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www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
ManagingTransboundary Waters for
Sustainable Development:
International Experience
Dr Cl...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
Overview
1. Transboundary waters &
the SDGs
2. Why transboundary
waters matter
3. Cooper...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS & SDGs
SDG 6: Ensure availability & sustainable management
of water...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS & SDGs
SDG 6.5: Integrated water resources management (IWRM)
SDG 6....
TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS & SDGs
SDG 6.5.2: Transboundary cooperation
“…a bilateral or multilateral treaty,
convention, agreeme...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
• A joint body, mechanism, or commission
for transboundary cooperation
• Regular formal ...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS & SDGs
Global overview of SDG 6.5.2
Proportion of
transboundary tot...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS & SDGs
Gap between transboundary surface water and
Proportion of
to...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
Overview
1. Transboundary waters &
the SDGs
2. Why transboundary
waters matter
3. Cooper...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
SDG 6 Synthesis Report 2018 (UN-Water)
WHY TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS MATTER
Water relates to ...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
WHY TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS MATTER
More than half of the world’s waters are transboundary
•...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
WHY TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS MATTER
Growing stress & growing reliance on transboundary water...
Top 5 global risks
in terms of impact
2018World Economic Forum Global Risks Report
2015 2016 2017 2018
Transboundary
confl...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
Overview
1. Transboundary waters &
the SDGs
2. Why transboundary
waters matter
3. Cooper...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
COOPERATION & BENEFIT SHARING
Why do countries cooperate?
Countries cooperate
when they ...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
COOPERATION & BENEFIT SHARING
Four types of benefits
Sadoff &
Grey, 2002
Environmental:
...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
COOPERATION & BENEFIT SHARING
What is benefit sharing?
Benefit sharing is a framework to...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
Knowledge Sharing
o Data & information sharing – Flows, floods, droughts, sediment, fish...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
Economic & Financial Arrangements
o Payment for benefits – fisheries, watershed mgmt., w...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
Overview
1. Transboundary waters &
the SDGs
2. Why transboundary
waters matter
3. Cooper...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION
What counts as a cooperative solution?
It is not an ‘all or no...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION
A cooperation continuum
Unilateral action Joint action
Coopera...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION
A cooperation continuum
Cooperation continuum
• More isn’t alw...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION
A cooperation continuum
Cooperation continuum
Nile Basin
The N...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION
A cooperation continuum
Nile Basin Colorado River
Cooperation ...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION
A cooperation continuum
Nile Basin Colorado River Senegal Rive...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
Lessons from Global Experience
1. Cooperation is an enduring
challenge – with many answe...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
Key questions for enhancing beneficial cooperation
in the Lancang-Mekong River System
1....
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
Thank you
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Managing Transboundary Waters for Sustainable Development: International Experience

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Presented by IWMI's Director General, Claudia Sadoff, at the 1st Lancang-Mekong Water Resources Cooperation Forum in Kunming, Yunnan, China, on November 1, 2018.

Published in: Environment
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Managing Transboundary Waters for Sustainable Development: International Experience

  1. 1. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world ManagingTransboundary Waters for Sustainable Development: International Experience Dr Claudia Sadoff Director General InternationalWater Management Institute November 1, 2018 1st Lancang-MekongWater Resources Cooperation Forum
  2. 2. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Overview 1. Transboundary waters & the SDGs 2. Why transboundary waters matter 3. Cooperation & benefit sharing 4. Examples of transboundary cooperation
  3. 3. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS & SDGs SDG 6: Ensure availability & sustainable management of water & sanitation for all
  4. 4. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS & SDGs SDG 6.5: Integrated water resources management (IWRM) SDG 6.5: By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate • Indicator 6.5.1: Degree of IWRM implementation • Indicator 6.5.2: Proportion of transboundary basin area with an operational arrangement for water cooperation
  5. 5. TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS & SDGs SDG 6.5.2: Transboundary cooperation “…a bilateral or multilateral treaty, convention, agreement or other formal arrangement, such as a memorandum of understanding, between riparian countries that provides a framework for cooperation on transboundary water management” A cooperative arrangement is defined in the SDG methodology as: SDG 6.5.2: Proportion of transboundary basin area with an operational arrangement for water cooperation
  6. 6. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world • A joint body, mechanism, or commission for transboundary cooperation • Regular formal [meetings] communications at least once a year • There is a joint or coordinated water management plan(s) or joint objectives • There is a regular exchange of data and information, at least once per year TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS & SDGs SDG 6.5.2: Transboundary cooperation A cooperative arrangement is considered operational if it meets all the following criteria: Both ‘structure’ & ‘process’ needed for effective cooperation
  7. 7. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS & SDGs Global overview of SDG 6.5.2 Proportion of transboundary total basin area (surface and groundwater) with an operational arrangement for cooperation Source: McCracken and Meyer (2018) J. Hydrol. 563, 1-12.
  8. 8. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS & SDGs Gap between transboundary surface water and Proportion of total transboundary area with an operational agreement Source: McCracken and Meyer (2018) J. Hydrol. 563, 1-12. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Africa America Asia and the Middle East Europe River Basin Aquifer Total groundwater cooperation
  9. 9. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Overview 1. Transboundary waters & the SDGs 2. Why transboundary waters matter 3. Cooperation & benefit sharing 4. Examples of transboundary cooperation
  10. 10. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world SDG 6 Synthesis Report 2018 (UN-Water) WHY TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS MATTER Water relates to all SDGs Water relates to all human, economic & environmental activity It is central to achieving the SDGs
  11. 11. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world WHY TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS MATTER More than half of the world’s waters are transboundary • 60% of global freshwater flows • 286 transboundary rivers, covering about 50% of global land surface • 592 transboundary aquifers, underlying 20% of global land surface • 50% of global population relies on transboundary water resources International River Basins Transboundary Aquifers
  12. 12. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world WHY TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS MATTER Growing stress & growing reliance on transboundary waters • Pressure on shared resources will grow as economies & populations grow • Climate change alters availability, variability & extremes – increasing demand for water storage infrastructure • Infrastructure development likely to be needed but can impact all users ‘closed basins’ IPCC 2018
  13. 13. Top 5 global risks in terms of impact 2018World Economic Forum Global Risks Report 2015 2016 2017 2018 Transboundary conflict & cooperation 2,000 incidents in transboundary basins 1990-2008. Twice as many cooperative events as conflictual. WHY TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS MATTER Rising potential risks and tensions
  14. 14. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Overview 1. Transboundary waters & the SDGs 2. Why transboundary waters matter 3. Cooperation & benefit sharing 4. Examples of transboundary cooperation
  15. 15. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world COOPERATION & BENEFIT SHARING Why do countries cooperate? Countries cooperate when they believe the benefits of cooperation are greater than the costs of cooperation Benefits motivate cooperation The choice between cooperation & conflict depends on perceptions of relative benefits
  16. 16. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world COOPERATION & BENEFIT SHARING Four types of benefits Sadoff & Grey, 2002 Environmental: Increasing benefits To the river Improved ecosystem sustainability, conservation & water quality Economic: Increasing benefits From the river Improved productivity and flood, drought & sediment management Political: Decreasing costs Because of the river Policy shift toward cooperation & development Indirect: Increasing benefits Beyond the river Broader regional cooperation & integration
  17. 17. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world COOPERATION & BENEFIT SHARING What is benefit sharing? Benefit sharing is a framework to facilitate cooperation by helping to identify, optimize & distribute benefits Shifts focus away from sharing water (zero sum) to sharing the benefits derived from water (elastic)
  18. 18. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Knowledge Sharing o Data & information sharing – Flows, floods, droughts, sediment, fisheries Project Design o Project design, location, scale – irrigation, flood protection, ecosystems Ancillary Investments – creating a ‘Basket of Benefits’ o Ancillary investments – additional to core infrastructure to broaden reach of benefits, e.g., rural electrification, local infrastructure, power trade COOPERATION & BENEFIT SHARING Mechanisms for Sharing Benefits
  19. 19. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Economic & Financial Arrangements o Payment for benefits – fisheries, watershed mgmt., water delivery o Compensation for costs – inundated land o Purchase agreements – power o Financing & ownership arrangements – loans or joint ownership Institutional & Policy Development o Operating procedures – dam operations for flood, drought, fisheries o River basin organization - coordination, transparency, fairness o Treaties and legal agreements – to formalize relations COOPERATION & BENEFIT SHARING Mechanisms for Sharing Benefits (cont’d)
  20. 20. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Overview 1. Transboundary waters & the SDGs 2. Why transboundary waters matter 3. Cooperation & benefit sharing 4. Examples of transboundary cooperation
  21. 21. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION What counts as a cooperative solution? It is not an ‘all or nothing’ choice • “Right” level of effort depends on potential benefits • And the costs of capturing benefits
  22. 22. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION A cooperation continuum Unilateral action Joint action Cooperation continuum Monitoring Information sharing Communication & notification Regional assessments Adapt national plans to capture regional gains Identify, negotiate & implement national investments that capture cooperative gains Coordinated infrastructure operation Joint institutions Joint investment Joint project assessment & design Integration Sadoff & Grey, 2005
  23. 23. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION A cooperation continuum Cooperation continuum • More isn’t always better • Cooperation is iterative, so equity is key • The ‘right’ level of cooperation can change over time
  24. 24. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION A cooperation continuum Cooperation continuum Nile Basin The Nile River Burundi, Congo DRC, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan Tanzania, Uganda • Information sharing (Nile Basin Initiative) • Coordination (notifications for water-related investment) • Challenge: Infrastructure development – Reservoir filling and operations
  25. 25. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION A cooperation continuum Nile Basin Colorado River Cooperation continuum • History of treaties & challenges & solutions • Joint Monitoring • Coordinated Infrastructure operations: • Water banking • Environmental flows • Drought planning
  26. 26. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION A cooperation continuum Nile Basin Colorado River Senegal River Cooperation continuum • Joint, indivisible ownership of infrastructure • Infrastructure is managed and operated by an empowered River Basin Organization (OMVS) • Cost & benefit sharing according to a negotiated ‘key’
  27. 27. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Lessons from Global Experience 1. Cooperation is an enduring challenge – with many answers 2. Most successes build information, institutions, capacity & trust 3. The ‘right’ level of cooperation may change over time – driven risks and opportunities 4. Climate change & economic integration are often key drivers
  28. 28. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Key questions for enhancing beneficial cooperation in the Lancang-Mekong River System 1. What is the ‘right’ level and focus of cooperation for the Lancang-Mekong? 2. Is the river system prepared for climate change? 3. Are the river’s resources being sustainably managed & optimized? 4. Are the information systems & institutional mechanisms in place to achieve these goals?
  29. 29. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Thank you

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