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R. Klingbeil, 2015. Water, Water Scarcity and Sustainable Development.

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Klingbeil, R., 2015. Water, Water Scarcity and Sustainable Development. Presentation at UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity”, Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015.

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R. Klingbeil, 2015. Water, Water Scarcity and Sustainable Development.

  1. 1. UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 Water, Water Scarcity and Sustainable Development Ralf Klingbeil, Regional Advisor Environment and Water Inamo,2001.
  2. 2. Page 2 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 How much water will we have next year? TheDailyStar,2015.Lebanon‘srainfalllevellessthan average,14Dec2015.
  3. 3. Page 3 Outline • Water and water scarcity in Lebanon • 2014 - an exceptional year of water scarcity? • Is it necessary to prepare for water scarcity and drought? • Water (and Sanitation) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) • SDG 6: A dedicated SDG for water and sanitation • Water in other SDGs • Goals - Targets - Indicators • Regional developments • Is it necessary to prepare for sustainable development? UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015
  4. 4. Why did we fail to provide sufficient water to all people in Lebanon in the summer of 2014 ? Did we not know about the water shortage to come ? Could we have done better ? Have we not been prepared ? Why didn‘t we do better ? Yes, we can ... be prepared for future water scarcity / drought and provide better services for the people !
  5. 5. Page 5 Water and scarcity in the MENA Region UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 Three Levels of (Water) Scarcity TheWorldBank,2007.MakingtheMostofScarcity.
  6. 6. Page 6 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon “(…) Airport’s Bureau of Meteorology told The Daily Star Wednesday that the lack of rain so far this season is considered “normal.” There is no indication that this winter will witness less rain than usual, an official at the bureau said.” UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2014 … An exceptional water scarce year? TheDailyStar,2013.WatershortageleavesBeirutisfuming, TheDailyStar,2014.Droughtsputagriculture,tourismatrisk.
  7. 7. Page 7 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon Reoccurring dry years have been common in Lebanon’s recent history, with frequent occurrence of 2 to 3 consecutive dry years UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2014 … An exceptional water scarce year? A.Tayar,MEW,2014.EnsuringPreparednessforWater ScarcityinLebanon.37thWSCGMeeting,March2014.
  8. 8. Page 8 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon More critical years: 2003-2004 2007-2008 2013-2014 UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2014 … An exceptional water scarce year? TuTiempo.net,2015. http://en.tutiempo.net/climate/ws-401000.html.
  9. 9. Page 9 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon More critical years: 2003-2004 2007-2008 2013-2014 UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2014 … An exceptional water scarce year? TuTiempo.net,2015. http://en.tutiempo.net/climate/ws-401000.html.
  10. 10. Page 10 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2014 … An exceptional water scarce year? TuTiempo.net,2015. http://en.tutiempo.net/climate/ws-401000.html.
  11. 11. Page 11 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2014 … Groundwater, spring discharges affected A.Margane,BGR,2014.
  12. 12. Page 12 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2014 … Groundwater, spring discharges affected A.Margane,BGR,2014.
  13. 13. Page 13 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2014 … Official reaction on drought: May 2014 A.Tayar,MEW,2014.EnsuringPreparednessforWater ScarcityinLebanon.37thWSCGMeeting,May2014. Water Scarcity Task Force  High level of representation  Chaired by the prime minister or his deputy  Including ministries concerned with the water sector  Key role to engage Council of Ministries in specific matters of national interest that involve multiple ministries Parliamentary  Parliamentary Committee for Public Works, Transport, Energy and Water  Main role: – Oversight on the work of related ministries – Legislation in concerned sectors  3 meetings held so far to discuss the issue of water scarcity Inter-Ministerial  Chaired by the Minister of Energy and Water  Including officially appointed representatives of ministries concerned with the water sector  First meeting held at MEW on May 8, 2014  Key role to find and enforce solutions to address water scarcity and engage inter-ministerial committee if needed Ministerial1 2 1.1 1.2
  14. 14. Page 14 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2014 … Official reaction on drought: May 2014 A.Tayar,MEW,2014.EnsuringPreparednessforWater ScarcityinLebanon.37thWSCGMeeting,May2014.  Deputy Prime Minister, Chairman  Minister of Energy and Water, Member  Ministry of Agriculture, Member  Ministry of Public Works and Transport, Member  Ministry of Industry, Member  Ministry of Environment, Member Composition  Monitor the drought situation during the summer season  Follow up and advise concerned institutions on recommendations to overcome the crisis  Provide proposals to Council of Ministers to address the situation if/when needed Responsibilities
  15. 15. Page 17 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2014 … WASH Working Group: July 2014 WASHWorkingGroupLebanon,2014.UNHCR-UNICEF. “This map shows those villages in the Bekaa area facing water scacrity. Villages have been divided into rankings of high medium and low. (…)”
  16. 16. Page 18 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 July 2014: MEW Water Conservation Campaign MEW,2014.NationalWaterConservationCampaign, started15July2014.
  17. 17. Page 19 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 … but all through 2013-2014: Blue Gold Advertising Campaign CIH,2013.BlueGoldofLebanon.www.cihlebanon.org.
  18. 18. Page 20 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon “Droughts are hard to avert, but their effects can be mitigated. (...) The price of preparedness is minimal compared to the cost of disaster relief. Let us therefore shift from managing crises to preparing for droughts and building resilience.” UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon World Day to Combat Desertification 17 June 2013 UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 Why to prepare for water scarcity and drought? Photo:Cornish,P.,2009.AustraliasDrought.
  19. 19. Page 21 Experiences from the Region UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 Morocco: Proactive Responses for Drought Ouassou,A.etal.,2007.
  20. 20. Page 22 Experiences from the Region UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 Palestine: Risk of Water Scarcity – VA Mapping UNOCHA-PAL,2010.
  21. 21. Page 23 Experiences from the Region UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 Mediterranean Drought Preparedness and Mitigation Planning (MEDROPLAN) Gabiña,D.,MEDROPLAN,2013.
  22. 22. Page 24 Experiences from the Region UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 MEDROPLAN Proposed Planning Framework: Operational Gabiña,D.,MEDROPLAN,2013.
  23. 23. Page 25 Experiences from the Region UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 MEDROPLAN Proposed Planning Framework: Operational Gabiña,D.,MEDROPLAN,2013.
  24. 24. Page 26 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon • Coordinate  Cooperate  Concerted Action • National Strategy to Overcome Water Scarcity (NaSOWaS) • National Monitoring Network • Research on Recharge Mechanisms • Legal Basis for Rationalizing Water Use UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 Recommendations for better preparedness .. R.Klingbeil,2014.CopingwithWaterScarcityinLebanon? SomeSuggestionsandApproachesBasedonExperiences fromtheRegion.37thWSCGMeeting,March2014, www.slideshare.net/RKlingbeil.
  25. 25. Page 27 Water for Sustainable Development UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 Water (and Sanitation) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Water is key for: • Poverty reduction • Inclusive growth • Public health • Food security • Lives of dignity for all • Long-lasting harmony with Earth’s essential ecosystems Cap-NetUNDP,2015and5thGlobalPrizeWinner, KhushneetBhatia10Years,India,UNEP,21stInternational Children'sPaintingCompetitionPhotoGallery.
  26. 26. Page 28 Water for Sustainable Development UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 Water (and Sanitation) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Water Connects and Enables • Water is essential, finite and vulnerable • Water is a driver for development and enables: • Health • Nature • Urbanization • Industry • Energy • Food • Equality Cap-NeUNDPandUN-Water,2015.
  27. 27. Page 29 Water for Sustainable Development UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 25 Sep 2015: The 193-Member United Nations General Assembly adopted • 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, incl. • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org
  28. 28. Page 30 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 Development of Indicators • 17 Goals, 169 Targets, and • How many and which Indicators? • GREEN: Consensus • YELLOW: Unresolved issues • GREY: Lack of metadata, more discussion, methodological questions Challenges: • Keep number of indicators limited, • Maintaining ambition of all SDGs and their targets, covering every aspect of all targets, • Addressing issues of inequality, • Covering all population groups. http://unstats.un.org/sdgs/iaeg-sdgs
  29. 29. Page 31 Water for Sustainable Development UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org Goal 6 Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all 6.1 By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all 6.1.1: Percentage of population using safely managed drinking water services 6.2 By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations 6.2.1: Percentage of population using safely managed sanitation services
  30. 30. Page 32 Water for Sustainable Development UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org Goal 6 Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all 6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally 6.3.1: Percentage of wastewater safely treated, disaggregated by economic activity 6.3.2: Percentage of receiving water bodies with ambient water quality not presenting risk to the environment or human health
  31. 31. Page 33 Water for Sustainable Development UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org Goal 6 Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all 6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity 6.4.1: Percentage change in water use efficiency over time. 6.4.2: Percentage of total available water resources used, taking environmental water requirements into account (Level of Water Stress)
  32. 32. Page 34 Water for Sustainable Development UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org Goal 6 Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all 6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate 6.5.1: Degree of integrated water resources management (IWRM) implementation (0-100) 6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes 6.6.1: Percentage of change in fresh water ecosystems
  33. 33. Page 35 Water for Sustainable Development UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org Goal 6 Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all 6.a By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity- building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation- related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies 6.a.1: ODA for water and sanitation related activities and programmes 6.b Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management 6.b.1: Percentage of local administrative units with established and operational policies and procedures for participation of local communities in water and sanitation management
  34. 34. Page 36 Water for Sustainable Development UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 Mapping of Stakeholders per Goal / Target / Indicator
  35. 35. Page 37 Water for Sustainable Development • Most SDGs depending on water: Water institutions to be aware of links to all SDGs – not only SDG 6 • National Coordination among government institutions, ideally under independent government body / Cabinet • Mapping of Stakeholders per Goal / Target / Indicator • Lead Institutions per Goal / Target / Indicator, plan for consultation with stakeholders … and civil society / public !!! • Data !!! National Statistical Office to seek active cooperation with sector institution and vice versa • Funding for core concerns and capacity development of government staff to improve monitoring quality UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 Conclusions and Recommendations
  36. 36. UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia UNESCO-RFH Conference “Coping with Water Scarcity” Beirut, Lebanon, 14-16 Dec 2015 Water, Water Scarcity and Sustainable Development Ralf Klingbeil, Regional Advisor Environment and Water Inamo,2001.

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