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Groundwater for Sustainable
Development in the MENA Region
Dr. Ralf Klingbeil
Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natura...
Middle East North Africa (MENA)
Arab / UN ESCWA Region
• 22 Arab
countries
• 18 UN ESCWA
member states
• Sub-regions
• Mag...
Overview
• Groundwater challenges
in the MENA region
• Groundwater links to
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) &
2030 Ag...
Groundwater challenges
in the MENA region
• Groundwater quality
• Scarcity and droughts
• Non-renewable vs. renewable
• Go...
Groundwater Quality - Gaza / Palestine, Batinah / Oman
Saline Water Intrusion
Sanitation / Agricultural Return Flows
IAH C...
Scarcity and Drought - Syria
Scarcity of water and groundwater – or
scarcity of adequate water governance?
Triggers for mi...
Scarcity and Drought - Lebanon
2014 - One drought comes rarely alone
IAH Congress 2016 Slide 7
bg:MEW,2014.NationalWaterCo...
Scarcity and Drought - Lebanon
2014 drought impacted on groundwater
and spring discharges
IAH Congress 2016 Slide 8
Margan...
Water and scarcity in the MENA Region
Three Levels of (Water) Scarcity
IAH Congress 2016 Slide 9
TheWorldBank,2007.Makingt...
Non-Renewable Groundwater
Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia
IAH Congress 2016 Slide 10
WaterWatch,2006
Non-Renewable Groundwater
Challenges with “Sustainable Use”
•Clear
improvement
of human well-
being and
livelihood
•An “ex...
Challenges for Cooperation on Transboundary Water Resources
Shared Groundwater –
Transboundary Aquifers
IAH Congress 2016 ...
Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers –
Transboundary Water Cooperation
Inventory of Shared Water Resources
in Weste...
Water, energy and food in the MENA Region
Groundwater between
Jordan and Saudi Arabia
Energy for Water:
Saq-Ram Aquifer Sy...
2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development
• 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
• 169 Targets
• 231 Indicators
IAH Congr...
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
17 Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs), 169 Targets, 231 Indicators
IAH Congress ...
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
SDGs: Goals - Targets - Indicators
IAH Congress 2016 Slide 17
17 Goals:
universal,...
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
SDG for water and sanitation
IAH Congress 2016 Slide 18
https://sustainabledevelop...
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating
dumping and ...
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors
and en...
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors
and en...
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all
levels, includ...
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
IAH Congress 2016 Slide 23
www.unwater.org
? ? ?
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including
mountains, fo...
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
High Level Panel on Water - HLPW
IAH Congress 2016 Slide 25
HLPW,2016.ActionPlan.H...
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
UN Global Water Architecture
IAH Congress 2016 Slide 26
Moolenaar,K.,2016.HighLeve...
Way forward – need for more research
• Valuation and socio-economic assessments
of groundwater use – renewable vs. non-ren...
Groundwater for Sustainable
Development in the MENA Region
Dr. Ralf Klingbeil
Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natura...
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R. Klingbeil, 2016. Groundwater for Sustainable Development in the MENA Region

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Klingbeil, R., 2016. Groundwater for Sustainable Development in the MENA Region. Presentation at the 43rd Congress of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) “Groundwater and society: 60 years of IAH”, Montpellier, France, 25-28 Sep 2016.

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R. Klingbeil, 2016. Groundwater for Sustainable Development in the MENA Region

  1. 1. Groundwater for Sustainable Development in the MENA Region Dr. Ralf Klingbeil Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) Hannover, Germany Presentation at IAH Congress 2016
  2. 2. Middle East North Africa (MENA) Arab / UN ESCWA Region • 22 Arab countries • 18 UN ESCWA member states • Sub-regions • Maghreb • Mashreq • GCC • … plus IAH Congress 2016 Slide 2www.unescwa.org
  3. 3. Overview • Groundwater challenges in the MENA region • Groundwater links to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) & 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development • Way forward - proposals for future work IAH Congress 2016 Slide 3
  4. 4. Groundwater challenges in the MENA region • Groundwater quality • Scarcity and droughts • Non-renewable vs. renewable • Governance of common pool resource • Transboundary aquifers IAH Congress 2016 Slide 4 Inamo,20001.
  5. 5. Groundwater Quality - Gaza / Palestine, Batinah / Oman Saline Water Intrusion Sanitation / Agricultural Return Flows IAH Congress 2016 Slide 5 PWA,2013andZekri,2015,afterAL-Barwani&Helmi,2006.
  6. 6. Scarcity and Drought - Syria Scarcity of water and groundwater – or scarcity of adequate water governance? Triggers for migration / displacement: • Drought, physical scarcity, • Economic scarcity, inappropriate governance, … IAH Congress 2016 Slide 6 Left:irinnews.org,2009.Syria’sdrought-affectedprovincesasof Aug2009,right:Evans,J.P.,2009.21stCenturyClimateChange intheMiddleEast.
  7. 7. Scarcity and Drought - Lebanon 2014 - One drought comes rarely alone IAH Congress 2016 Slide 7 bg:MEW,2014.NationalWaterConservationCampaign,Lebanon, fg:TuTiempo.net,2016.http://en.tutiempo.net/climate/ws-401000.html.. 2003-2004 2007-2008 2013-2014
  8. 8. Scarcity and Drought - Lebanon 2014 drought impacted on groundwater and spring discharges IAH Congress 2016 Slide 8 Margane,BGR,2014.
  9. 9. Water and scarcity in the MENA Region Three Levels of (Water) Scarcity IAH Congress 2016 Slide 9 TheWorldBank,2007.MakingtheMostofScarcity.
  10. 10. Non-Renewable Groundwater Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia IAH Congress 2016 Slide 10 WaterWatch,2006
  11. 11. Non-Renewable Groundwater Challenges with “Sustainable Use” •Clear improvement of human well- being and livelihood •An “exit strategy” as the aquifer is depleted •Incorporation of inter- generational equity into its development •Balance between short- term benefits and long-term costs IAH Congress 2016 Slide 11 After:Foster,S.etal.,2003.UtilizationofNon-Renewable Groundwater.GW-Mate. we are here, but where are we going next?
  12. 12. Challenges for Cooperation on Transboundary Water Resources Shared Groundwater – Transboundary Aquifers IAH Congress 2016 Slide 12 Klingbeil&Al-Hamdi,2010. Historic and Prior Use Renewable vs. Non-renewable Groundwater Differences between Recharge and Use and Abstraction Areas Spatial Extent of Surface and Groundwater Catchments Aquifer Management Units ≠ Entire Aquifer / Aquifer System
  13. 13. Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers – Transboundary Water Cooperation Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia IAH Congress 2016 Slide 13 www.waterinventory.org
  14. 14. Water, energy and food in the MENA Region Groundwater between Jordan and Saudi Arabia Energy for Water: Saq-Ram Aquifer System • Exploitable area, • Irrigation areas, • Energy use for groundwater pumping IAH Congress 2016 Slide 14 UNESCWA,2016.
  15. 15. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development • 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) • 169 Targets • 231 Indicators IAH Congress 2016 Slide 15
  16. 16. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), 169 Targets, 231 Indicators IAH Congress 2016 Slide 16 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org
  17. 17. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development SDGs: Goals - Targets - Indicators IAH Congress 2016 Slide 17 17 Goals: universal, integrative, transformative 169 Targets: realistic, ambitious (not too), but not ambiguous 231 Indicators: measurable, combinable
  18. 18. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development SDG for water and sanitation IAH Congress 2016 Slide 18 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org www.unwater.org
  19. 19. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally 6.3.2: Proportion of bodies of water with good ambient water quality Percentage of water bodies (area) in a country with good ambient water quality. (…) electric conductivity/total dissolved solids; percentage dissolved oxygen; dissolved inorganic nitrogen/total nitrogen; dissolved inorganic phosphorus/total phosphorus; and faecal coliform/Escherichia coli bacteria. (…) IAH Congress 2016 Slide 19 www.unwater.org
  20. 20. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity 6.4.1: Change in water use efficiency over time Output from a given economic activity (…), per volume of net water withdrawn by the economic activity. (…) IAH Congress 2016 Slide 20 www.unwater.org
  21. 21. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity 6.4.2: Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources Ratio between total freshwater withdrawn (…) and total renewable freshwater resources. (…) IAH Congress 2016 Slide 21 www.unwater.org
  22. 22. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate 6.5.2: Proportion of transboundary basin area with an operational arrangement for water cooperation Percentage of transboundary basin area within a country that has an operational agreement or other arrangement for water cooperation. For the purpose of the indicator, “basin area” is defined (…) for groundwater as the extent of the aquifer. (…) IAH Congress 2016 Slide 22 www.unwater.org
  23. 23. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development IAH Congress 2016 Slide 23 www.unwater.org ? ? ?
  24. 24. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes 6.6.1: Change in the extent of water-related ecosystems over time Changes over time in (1) the spatial extent of water-related ecosystems (wetlands, forests and drylands); (2) the quantity of water in ecosystems (rivers, lakes and groundwater); and (3) the resulting health of ecosystems.. (…) IAH Congress 2016 Slide 24 www.unwater.org
  25. 25. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development High Level Panel on Water - HLPW IAH Congress 2016 Slide 25 HLPW,2016.ActionPlan.HighLevelPanelonWater,21Sep2016. • Motivate effective action • Advocate on financing and implementation
  26. 26. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development UN Global Water Architecture IAH Congress 2016 Slide 26 Moolenaar,K.,2016.HighLevelPanelonWater&UNGlobalWater Architecture,23Jun2016andGIZ,2016. UN Inter-governmental Body on Water • Motivate follow-up and review of implementation of all water-related goals and targets • Key thematic input to High level Political Forum • Support by secretariat linked to ECOSOC • Minimal implications on UN budget
  27. 27. Way forward – need for more research • Valuation and socio-economic assessments of groundwater use – renewable vs. non-renewable • Social and inter-generational justice – linkages to scarcity, drought and groundwater (miss-)management • Transboundary cooperation through and beyond groundwater • Improved governance of natural resources inc. groundwater IAH Congress 2016 Slide 27
  28. 28. Groundwater for Sustainable Development in the MENA Region Dr. Ralf Klingbeil Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) Hannover, Germany Presentation at IAH Congress 2016

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