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R. Klingbeil, 2017. Water Resources in the Middle East and North Africa – Challenges and Way Forward

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Klingbeil., R., 2017. Water Resources in the Middle East and North Africa – Challenges and Way Forward. Presentation in the Seminar "International Water Issues", Master Program Hydro Science & Engineering, TU Dresden, 18 Apr 2017.

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R. Klingbeil, 2017. Water Resources in the Middle East and North Africa – Challenges and Way Forward

  1. 1. Water Resources in the Middle East and North Africa – Challenges and Way Forward Dr. Ralf Klingbeil Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) Hannover, Germany Presentation as part of the Module ”International Water Issues“ Master Program Hydro Science & Engineering TU Dresden, 18 April 2017
  2. 2. Middle East North Africa (MENA) Arab / UN ESCWA Region • 22 Arab countries • 18 UN ESCWA member states • Sub-regions • Maghreb • Mashreq • GCC • … plus TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues www.unescwa.org Slide 218 April 2017
  3. 3. TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 3 Arab & World Water Day, 03 & 20 Mar 2015: Falaj Al-Khatmeen and Falaj Dares, Oman 18 April 2017
  4. 4. Opening Quotes “Arabs are already in the heart of the water catastrophe.” “Any delay in a serious response to the water challenge corresponds to mass suicide. The water apocalypse is knocking on Arab doors, right now.” Najib Saab, Secretary General Arab Forum for Environment and Development (AFED) 12 June 2010 TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 418 April 2017
  5. 5. Overview • Many Dimensions of Water • Governance - Demographics - Food - Energy - Water - Land • Regional Conditions • Water Resources and Uses • Water and Social Justice • Transboundary Water and Cooperation • Outlook TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 518 April 2017
  6. 6. World Economic Forum 2016 Global Risks of Highest Concern 2016 TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues WEF,2016.Whatarethetopglobalrisksfor2016? 14Jan2016,http://reports.weforum.org/global-risks-2016. Slide 618 April 2017
  7. 7. World Economic Forum 2017 Global Risks Landscape 2017: Impact vs. Likelihood TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues WEF,2017.TheGlobalRisksReport2017.WorldEconomic ForumGlobalRisksPerceptionSurvey2016.11Jan2017, https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global-risks-report-2017. Slide 718 April 2017
  8. 8. Global Forum for Food and Agriculture (GFFA), Jan 2017 Schmidt (BMEL): “Food security is not possible without water!” TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues http://www.bmel.de/EN/Agriculture/Global-Food-Situation- FAO/_Texte/GFFA-2017.html BMEL: „Agriculture is faced with the task of producing more food with less water “ GFFA Communiqué: Four central challenges: • reducing the risks of water scarcity, • curbing water pollution, • managing surplus water, and • safeguarding adequate access of agriculture to water. Slide 818 April 2017
  9. 9. The World Bank Companies Constraint by Corruption TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues TheWorldBank,2016.EnterpriseSurveys, www.enterprisesurveys.org. 1 in 3 Companies Constrained by Corruption, MENA: 1 in 2 Percent of firms identifying corruption as a major constraint Percent of firms expected to give gifts to get a water connection Slide 918 April 2017
  10. 10. Arab Science and Technology “Arab world’s path to progress goes through science” • R&D as % of GDP • Egypt: 0.4 South Korea: 4.0 • Researchers per million people • Arab region: 371 World: 1,081 • Sudan: 19 Bahrain: 50 Oman: 137 … Egypt: 581 Morocco: 864 Tunisia: 1,394 • Scientific and technical articles: • Arab region: 1.3% of journal entries published • Patent applications: • Arab region: 0.1% at US Patent and Trademark Office (2013) • Disconnect between businesses and R&D community • Egypt: only 5% of R&D from private sector • Gender • Female university students: > 50%, Female researchers: only 37% of researchers TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues www.thearabweekly.com,04March2016 Slide 1018 April 2017
  11. 11. TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 1118 April 2017 Credit: Nicholas Clive Marcroft Let’s talk about water …
  12. 12. Availability, Uses, Challenges • Resources per capita • Non-renewable (ground) water • Droughts • Opportunities TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Inamo,20001. Slide 1218 April 2017
  13. 13. Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand MENA - The Many Dimensions of Water TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Governance Demographics Food Water & Land Energy Slide 1318 April 2017
  14. 14. Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Actual Renewable Freshwater Resources per Capita by Region TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues FAOAQUASTAT,WB2007 Slide 1418 April 2017
  15. 15. Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Percent of Total Renewable Water Resources Withdrawn, by Region TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues FAOAQUASTAT,WB2007 Slide 1518 April 2017
  16. 16. Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Total Renewable Water per Person in ESCWA Region TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues ESCWA,2009 Extreme Water Scarcity Water Scarcity Water Stress Slide 1618 April 2017
  17. 17. Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Total Actual Renewable Water Resources per Capita in MENA TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues FAOAQUASTAT,WB2007 Water Stress Water Scarcity Extreme Water Scarcity Slide 1718 April 2017
  18. 18. Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Sources of Water TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues ICBA,Barghouti,2009 Slide 1818 April 2017
  19. 19. Access to Water and Sanitation Inequalities Between Urban and Rural Areas Inequalities Between Different Countries TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues UNESCWA,2014.SocialJusticeinthePoliciesofArabStates. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Regional Iraq Morocco Somalia Yemen Water Urban Rural 0 20 40 60 80 100 Regional Djibouti Mauretania Morocco Somalia The Sudan Yemen Sanitation Urban Rural • Direct negative impacts esp. on women and children; increasing gender-related social injustice in rural communities Slide 1918 April 2017
  20. 20. Scarcity and Drought - Iraq Displacement due to Drought Water Needs 2008 - 2010 TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues IOM,July2010 Slide 2018 April 2017
  21. 21. Scarcity and Drought - Syria Scarcity of water and groundwater – or scarcity of adequate water governance? Triggers for migration / displacement: • Drought, physical scarcity, • Economic scarcity, inappropriate governance, … TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Left:irinnews.org,2009.Syria’sdrought-affectedprovincesasof Aug2009,right:Evans,J.P.,2009.21stCenturyClimateChange intheMiddleEast. Slide 2118 April 2017
  22. 22. Scarcity and Drought - Syria Scarcity of water and groundwater – or scarcity of adequate water governance? Triggers and drivers for migration and displacement: • Environmental drivers: Physical water scarcity due to long period of drought, possibly related to longer term changes of hydrological patterns as a result / impact of climate change • Economic drivers: Limited employment opportunities, macro-economic policies, neo-liberal deregulatory plans, decrease in oil production, i.e. state revenues, cutting fuel subsidies in May 2008 • Socio-political and demographic drivers: ‘loyalty for patronage’, no real improvement of services, changes in land ownership regulations, youth buldge, Iraqi refugees, Syrian returnees from Lebanon TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Voskoboynik,2016.No,ClimateChangedidnot“cause”theSyrian war.PULSE. Fröhlich2016.ClimateMigrantsasProtestors?Dispelling MisconceptionsaboutGlobalEnvironmentalChangeinPre- RevolutionarySyria.ContemporaryLevant,1,1,38-50. Slide 2218 April 2017
  23. 23. Scarcity and Drought - Lebanon 2014 - One drought comes rarely alone TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues bg:MEW,2014.NationalWaterConservationCampaign,Lebanon, fg:TuTiempo.net,2016.http://en.tutiempo.net/climate/ws-401000.html.. 2003-2004 2007-2008 2013-2014 Slide 2318 April 2017
  24. 24. Scarcity and Drought - Lebanon 2014 drought impacted on groundwater and spring discharges TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Margane,BGR,2014. Slide 2418 April 2017
  25. 25. Water and scarcity in the MENA Region Three Levels of (Water) Scarcity TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues TheWorldBank,2007.MakingtheMostofScarcity. Slide 2518 April 2017
  26. 26. Lebanon Groundwater Recharge: Rain and Snow in Mountains TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 2618 April 2017
  27. 27. Lebanon Where / How Does Recharge Take Place ? TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 2718 April 2017 PartlyfromMargane,BGR,2013.
  28. 28. Lebanon Average precipitation related to snow water equivalent for 2008 to 2012 TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 2818 April 2017 MEW,UNDP,2014.AssessmentofGroundwaterResourcesofLebanon.
  29. 29. Lebanon Research Questions on Recharge Mechanisms TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 2918 April 2017 • What are the exact recharge mechanisms for the most important groundwater discharges, i.e. springs? • Where, when and how much snow is necessary to sustain long term average discharge in most important springs?
  30. 30. Water Quality - Gaza / Palestine, Batinah / Oman Saline Water Intrusion Sanitation / Agricultural Return Flows TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues PWA,2013andZekri,2015,afterAl-Barwani&Helmi,2006. Slide 3018 April 2017
  31. 31. Technical solutions / approaches Managed Aquifer Recharge Aquifer Storage and Recovery TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 3118 April 2017 • The purposeful recharge of water to suitable aquifers under controlled conditions for subsequent recovery or environmental benefit UNESCO,2005.
  32. 32. Subsurface Solutions Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Areas TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 3218 April 2017 Overexploitation of freshwater lenses Upconing of brackish/ saline water Low efficiency of conventional ASR systems Modified after KWR (2015)
  33. 33. Subsurface Solutions SubSol Project TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 3318 April 2017 Modified after KWR (2015) ASR Coastal ASR with partially penetrating wells Freshkeeper Well configurations to prevent upconing Freshmaker Management of freshwater lenses
  34. 34. Subsurface Solutions Freshmaker - Concept TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 3418 April 2017 2 horizontal directional drilled wells (HDDW) – shallow and deep Injection phase Freshwater injection in shallow HDDW1 Saltwater abstraction in deep HDDW2 Abstraction phase Freshwater abstraction in shallow HDDW1 Saltwater abstraction in deep HDDW2  Increase thickness of the freshwater lense; prevent upconing during abstraction
  35. 35. Subsurface Solutions ASR Coastal - Concept TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 3518 April 2017 Infiltration, storage and recovery of freshwater using multiple partially penetrating wells (MPPW) to deal with buoyancy effects Injection phase Freshwater injection in deeper wells Abstraction phase Option 1: Freshwater abstraction in shallow wells Option 2: Additional brackish water abstraction in deeper wells; RO treatment
  36. 36. Subsurface Solutions Freshkeeper - Concept TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 3618 April 2017 The freshwater wells inland are protected by interception of the intruding seawater. The intercepted water is desalinated with reverse osmosis (RO) The membrane concentrate is disposed to the underlying saline aquifer Raat et al. (2015)
  37. 37. Agriculture and Water • Irrigated agriculture: Where and for what? • Economic considerations • Food losses and wastage TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Inamo,20001. Slide 3718 April 2017
  38. 38. Agriculture Contributions to GDP GDP Shares in MENA Region TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues ICBA,Barghouti,2009. Slide 3818 April 2017
  39. 39. Water and food in the MENA Region Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues FAOAQUASTAT,2008. Slide 3918 April 2017
  40. 40. Non-Renewable Groundwater - Food Production Agricultural Groundwater Use, Saudi Arabia TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues 1991 2000 2012 Slide 4018 April 2017
  41. 41. Non-Renewable Groundwater - Food Production Wheat Production, Consumption, and Trade, 1983-2019, Saudi Arabia TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues GeoEconomica,2011.SaudiArabia’sFood Diplomacy:SearchingforFertileGround. Slide 4118 April 2017
  42. 42. Non-Renewable Groundwater - Food Production Accumulated 30 yrs GW Abstractions 1975 - 2004 per Region, Saudi Arabia TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues WaterWatch,2006 Slide 4218 April 2017
  43. 43. Non-Renewable Groundwater Challenges with “Sustainable Use” •Clear improvement of human well- being and livelihood •An “exit strategy” as the aquifer is depleted •Incorporation of inter- generational equity into its development •Balance between short- term benefits and long-term costs TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues After:Foster,S.etal.,2003.UtilizationofNon-Renewable Groundwater.GW-Mate. we are here, but where are we going next? Slide 4318 April 2017
  44. 44. Water and food Food Losses - Food Wastage: Water Losses TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues BCFN,2013.FoodWaste:Causes,ImpactsandProposals. Slide 4418 April 2017
  45. 45. Water and food Food Losses - Food Wastage: Water Losses Total Water Footprint, GB TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues BCFN,2013.FoodWaste:Causes,ImpactsandProposals. X million m3 Slide 4518 April 2017
  46. 46. Water and food Food Losses - Food Wastage: Water Losses MENA Region: Qatar TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Qatar Statistics Authority (QSA): “(...) more than half of the municipal waste generated (...) contains discarded food.” The Peninsula, 05 Jun 2013 Slide 4618 April 2017 http://thepeninsulaqatar.com/qatar/240072-massive-amount-of-food-wa
  47. 47. Transboundary Water Resources • Legal development • Knowledge base • UN ESCWA - BGR Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia (2013) • Transboundary Cooperation TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Inamo,20001. Slide 4718 April 2017
  48. 48. Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers Schematic Diagram of Shared Aquifer TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues RedrawnbyUNESCWA-BGR,2013, basedonPuriandArnold2002. Slide 4818 April 2017
  49. 49. Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers Legal Instruments: Global and Regional TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues 1966 Helsinki Rules 1997 UN Watercourse Convention ... 2014 UNWC Entry into Force 2008 UN GA Law of TBAs 2011 1st UN GA Review 2013 2nd UN GA Review 2016 3rd UN GA Review 1992 UN ECE Water Convention 1999 Protocol on Water and Health 2003 UN ECE Amendment 1998 SADC Water Protocol 2000 SADC Revised Water Protocol 2000 EU WFD 2006 EU GW Dir 2010 AMWC Res for Drafting AWC Annual AMWC Reviews Slide 4918 April 2017
  50. 50. Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers Challenges for Cooperation on Transboundary Water Resources TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Klingbeil&Al-Hamdi,2010. Historic and Prior Use Renewable vs. Non-renewable Groundwater Differences between Recharge and Use / Abstraction Areas Spatial Extent of Surface and Groundwater Catchments Aquifer Management Units ≠ Entire Aquifer / Aquifer System Slide 5018 April 2017
  51. 51. Shared Water Resources TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues www.waterinventory.org Slide 5118 April 2017
  52. 52. TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 5218 April 2017 Shared Water Resources Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia Euphrates River – Syrian Arab Republic The Inventory is… the first UN-led effort to take stock of the region’s shared surface and groundwater resources in a comprehensive, systematic and standardized manner. Key Themes: • Hydrology, hydrogeology • Water resources development and use • Agreements and cross-border management efforts Objectives: • Identify and document the state of shared water resources and their use • Improve the knowledge base and facilitate information access • Create awareness and stimulate informed dialogue within and between riparian countries • Support regional processes towards improved dialogue and cooperation over shared water resources www.waterinventory.org
  53. 53. Shared Water Resources Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia - Overview TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues www.waterinventory.org • A total of 22 shared aquifer systems and 6 shared river basins were identified. • 9 chapters on shared surface waters and 17 chapters on shared aquifer systems, each following a standardized structure and methodology. • 624 pages of detailed information with 60 new maps and over 200 figures, tables and boxes. Slide 5318 April 2017
  54. 54. Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues www.waterinventory.org Slide 5418 April 2017
  55. 55. Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia Saq Ram Aquifer System (West) TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues www.waterinventory.org Example: Saq-Ram Aquifer System (West) ‘Disi’ Aquifer • approximate exploitability • groundwater development Slide 5518 April 2017
  56. 56. Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia Saq Ram Aquifer System (West) TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues www.waterinventory.org Example: Water Use Remote Sensing Studies Agricultural Statistics Slide 5618 April 2017
  57. 57. Shared Water Resources Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues www.waterinventory.org Slide 5718 April 2017
  58. 58. Shared Water Resources Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 5818 April 2017 VISIT OUR WEBSITE www.waterinventory.org contact: waterinventory@un.org United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) P.O. Box 11-8575 Beirut, Lebanon
  59. 59. Shared Water Resources - Transboundary Cooperation Track 2 - Research Cooperation: Kuwait and Neighbours • Neogene Aquifer System (South-East): Dibdibba - Kuwait Group, Dibdibba Delta • Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) research project based on ESCWA - BGR Inventory • Process: • KISR / ESCWA Workshop Shared Groundwater Aquifers in GCC Countries, April 2014, • Support and technical inputs for research proposal on shared groundwater aquifers between Kuwait and neighbouring countries, 2014 - 2015, • Research proposal submitted and under review TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 5918 April 2017
  60. 60. Shared Water Resources - Transboundary Cooperation Track 2 - Research Cooperation: Oman and UAE TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 6018 April 2017 Sultan Qaboos University, Oman and United Arab Emirates University, UAE • Many years of joint research projects between SQU and UAEU, • Funding shared 50%/50%, • Research objectives: • Origin of shallow & deep groundwater along Oman - UAE border, • Age structure of deep & shallow groundwater, • Simulate groundwater flow in basin, construct water balance for basin, estimate safe yields, • Estimation of economic return from water uses for both parties sharing the resource
  61. 61. Shared Water Resources - Transboundary Cooperation Track 1 – Intergov. Cooperation: Jordan River Basin Dialogue • 2013 Request from Palestinian Water Authority (PWA), based on ESCWA - BGR Inventory • UN ESCWA facilitated 1st official Jordan river riparian dialogue between Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine, Amman, April 2014 • Addressed themes: Hydrology and hydrogeology, historic development of water use and options for further riparian cooperation TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 6118 April 2017
  62. 62. Water, Energy and Food in the MENA Region Groundwater between Jordan and Saudi Arabia Energy for Water: Saq-Ram Aquifer System • Exploitable area • Irrigation areas • Energy use for groundwater pumping TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues UNESCWA,2016. Slide 6218 April 2017
  63. 63. Summary - Outlook • Social justice - Inter-generational justice • Ecological sustainable use of renewable water resources • Socio-economic best benefits from non-renewable water resources • Better sector-governance – water integrity • Transboundary cooperation • Sustainable water management: Essential for improved socio-economic development perspectives TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Slide 6318 April 2017
  64. 64. Arab Transformations Yesterday! – Today. – Tomorrow? TU Dresden, Hydro Science & Engineering, International Water Issues Woertz,E.,2013.OilforFood. Slide 6418 April 2017
  65. 65. Water Resources in the Middle East and North Africa – Challenges and Way Forward Dr. Ralf Klingbeil Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) Hannover, Germany Presentation as part of the Module ”International Water Issues“ Master Program Hydro Science & Engineering TU Dresden, 18 April 2017

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