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Baking flour mixture

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Flour Mixture
Flour mixtures are blend of liquid and
flour with other ingredients in certain
amounts intended for a specific product.
Classification of flour Mixtures
• Batter – flour mixtures with enough liquid to
be beaten or stirred can be pour batters or drop
batters
• Dough – less liquid proportion to flour than
batters can be handled or kneaded
Four kinds of batters and
doughs
Pour batters: thin enough to pour in a steady
stream. Ex: Cakes, pancakes, waffles
Drop batters: are thick and are usually
spooned into pans. Ex: some quick breads and
cookies
Soft doughs: are soft and sticky but can be touched
and handled. Ex: rolled biscuits, yeast breads and
rolls, and some cookies start with soft doughs
Stiff doughs: are firm to the touch, easy to work with
and cut. Ex: Piecrust and some cookies
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Baking flour mixture

  • 1. Flour Mixture Flour mixtures are blend of liquid and flour with other ingredients in certain amounts intended for a specific product.
  • 2. Classification of flour Mixtures • Batter – flour mixtures with enough liquid to be beaten or stirred can be pour batters or drop batters • Dough – less liquid proportion to flour than batters can be handled or kneaded
  • 3. Four kinds of batters and doughs Pour batters: thin enough to pour in a steady stream. Ex: Cakes, pancakes, waffles
  • 4. Drop batters: are thick and are usually spooned into pans. Ex: some quick breads and cookies
  • 5. Soft doughs: are soft and sticky but can be touched and handled. Ex: rolled biscuits, yeast breads and rolls, and some cookies start with soft doughs
  • 6. Stiff doughs: are firm to the touch, easy to work with and cut. Ex: Piecrust and some cookies
  • 7. BASIC METHODS OF MIXING BATTERS AND DOUGH • Muffin method- dry ingredients are sifted together in a bowl. In another container, eggs are beaten. The oil or melted fat is added to the beaten eggs. The liquid mixture is now added gradually to the bowl of dry ingredients. The extent of mixing depends on the product to be prepared
  • 8. BASIC METHODS OF MIXING BATTERS AND DOUGH • Pastry method- dry ingredients are sifted together in a bowl and the fat is mixed lightly or cut into the dry ingredients. Liquid is added last. This suitable for pastry and biscuit making
  • 9. BASIC METHODS OF MIXING BATTERS AND DOUGH
  • 10. BASIC METHODS OF MIXING BATTERS AND DOUGH • Conventional cake method- fat and sugar are creamed together. Beaten eggs are added to the fat- sugar mixture. Dry ingredients previously sifted together are then added alternately with liquid ingredients. A modification of this conventional method is used for lighter and more delicate cakes. The egg yolks and whites are separately beaten. The yolks are creamed with sugar and the beaten egg whites are folded in as the last step.
  • 11. BASIC METHODS OF MIXING BATTERS AND DOUGH
  • 12. BASIC METHODS OF MIXING BATTERS AND DOUGH • One bowl method- this is also called single stage method because the dry ingredients, melted fat or oil and most of the liquid are mixed in one blend. The beaten eggs are added at the end of the mixing when the last portion of the liquid is added. These are the basic methods of mixing batters and doughs. However, some recipes may modify each of the above mentioned methods as bakers learn to work with different ingredients and modern tools and equipment.
  • 13. MIXING AND GLUTEN DEVELOPMENT What is Gluten? • Gluten is a substance made up of proteins present in wheat flour; it gives structure and strength to baked goods
  • 14. MIXING AND GLUTEN DEVELOPMENT In order for gluten to develop, the proteins must first absorb water. Then, as the dough or batter is mixed or kneaded, the gluten forms long, elastic strands. As the dough or batter is leavened, these strands capture the gasses in tiny pockets or cells, and we say the product “rises”. When the product is baked, the gluten, like all proteins, coagulates or solidifies and gives structure to the product.
  • 15. BASIC METHODS OF MIXING BATTERS AND DOUGH How does the baker control gluten? • Flour is mostly starch, but its protein or gluten content, not its starch, concerns the baker most. Without gluten proteins to give structure, baked goods would not hold together.
  • 16. BASIC METHODS OF MIXING BATTERS AND DOUGH • The baker must be able to control the gluten, however. For example, we want French bread to be firm and chewy, which requires much gluten. On the other hand, we want cakes to be tender, which means we want very little gluten development.
  • 17. BASIC METHODS OF MIXING BATTERS AND DOUGH • Ingredients proportions and mixing methods are determined, in part, by how they affect the development of gluten. The baker has several methods for adjusting gluten development.
  • 18. Methods for Adjusting Gluten Selection of flour Classification of wheat flour: •Weak flours- come from weak wheat and have low protein content. Usually for cakes. •Strong flours- come from hard wheat and have high protein content. Usually for breads Only wheat flour develops gluten. To make bread from rye and other grains, the formula must be balanced with some high gluten flour, or the bread will be heavy.
  • 19. Methods for Adjusting Gluten Shortening •Any fat is called shortening because it shortens glutens strands. It does this by surrounding the particles and lubricating them so they do not stick together. Thus fats are tenderizers. A cookie or a pastry that is very crumbly, due to high fat content, is said to be “short”.
  • 20. Liquid • Because gluten proteins must absorb water before they can be developed, the amount of water in a formula can affect toughness and tenderness. Pie crust and crisp cookies are made with very little liquid to keep them tender.
  • 21. Methods for Adjusting Gluten Mixing method • In general, the more a dough or batter is mixed, the more the gluten develops. Thus, bread doughs are mixed and kneaded for a long time to develop the gluten. Cakes, pie crusts, muffins, and other products must be tender and mixed for a short time. • It is possible to over mix bread dough, however. Gluten strands stretch only so far. They break if the dough is over mixed.
  • 22. Describe each mixing method • Beat- Agitating ingredients vigorously to add air or develop gluten • Blend- Mixing or folding two or more ingredients together until they are evenly combined • Cream- Vigorously combining softened fat and sugar to add air
  • 23. Describe each mixing method • Cut in- Mixing solid fat with dry ingredients until lumps of the desired size remain • Fold- Gently adding light, airy ingredients such as eggs to heavier ingredients by using a smooth circular movement
  • 24. Describe each mixing method • Knead- Working a dough by hand or in a bench mixer with a dough hook to develop gluten and evenly distribute ingredients • Sift- Passing dry ingredients such as flour through a wire mesh to remove lumps, blend, and add air • Stir- Gently blending ingredients until they are combined • Whip- Vigorously beating ingredients to add air
  • 25. Most of the time, you wouldn’t even need a recipe to follow. For most cakes and cookies, just follow standard baking procedure using the 5 step ‘creaming method”: Use an electric mixer to save time! Use medium speed on your mixer. Air + egg whites = volume
  • 26. Sifting eliminates lumps, helps in the even distribution of ingredients, and adds air Add 1/3 dry, then 1/3 wet…repeat ‘til all ingredients are used An electric mixer at this point would break up the chips, raisins, nuts, etc.
  • 27. Mix other ingredients together, and carefully fold in the eggs using a rubber spatula. Use care to preserve the pockets of air in the whites. Cakes using the foaming method may contain little or no fat. For cakes with a lighter texture, such as angel food cakes or chiffon cakes, the baking procedure you would follow is called the ‘foaming method’.
  • 28. Some cakes and breads are made by the ‘straight dough method’. It requires no creaming; no foam preparation. All ingredients are simply combined together and blended. Cakes and breads made by this method may have a moist or sticky texture.
  • 29. Some cakes and breads are made by the ‘two-stage method’. Combine the melted or liquid fat with the dry ingredients first. Blend in ½ of the liquid(s)s first. Then gradually add the remaining liquid(s). Doughs and batters made by the two-stage method have more sugar than flour. They are called high-ratio cakes. They have a very fine, moister crumb. Devil’s food cake is an example.
  • 30. Grease & flouring a pan is one way of preparing it for baking a cake. Apply grease to sides and bottom of pan. Then add a scoop of flour, shaking it all over the greasy pan until the entire pan is dusted with flour. Discard extra flour. If you are planning to remove the cake from the pan in one piece, you might try lining the pan with waxed paper. Cut the paper to fit the pan perfectly; you still need to grease and flour the sides of the pan and perhaps even the paper. Aerosol cooking spray can be used on pans, but is a better choice for stove-top cooking rather than baking; avoid overspray; avoid inhaling contents;especially good for low-fat diets.
  • 31. Baking pans are costly, and may start to look old and well-worn after only a few uses. To save the appearance of your pans, eliminate the need for greasing, and to make removal of baked goods easy… you may line the pan with parchment paper. Parchment paper is NOT the same as waxed paper.
  • 32. Space cookies on the cookie sheet for baking, leaving enough space so they won’t touch. Preheating the oven to the correct temperature is critical! Adjust oven racks so you can bake in the middle of the oven! If rack is too low, food gets too brown on the bottom; if rack is too high, food gets too brown on top. Pour cake batter into pan. Tap filled pan firmly to settle the batter and break air bubbles.
  • 33. You will remove your cake from the pan by a method called “inversion” Place a cooling rack on top of the cake pan and flipping the two together upside down. The cake pan then lifts off and leaves the cake sitting on the rack. Cookies are removed from the oven, cooled for a couple of minutes, removed from the pans with a spatula, and placed on a wire rack for cooling.
  • 34. Frying a hamburger or heating up a soup? Assembling a casserole or preparing a sidedish? … all that is “just cooking”. Not everyone can bake successfully, and it takes time. That makes baking something pretty special. It’s perfect for special occasions and gift-giving.