eggs are essential because they maintain tender the structure of the cake or baked product.  Eggs hold together the other ingredients during mixing and baking.
  • 48.
  • 49. SALT  Is essential in producing a satisfactory yeast product.  It gives a finer texture to bread and removes flatness or lack of flavor in it.
  • 50. CHOCOLATE AND COCOA  Are highly prized for their flavor, aroma and deep brown color.
  • 51. FRUIT FLAVORS AND SPICES  Are extracts from the base of fruits.  They add pleasant odor to baked products.