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Lecture 6: Urban Water Security

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Lecture 6: Urban Water Security
Dr. Yoshifumi Masago (UNU-IAS)
2018 ProSPER.Net Young Researchers' School
6 March 2018

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Lecture 6: Urban Water Security

  1. 1. Lecture 6: Urban Water Security Yoshifumi Masago United Nations University Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability (UNU-IAS) 2018/3/6 2018 ProSPER.Net Young Researchers’ School (YRS)
  2. 2. Today’s topics • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) • Urbanization, climate change, and urban water • Water resource management in water-scarce region in La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia • Projecting future urban water environment: Jakarta case study 2
  3. 3. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 3
  4. 4. “water” and “sanitation” in SDGs and MDGs • How many SDGs and targets states “water”? • How many SDGs and targets states “sanitation”? • How many MDGs and targets states “water” and “sanitation”? 4
  5. 5. “water” and “sanitation” in MDGs and SDGs • Millennium Development Goals ◦ 8 goals and 21 targets ◦ 0 goal and 1 target with “water” and “sanitation” ◦ Target 7.C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation • Sustainable Development Goals ◦ 17 goals and 169 targets ◦ 1 goal and 14 targets with “water” ◦ 1 goal and 3 targets with “sanitation” ◦ 0 goal and 2 targets with “urban*” 5
  6. 6. “water” in Goal 6 • Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all ◦ 6.1: By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all ◦ 6.2: By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations ◦ 6.3: By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally ◦ 6.4: By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity ◦ 6.5: integrated water resources management ◦ 6.6: protect and restore water-related ecosystems ◦ 6.a: international cooperation 6.b: participation of local communities 6
  7. 7. “water” in other goals ◦ 3.3: By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases ◦ 3.9: By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination ◦ 11.5: By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations ◦ 12.4: environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes ◦ 15.1: terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services ◦ 15.8: invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems 7
  8. 8. Facts about water and health • In 2015, there were 2.4 billion (32%) people who lacked access to an improved sanitation facility. • An estimated 663 million (9%) people do not use an improved source for drinking-water in 2015. 8 Source: “Progress on sanitation and drinking-water – 2015 Update and MDG Assessment”, WHO/UNISEF, 2015.
  9. 9. Facts about water and health • 88% of cases of diarrhea are attributable to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation or insufficient hygiene. • These cases result in 1.5 million deaths each year, most being the deaths of children. • Almost one tenth of the global disease burden could be prevented by improving water supply, sanitation, hygiene and management of water resources. 9 Source: Prss-Üstün et al., “Safe water, better health – Costs, benefits and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health”, WHO, 2008
  10. 10. Hygiene & sanitation conditions in Southeast Asian Nations 10 WHO, 2017
  11. 11. Hygiene & sanitation conditions in Southeast Asian Nations 11 WHO, 2017
  12. 12. Hygiene & sanitation conditions in Southeast Asian Nations 12 WHO, 2017
  13. 13. Hygiene & sanitation conditions in Southeast Asian Nations 13 WHO, 2017
  14. 14. Urbanization, climate change, and urban water 14
  15. 15. • Population increase occurs in urban areas 2015 3 957 285 3 367 497 0 1 000 000 2 000 000 3 000 000 4 000 000 5 000 000 6 000 000 7 000 000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 population(thousands) year Urban population Rural population Urban and rural population 15 Source: UN DESA, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision
  16. 16. Urban population in developed/developing regions • Population increase occurs in urban areas in less developed regions 16 0 1 000 000 2 000 000 3 000 000 4 000 000 5 000 000 6 000 000 7 000 000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 population(thousands) year More developed regions Less developed regions Source: UN DESA, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision
  17. 17. Top 10 urban agglomerations in Asia (2010) 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 25 000 30 000 35 000 40 000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Population[thousand] Year Dhaka Beijing Shanghai Delhi Kolkata (Calcutta) Mumbai (Bombay) Kinki M.M.A. (Osaka) Tokyo Karachi Istanbul Source: UN DESA 17
  18. 18. Climate change and water 18 Source: U.S. EPA
  19. 19. Question 1 • What are anticipated problems related to urban water environment in near future (e.g. 2030)? ◦ Water supply ◦ Sanitation and wastewater management ◦ Water-related disasters ◦ Others 19
  20. 20. Urbanization, climate change and water • Rapid development in urban areas ◦ Increased commercial water demand, decreased green open space, decreased groundwater recharge, increased flooding • Population increase ◦ Increased domestic water use and water for food production ◦ Increased wastewater discharge • Climate change ◦ Less precipitation in dry season ◦ Urban flooding by more frequent and more intense extreme precipitation events 20
  21. 21. Water resource management in water- scarce region: La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia 21
  22. 22. Where is Bolivia? 22
  23. 23. Incachaca dam Hampaturi dam Milluni dam Ajuan Khota dam Condoriri glacier Tuni dam Tilata wells Jankho Khota lake to the Amazon basin Water sources in La Paz and El Alto Huayna Potosi glacier 23
  24. 24. 1975 Source: (IHH-UMSA) © Huayna Potosí Chacaltaya 24
  25. 25. 1987 Source: (IHH-UMSA) © Huayna Potosí Chacaltaya 25
  26. 26. 2000 Source: (IHH-UMSA) © Huayna Potosí Chacaltaya 26
  27. 27. 2009 Source: (IHH-UMSA) © Huayna Potosí Chacaltaya 27
  28. 28. 2012.7.23 Choqueyapu river 28
  29. 29. Total coliform 1.3×105 CFU/mL E. coli 1.1×105 CFU/mL 2012.7.23 Choqueyapu river 29
  30. 30. Total coliform 6.3×105 CFU/mL E. coli 6.3×105 CFU/mL 2012.7.23 El Alto WWTP 30
  31. 31. La Paz 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. Wastewater reuse for agriculture 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. Wastewater reuse for agriculture 35
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. Question 2 • Situation in La Paz ◦ Population is growing rapidly ◦ 1,062,000 (1990), 1,672,000 (2010), 2,308,000 (2030) (UN DESA) ◦ Precipitation: 500 mm/year ◦ Water source: glacier melt water, groundwater (, wastewater) ◦ No wastewater treatment plant in La Paz city ◦ The Choqueyapu River water, heavily contaminated with domestic wastewater, is used for agriculture in the downstream. • Unanswered questions ◦ How can we improve this situation? ◦ What should be prioritized in improving the water management in La Paz and El Alto? 37
  38. 38. Projecting future urban water environment: Manila case study 38
  39. 39. 39 Pollution
  40. 40. 40 Flooding
  41. 41. Our target cities 41
  42. 42. Study Area Marikina-Pasig-San Juan River system 42 Inundation modeling area 334 Km2 Inundation modeling area 401 Km2
  43. 43. Basic Concept of Flood Control Measures in Manila Source: Flood management master plan/vision (JICA, 2014)
  44. 44. Manila case study: Land use land cover change 44 2014 2030
  45. 45. Manila case study: Flood inundation assessment 45 2030: business-as-usual 2030: with measures Current climate
  46. 46. 0 50 100 150 200 BOD(mg/L) Location 2015 2030 Manila case study: Water quality assessment ◦ The Pasig River water quality will be further deteriorated due to population increase and climate change (business-as-usual scenario). ◦ Implementing the master plan will improve the situation remarkably (2030: with measures), but still will not meet the national water quality standards in some stations in the downstream (Manila Bay and Jones Bridge). 46 Napindan/C6 Bambang Bridge Guadalupe Ferry Lambingan Bridge Nagtahan Bridge Jones Bridge Manila Bay Upstream Downstream 0 50 100 150 200 BOD(mg/L) Location 2015 2030 2030: business-as-usual 2030: with measures
  47. 47. Manila case study: Summary • The study found that combinations of the countermeasures can mitigate the change in inundation caused by climate change by roughly 50%. ◦ Structural flood control measures such as river flow capacity improvement, improved diversion channel regulation and dam construction are important in reducing the flood inundation. • In the business-as-usual scenario, flood damage will increase by 212% compared to the current scenario. And the implementation of combined flood risk reduction measures will decrease the damage by 35%. • Incorporating the master plan with enhancing WWTP capacity in the simulation improved the Pasig River water quality significantly. However, some of the stations, especially in the downstream, will not comply with the Class B standards. ◦ It is recommended that local government take additional measures, in addition to the measures mentioned in the master plan. • Question 3: How can these scientific knowledge contribute to policy development? 47
  48. 48. WUI casebook • The case book summarizing the WUI research works will be available in the WUI website. ◦ http://www.water-urban.org/ ◦ Summary for Decision Makers will be available soon (late March), followed by the main report (April – May). • Any questions/comemnts? Email me! ◦ masago@unu.edu 48

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