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UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, 18 March 2015
Water for Sustainable Development –
Water for the Future We Want
Ralf Klingbeil, Regional Advisor Environment and Water
Credit: Nicholas Clive Marcroft
Page 3
Ban Ki Moon, SG, United Nations
• “As the world charts a more sustainable future, the crucial interplay
among water, food and energy is one of the most formidable
challenges we face. Without water there is no dignity and no
escape from poverty.”
World Water Day 2011, 22 March 2011
• “Water will play a central role in creating the future we want.”
World Water Day 2012, 22 March 2012
• ”Water holds the key to sustainable development. We need it for
health, food security and economic progress.”
World Water Day 2013, 22 March 2013
• “Our societies cannot prosper without clean, plentiful freshwater.
People cannot thrive without adequate sanitation.”
Budapest Water Summit, 08 October 2013
• “Water is at the core of sustainable development.”
World Water Day 2014, 22 March 2014
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Quotes
http://www.un.org/en/events/waterday/2014/sgmessage.shtml
http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=46214
Page 4
Water for …
Water is key for:
• Poverty reduction
• Inclusive growth
• Public health
• Food security
• Lives of dignity for all
• Long-lasting harmony
with Earth’s essential
ecosystems
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
… Sustainable Development
… The Future We Want
Cap-NetUNDP,2015and5thGlobalPrizeWinner,
KhushneetBhatia10Years,India,UNEP,21stInternational
Children'sPaintingCompetitionPhotoGallery.
Page 5
Outline
• Until 2015 MDGs, challenges remain:
• Water and Social / Inter-generational Justice
• Process towards SDGs
• OWG Proposal for SDGs, July 2014
• Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable
management of water and sanitation for all
• Other proposed SDGs and water related issues
• UN SG Report “The Road to Dignity by 2030”,
December 2014
• Status today: Targets and Indicators
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Page 6
UN ESCWA 28th Ministerial Session, 15-19 Sep 2014
Tunis Declaration on
Social Justice in the Arab Region (1/3)
1. We, the representatives of the member States of the Economic and
Social Commission for Western Asia, assembled in Tunis at the twenty-
eighth ministerial session of the Commission, commit to social justice
as a core value of the Arab and Islamic culture and a foundation for
secure, cohesive and prosperous societies.
2. We shall strive to achieve equality and equity in our countries,
eradicating poverty, securing environmental sustainability and building
partnerships for development, as enshrined in international treaties and
declarations.
3. We note with extreme concern the daunting challenges that the Arab
region is facing in all aspects of human development. We affirm the
importance of addressing threats to social cohesion and combating
water scarcity, food and water insecurity, environmental pollution,
climate change and the increasing debt of poor Arab countries, which
further impede efforts towards social justice and sustainable
development.
(...)
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
www.escwa.un.org/about/gov/sessions/router.asp?SessionID=28
Page 7
UN ESCWA 28th Ministerial Session, 15-19 Sep 2014
Tunis Declaration on
Social Justice in the Arab Region (2/3)
9. We recall the Commission’s resolution 304 (XXVII) of 10 May 2012 on
the role of participation and social justice in achieving sustainable
development, in which it encourages member States to intensify their
efforts to mainstream social justice into sustainable development
strategies and address the concerns of all social groups.
(...)
19. We stress the urgent need for policies to ensure the preservation and
management of increasingly scarce natural resources, in a manner
that respects the environment and guarantees intergenerational
justice.
(...)
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
www.escwa.un.org/about/gov/sessions/router.asp?SessionID=28
Page 8
Water and Social / Inter-generational Justice
Scarcity - Equity - Justice
• Water scarcity, challenge to
• water and environmental management,
• overall sustainable socio-economic development,
nationally and regionally
• Overcoming water scarcity by
• more equitable allocation of water to all parts of society,
• potential to reduce social inequality and
contribute to social justice
• Taking into account future generation’s
• water needs, and
• development opportunities – heart of sustainable development –
contributes to
• improved inter-generational equity,
• inter-generational justice between today and tomorrow
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
UNESCWA,2014.SocialJusticeinthePoliciesofArabStates.
Page 9
MDG 7 Environmental Sustainabilty
Access to Water and Sanitation –
Inequalities Between Countries
• Average access to water and sanitation
relatively high
• Water services: 83%, and
• Sanitation services: 80%
• Significant variations between Arab countries
• Some LDCs with less than 55% access to improved
water sources and sanitation facilities:
• Mauretania,
• Somalia,
• The Sudan, and
• Yemen.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
UNESCWA,2014.SocialJusticeinthePoliciesofArabStates.
Page 10
MDG 7 Environmental Sustainabilty
Access to Water and Sanitation –
Inequalities Between Urban and Rural
• Direct negative impacts esp. on women and children;
increasing gender-related social injustice in rural
communities
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
0 20 40 60 80 100
Regional
Iraq
Morocco
Somalia
Yemen
Water
Urban
Rural
0 20 40 60 80 100
Regional
Djibouti
Mauretania
Morocco
Somalia
The Sudan
Yemen
Sanitation
Urban
Rural
Page 11
Social Justice Today Impacts on
Inter-generational Justice
Social justice in the water sector today is linked to
inter-generational justice:
• Challenges that exist today are impacting on
development opportunities of communities tomorrow
• If not addressed today, development gap may develop
further in the future
• Esp. relevant for those living today in marginalized
communities with access limitations or restrictions
to water and sanitation
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
UNESCWA,2014.SocialJusticeinthePoliciesofArabStates.
Page 12
Inter-generational Justice:
General Aspects
Challenge to find adequate governance and utilization
mechanisms for water resources that either
• Receive no contemporary recharge (i.e. replenishment,
so-called “non-renewable aquifers”), or
• Are abstracted at a rate substantially higher than the natural
replenishment (e.g. overdraft of renewable aquifers)
State required as regulator and guarantor of justice, i.e. fair
distribution between citizens today and future generations:
• “Contrat de nappe“, groundwater contracts between users of
common pool resource, Morocco
• Changes in food security / wheat production policies and
incentives, Saudi Arabia
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Page 13
Non-renewable Groundwater
Agricultural Water Use
e.g. Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
1991
2000
2012
Page 14
Non-renewable Groundwater
Accumulated Groundwater Abstractions
1975 - 2004 per Region for Saudi Arabia
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
WaterWatch,2006.
Page 15
Non-renewable Groundwater
Wheat Production, Consumption, and
Trade, 1983-2019, Saudi Arabia
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
GeoEconomica,2011.SaudiArabia’sFood
Diplomacy:SearchingforFertileGround.
Page 16
Water, ... Energy, Food and Inter-generational Justice
Yesterday ! - Today - Tomorrow ?
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Woertz,E.,2013.OilforFood.
Page 17
Petroleum, Natural Gas, Mining
Saving and Investing
Natural Resource Rents
• Saving and investing natural resource rents can
substantially increase wealth of resource-rich economies
• Economic profits generated from natural resources can
become important financial resources for sustainable
socio-economic development
• Mining sector - although physically unsustainable:
• Sustain economic activities beyond its limited lifetime,
• Transforming wealth generated from resource units into
sustainable forms of economic capital and activities,
including manufacturing, agriculture and services
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Page 18
Non-Renewable (Ground-)Water Reserves
Similar Approaches Possible for Water?
• Non-renewable water reserves face often at least two main
differences to other natural resources:
• Much less valued, and
• Diffused, i.e. distributed among large number of beneficiaries
• If not physically preserved, rights of future generations to
access and utilize same reserves are literally being violated
by current use patterns - wasteful or not
• Depletion of (water) reserves means opportunities are
foregone: Opportunity costs arising – costs that are required
to provide an alternative (water source) for uses of future
generations
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Page 19
Non-Renewable (Ground-)Water Reserves
Similar Approaches Possible for Water?
• Ideally benefits from non-renewable water reserves are
“invested” into “products” that eventually pay out, i.e.
pay back for future generations
• Such “products” could be linked to
• High-tech industries,
• Education,
• Pension schemes, etc.
• Managing non-renewable natural resources in a manner
that guarantees benefits for future generations means:
• Limiting extraction so as to maintain some reserves for future
use, or
• Converting resources into wealth to be invested in long-term and
more sustainable economic activities, including industry
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Page 20
Non-Renewable Reserves – Groundwater, Natural Gas, Petroleum
Sovereign Wealth Funds –
A Solution also for Water?
• Revenues from petroleum and natural gas
incorporated in Sovereign Wealth Funds;
handling national investments into future
development options and wealth protection
schemes
• Revenues from subsidized abstraction of
non-renewable groundwater reserves
rarely included in Sovereign Wealth Funds;
contribute primarily to personal wealth of
few elites
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Page 21
Debt-Increasing Investments in Large Scale Infrastructure
Other Challenges for
Inter-generational Justice
• Investments into large scale water infrastructure:
Storage, production (desalination) or transfer
• Not (re-)financed through direct state budget investments,
• Countries without strong economic or resource base and
little financial strength,
• Accumulation of long term debt,
• Future generations may carry burden of paying off debt
accumulated by their ancestors
• Substantial debt-increasing water infrastructure still rare
• Different from other sectors, i.e. nuclear energy or other
high cost - high tech industries
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Page 22
Water and Inter-generational Justice
What needs to be done …
Inter-generational equity and justice
• Should address
• Preservation of environment for future generations
• Economic and social options for succeeding generations
(match or exceed those of their ancestors)
• Need to focus at least on five areas
1. Fair inter-temporal distribution of natural resource wealth,
2. Just taxation and just accumulation of national debt,
3. Physical stocks of capital,
4. Social and education systems, and
5. Improved income brackets and social mobility for
future generations.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Living on borrowed time
Without a thought for tomorrow
UNESCWA,2014.SocialJusticeinthePoliciesofArabStates.
John Lennon, 22 June 1980
Page 24
Water for …
Water Connects and Enables
• Water is essential,
finite and vulnerable
• Water is a driver for
development and enables:
• Health
• Nature
• Urbanization
• Industry
• Energy
• Food
• Equality
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
… Sustainable Development
… The Future We Want
Cap-NeUNDPandUN-Water,2015.
Page 25
Water for …
Sneak Preview …
• Energy Use for
Groundwater Pumping
2010, and
• Saq-Ram Aquifer System
(West), Exploitable Area
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Water for Energy -
Energy for Water
ESCWA,forthcoming.WaterDevelopmentReport6.
Page 26
Water for Sustainable Development - Water for The Future We Want
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Process Towards SDGs:
Requiring a Logical Structure
Goals:
universal,
integrative,
transformative
Targets:
realistic,
ambitious (not too),
but not ambiguous
Indicators:
measurable,
combinable
Page 27
Water for Sustainable Development - Water for the Future We Want
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Process Towards SDGs
Global
Process
Page 28
Water for Sustainable Development: As Proposed by UN Water
UN-Water’s Technical Advice (TA):
• January 2014:
TA paper adopted, 20th UN-Water
meeting in New York
• February 2014:
TA paper presented, in
connection with PGA
discussion on water,
sanitation and sustainable
energy, New York
• July 2014:
Open Working Group (OWG) adopts
its final report
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Process Towards SDGs
Harlin,J.,2014.UN-WaterTechnicalAdviceonPost-2015
GlobalGoalforWater:SecuringSustainableWaterforAll.
WorldWaterWeek,Stockholm.
Page 29
Water for SD: As Proposed by UN Water
A. Achieve universal access to safe drinking
water, sanitation and hygiene
B. Improve by (x%) the sustainable use and
development of water resources in all
countries
C. All countries strengthen equitable, participatory
and accountable water governance
D. Reduce untreated wastewater by (x%),
nutrient pollution by (y%) and increase
wastewater reuse by (z%)
E. Reduce mortality by (x%) and economic loss
by (y%) from natural and human-induced
water-related disasters
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
UN-Water Technical Advice (TA)
Harlin,J.,2014.UN-WaterTechnicalAdviceonPost-2015
GlobalGoalforWater:SecuringSustainableWaterforAll.
WorldWaterWeek,Stockholm.
Page 30
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
• 17 SDGs (Goals), 169 Targets
• One explicit SDG 6 on water and sanitation
with 8 Targets,
• Chapeau and at least 8 other SDGs with
10 Targets directly or indirectly linked to
water-related issues
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG Proposal for SDGs
OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor
SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
Page 31
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Chapeau
Paragraph 7.
Rio+20 outcome reaffirmed the need to be guided by the
purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, with
full respect for international law and its principles. It reaffirmed the
importance of freedom, peace and security, respect for all human
rights, including the right to development and the right to
an adequate standard of living, including the right to food
and water, the rule of law, good governance, gender equality,
women’s empowerment and the overall commitment to just and
democratic societies for development.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG Proposal for SDGs
OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor
SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
Chapeau
Page 32
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable
management of water and sanitation for all
6.1 by 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe
and affordable drinking water for all
6.2 by 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable
sanitation and hygiene for all, and end open defecation,
paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and
those in vulnerable situations
6.3 by 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution,
eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous
chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of
untreated wastewater, and
increasing recycling and
safe reuse by x% globally
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG Proposal for SDGs
OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor
SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
Goal6
Page 33
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable
management of water and sanitation for all
6.4 by 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency
across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and
supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, and
substantially reduce the number of people suffering from
water scarcity
6.5 by 2030 implement integrated water resources
management at all levels, including through
transboundary cooperation as appropriate
6.6 by 2020 protect and restore water-related ecosystems,
including mountains, forests,
wetlands, rivers, aquifers and
lakes
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG Proposal for SDGs
OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor
SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
Goal6
Page 34
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable
management of water and sanitation for all
6.a by 2030, expand international cooperation and
capacity-building support to developing countries in
water and sanitation related activities and programmes,
including water harvesting, desalination, water
efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse
technologies
6.b support and strengthen the participation of
local communities for improving water and
sanitation management
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG Proposal for SDGs
OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor
SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
Goal6
Page 35
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
1.5 by 2030 build the resilience of the poor and those in
vulnerable situations, and reduce their exposure and
vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and
other economic, social and environmental shocks and
disasters
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG Proposal for SDGs
OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor
SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
Goal1
Page 36
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-
being for all at all ages
3.3 by 2030 end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria,
and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis,
water-borne diseases, and other communicable diseases
3.9 by 2030 substantially reduce the number of deaths and
illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water, and
soil pollution and contamination
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG Proposal for SDGs
OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor
SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
Goal3
Page 37
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and
sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to
make them sustainable, with increased resource-use
efficiency and greater adoption of clean and
environmentally sound technologies and industrial
processes, with all countries taking action in accordance
with their respective capabilities
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG Proposal for SDGs
OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor
SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
Goal9
Page 38
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 11. Make cities and human settlements
inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
11.5 by 2030 significantly reduce the number of deaths and the
number of affected people and decrease by y% the
economic losses relative to GDP caused by disasters,
including water-related disasters, with the focus on
protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG Proposal for SDGs
OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor
SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
Goal11
Page 39
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and
production patterns
12.4 by 2020 achieve environmentally sound management of
chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle
in accordance with agreed international frameworks
and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil
to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and
the environment
12.c Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage
wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, (…),
including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those
harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their
environmental impacts, (…)
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG Proposal for SDGs
OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor
SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
Goal12
Page 40
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and
marine resources for sustainable development
14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and
coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse
impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and
take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy
and productive oceans
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG Proposal for SDGs
OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor
SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
Goal14
Page 41
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable
use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests,
combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation
and halt biodiversity loss
15.1 by 2020 ensure conservation , restoration and sustainable
use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and
their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains
and drylands, in line with obligations under international
agreements
15.8 by 2020 introduce measures to prevent the introduction and
significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species
on land and water ecosystems, and control or eradicate
the priority species
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG Proposal for SDGs
OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor
SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
Goal15
Page 42
Water Aspects Within UN SG Synthesis Report
Six Essential
Elements for
Delivering the
SDGs
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
“The Road to Dignity by 2030”, UN SG
Synthesis Report on Post-2015 Agenda
UNSG,2014.TheRoadtoDignityby2030.SynthesisReport
oftheSecretary-GeneralonthePost-2015Agenda,04Dec
2014,http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015.
Synthesis
Report
Page 43
Water Aspects Within UN SG Synthesis Report
3. Framing the New Agenda - 3.1. Setting the stage
58. (…) the proposal by the Open Working Group of such a
far-reaching set of goals and targets is to be welcomed as a
remarkable step forward in the international community’s quest for
effective solutions to an increasingly complex global agenda.
59. As Secretary-General of the United Nations, I therefore
welcome the outcome produced by the Open Working Group.
(…) I take positive note of the decision of the General
Assembly that the proposal of the Group be the main basis
for the post-2015 intergovernmental process.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
“The Road to Dignity by 2030”, UN SG
Synthesis Report on Post-2015 Agenda
UNSG,2014.TheRoadtoDignityby2030.SynthesisReport
oftheSecretary-GeneralonthePost-2015Agenda,04Dec
2014,http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015.
Synthesis
Report
Page 44
Water Aspects Within UN SG Synthesis Report
3. Framing the New Agenda - 3.1. Setting the stage
63. Member States have agreed that the
agenda laid out by the Open Working Group is the
main basis for the Post-2015 intergovernmental process.
We now have the opportunity to frame the goals and targets in a
way that reflects the ambition of a universal and transformative
agenda.
I note, in particular, the possibility to maintain the 17 goals and
rearrange them in a focused and concise manner that enables
the necessary global awareness and implementation at the
country level.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
“The Road to Dignity by 2030”, UN SG
Synthesis Report on Post-2015 Agenda
UNSG,2014.TheRoadtoDignityby2030.SynthesisReport
oftheSecretary-GeneralonthePost-2015Agenda,04Dec
2014,http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015.
Synthesis
Report
Page 45
Water Aspects Within UN SG Synthesis Report
3.3. Six essential elements for delivering on the SDGs
People: to ensure healthy lives, knowledge, and the inclusion
of women and children
70. The agenda must address (…) reduce the burden of non-
communicable diseases (…); and promote healthy behaviours,
including those related to water, sanitation and hygiene.
Prosperity: to grow a strong, inclusive, and transformative
economy
73. Innovation and investments in sustainable and resilient
infrastructure, settlement, industrialization,
small and medium enterprises, energy and
technology can both generate employment,
and remedy negative environmental
trends.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
“The Road to Dignity by 2030”, UN SG
Synthesis Report on Post-2015 Agenda
UNSG,2014.TheRoadtoDignityby2030.SynthesisReport
oftheSecretary-GeneralonthePost-2015Agenda,04Dec
2014,http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015.
Synthesis
Report
Page 46
Water Aspects Within UN SG Synthesis Report
Planet: to protect our ecosystems for all societies and our
children
75. To respect our planetary boundaries we need to equitably
address climate change, halt biodiversity loss, and address
desertification and unsustainable land use. (…) We must
promote sustainable agriculture, fisheries and food systems;
foster sustainable management of water resources, and of
waste and chemicals;
foster renewable and more efficient energy; decouple economic
growth from environmental degradation, advance sustainable
industrialisation and resilient infrastructure;
ensure sustainable consumption and
production; and achieve sustainable
management of marine and terrestrial
ecosystems and land use.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
“The Road to Dignity by 2030”, UN SG
Synthesis Report on Post-2015 Agenda
UNSG,2014.TheRoadtoDignityby2030.SynthesisReport
oftheSecretary-GeneralonthePost-2015Agenda,04Dec
2014,http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015.
Synthesis
Report
Page 47
The Science Perspective
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Review of Targets for the SDGs
ICSU,ISSC,2015.ReviewoftheSustainableDevelopment
Goals:TheSciencePerspective.Paris:InternationalCouncil
forScience(ICSU).
Science
Perspective
Page 48
The Science Perspective
Review of Targets for the SDGs
ICSU,ISSC,2015.ReviewoftheSustainableDevelopment
Goals:TheSciencePerspective.Paris:InternationalCouncil
forScience(ICSU).
Regrouping:
(I) water, sanitation and health;
(II) reducing pollutant and untreated
waste water discharge into rivers
and water bodies; and
(III) reducing water scarcity by
protecting water sources, increasing
the efficiency of water use, and
better governance.
X
X
Page 49
The Science Perspective
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Review of Targets for the SDGs
ICSU,ISSC,2015.ReviewoftheSustainableDevelopment
Goals:TheSciencePerspective.Paris:InternationalCouncil
forScience(ICSU).
Science
Perspective
The science community supports
this goal but recommends that
steps be taken to strengthen its
credibility through the more
effective use of science and
state-of-the-art data and
information systems and
innovative policy programs.
Page 50
Water for Sustainable Development: As Proposed by UN Water
Target 6.3: by 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution,
eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous
chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated
wastewater, and increasing recycling and safe reuse by x%
globally
Proposed core-indicators:
6.3.1 Percentage of waste water safely treated
Definition & Measurability:
Composite indicator based on treatment ladders for domestic and industrial waste water. -
Partial monitoring framework in place (AQUASAT, IBNET, GLAAS): A waste water
monitoring protocol is proposed to aggregate best national available data. In the absence of
verified national data modelled estimates can be generated using JMP data combined with
treatment performance in different population density and income settings.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
From Goals and Targets to Indicators:
UN-Water Proposal
UN-Water,2015.
Indicators6.3
Page 51
Water for Sustainable Development: As Proposed by UN Water
Target 6.4: by 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency
across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply
of freshwater to address water scarcity, and substantially reduce
the number of people suffering from water scarcity
Proposed core-indicators:
6.4.2 Water Productivity
Definition & Measurability:
Water productivity tracks change in water-use efficiency over time for major sectors,
including energy, domestic, industrial, and agricultural. Value defined for each sector is
divided by water withdrawn or consumed. The indicator can be aggregated to reflect overall
change in productivity across sectors or disaggregated to the sector level. The indicator can
be calculated using existing datasets including National Accounts Main Aggregates (UNSD),
Aquastat (FAO), World Energy Outlook (International Energy Agency), World Bank
demographic datasets, and WaterStat Database (Water Footprint Network). Further
development of the monitoring framework
is needed to integrate these datasets and
to fill existing data gaps.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
From Goals and Targets to Indicators:
UN-Water Proposal
UN-Water,2015.
Indicators6.4
Page 52
Water for Sustainable Development: As Proposed by UN Water
Target 6.6: by 2020 protect and restore water-related ecosystems,
including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
Proposed core-indicators:
6.6.1 Change in wetlands extent over time (% change over time)
Definition & Measurability:
The Change in Wetland Extent uses an existing methodology for data collection and
analysis to calculate a global average of change in wetland extent and can be disaggregated
geographically and by wetland type. The Ramsar broad definition of "wetland" is used which
includes rivers and lakes (enabling three of the biome types mentioned in the target to be
assessed - wetlands, rivers, lakes - plus other wetland types). Universal coverage.
Monitoring and Reporting Framework in-place: Ramsar Convention through its regular State
of the World’s Wetlands and their Services reports and is also a sub-indicator for Aichi
Biodiversity Target 14 (with reporting mechanism in place for that). The proposed indicator is
intelligible, sensitive to drivers and protection and restoration measures, comparable over
time, and universally applicable.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
From Goals and Targets to Indicators:
UN-Water Proposal
UN-Water,2015.
Indicators6.6
Page 53
Water for Sustainable Development - Water for the Future We Want
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Outlook
Global
Process
Page 54
Water for Sustainable Development - Water for the Future We Want
• March 2015
Sustainable Development Goals and Targets
• April 2015
Framework for Monitoring and Review of Implementation
• May 2015
2nd Arab Sustainable Development Forum, Bahrain
• May 2015
Means of Implementation and Revitalised Global Partnership
• July 2015
Finalization of the Outcome Document
• September 2015
UN General Assembly
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Outlook
Next
Steps
What is the Future We Want?
What is the Future You Want?
UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, 18 March 2015
Water for Sustainable Development –
Water for the Future We Want
Ralf Klingbeil, Regional Advisor Environment and Water

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R. Klingbeil, 2015. Water for Sustainable Development - Water for the Future We Want.

  • 1. UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, 18 March 2015 Water for Sustainable Development – Water for the Future We Want Ralf Klingbeil, Regional Advisor Environment and Water
  • 3. Page 3 Ban Ki Moon, SG, United Nations • “As the world charts a more sustainable future, the crucial interplay among water, food and energy is one of the most formidable challenges we face. Without water there is no dignity and no escape from poverty.” World Water Day 2011, 22 March 2011 • “Water will play a central role in creating the future we want.” World Water Day 2012, 22 March 2012 • ”Water holds the key to sustainable development. We need it for health, food security and economic progress.” World Water Day 2013, 22 March 2013 • “Our societies cannot prosper without clean, plentiful freshwater. People cannot thrive without adequate sanitation.” Budapest Water Summit, 08 October 2013 • “Water is at the core of sustainable development.” World Water Day 2014, 22 March 2014 World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 Quotes http://www.un.org/en/events/waterday/2014/sgmessage.shtml http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=46214
  • 4. Page 4 Water for … Water is key for: • Poverty reduction • Inclusive growth • Public health • Food security • Lives of dignity for all • Long-lasting harmony with Earth’s essential ecosystems World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 … Sustainable Development … The Future We Want Cap-NetUNDP,2015and5thGlobalPrizeWinner, KhushneetBhatia10Years,India,UNEP,21stInternational Children'sPaintingCompetitionPhotoGallery.
  • 5. Page 5 Outline • Until 2015 MDGs, challenges remain: • Water and Social / Inter-generational Justice • Process towards SDGs • OWG Proposal for SDGs, July 2014 • Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all • Other proposed SDGs and water related issues • UN SG Report “The Road to Dignity by 2030”, December 2014 • Status today: Targets and Indicators World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
  • 6. Page 6 UN ESCWA 28th Ministerial Session, 15-19 Sep 2014 Tunis Declaration on Social Justice in the Arab Region (1/3) 1. We, the representatives of the member States of the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, assembled in Tunis at the twenty- eighth ministerial session of the Commission, commit to social justice as a core value of the Arab and Islamic culture and a foundation for secure, cohesive and prosperous societies. 2. We shall strive to achieve equality and equity in our countries, eradicating poverty, securing environmental sustainability and building partnerships for development, as enshrined in international treaties and declarations. 3. We note with extreme concern the daunting challenges that the Arab region is facing in all aspects of human development. We affirm the importance of addressing threats to social cohesion and combating water scarcity, food and water insecurity, environmental pollution, climate change and the increasing debt of poor Arab countries, which further impede efforts towards social justice and sustainable development. (...) World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 www.escwa.un.org/about/gov/sessions/router.asp?SessionID=28
  • 7. Page 7 UN ESCWA 28th Ministerial Session, 15-19 Sep 2014 Tunis Declaration on Social Justice in the Arab Region (2/3) 9. We recall the Commission’s resolution 304 (XXVII) of 10 May 2012 on the role of participation and social justice in achieving sustainable development, in which it encourages member States to intensify their efforts to mainstream social justice into sustainable development strategies and address the concerns of all social groups. (...) 19. We stress the urgent need for policies to ensure the preservation and management of increasingly scarce natural resources, in a manner that respects the environment and guarantees intergenerational justice. (...) World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 www.escwa.un.org/about/gov/sessions/router.asp?SessionID=28
  • 8. Page 8 Water and Social / Inter-generational Justice Scarcity - Equity - Justice • Water scarcity, challenge to • water and environmental management, • overall sustainable socio-economic development, nationally and regionally • Overcoming water scarcity by • more equitable allocation of water to all parts of society, • potential to reduce social inequality and contribute to social justice • Taking into account future generation’s • water needs, and • development opportunities – heart of sustainable development – contributes to • improved inter-generational equity, • inter-generational justice between today and tomorrow World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 UNESCWA,2014.SocialJusticeinthePoliciesofArabStates.
  • 9. Page 9 MDG 7 Environmental Sustainabilty Access to Water and Sanitation – Inequalities Between Countries • Average access to water and sanitation relatively high • Water services: 83%, and • Sanitation services: 80% • Significant variations between Arab countries • Some LDCs with less than 55% access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities: • Mauretania, • Somalia, • The Sudan, and • Yemen. World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 UNESCWA,2014.SocialJusticeinthePoliciesofArabStates.
  • 10. Page 10 MDG 7 Environmental Sustainabilty Access to Water and Sanitation – Inequalities Between Urban and Rural • Direct negative impacts esp. on women and children; increasing gender-related social injustice in rural communities World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 0 20 40 60 80 100 Regional Iraq Morocco Somalia Yemen Water Urban Rural 0 20 40 60 80 100 Regional Djibouti Mauretania Morocco Somalia The Sudan Yemen Sanitation Urban Rural
  • 11. Page 11 Social Justice Today Impacts on Inter-generational Justice Social justice in the water sector today is linked to inter-generational justice: • Challenges that exist today are impacting on development opportunities of communities tomorrow • If not addressed today, development gap may develop further in the future • Esp. relevant for those living today in marginalized communities with access limitations or restrictions to water and sanitation World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 UNESCWA,2014.SocialJusticeinthePoliciesofArabStates.
  • 12. Page 12 Inter-generational Justice: General Aspects Challenge to find adequate governance and utilization mechanisms for water resources that either • Receive no contemporary recharge (i.e. replenishment, so-called “non-renewable aquifers”), or • Are abstracted at a rate substantially higher than the natural replenishment (e.g. overdraft of renewable aquifers) State required as regulator and guarantor of justice, i.e. fair distribution between citizens today and future generations: • “Contrat de nappe“, groundwater contracts between users of common pool resource, Morocco • Changes in food security / wheat production policies and incentives, Saudi Arabia World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
  • 13. Page 13 Non-renewable Groundwater Agricultural Water Use e.g. Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 1991 2000 2012
  • 14. Page 14 Non-renewable Groundwater Accumulated Groundwater Abstractions 1975 - 2004 per Region for Saudi Arabia World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 WaterWatch,2006.
  • 15. Page 15 Non-renewable Groundwater Wheat Production, Consumption, and Trade, 1983-2019, Saudi Arabia World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 GeoEconomica,2011.SaudiArabia’sFood Diplomacy:SearchingforFertileGround.
  • 16. Page 16 Water, ... Energy, Food and Inter-generational Justice Yesterday ! - Today - Tomorrow ? World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 Woertz,E.,2013.OilforFood.
  • 17. Page 17 Petroleum, Natural Gas, Mining Saving and Investing Natural Resource Rents • Saving and investing natural resource rents can substantially increase wealth of resource-rich economies • Economic profits generated from natural resources can become important financial resources for sustainable socio-economic development • Mining sector - although physically unsustainable: • Sustain economic activities beyond its limited lifetime, • Transforming wealth generated from resource units into sustainable forms of economic capital and activities, including manufacturing, agriculture and services World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
  • 18. Page 18 Non-Renewable (Ground-)Water Reserves Similar Approaches Possible for Water? • Non-renewable water reserves face often at least two main differences to other natural resources: • Much less valued, and • Diffused, i.e. distributed among large number of beneficiaries • If not physically preserved, rights of future generations to access and utilize same reserves are literally being violated by current use patterns - wasteful or not • Depletion of (water) reserves means opportunities are foregone: Opportunity costs arising – costs that are required to provide an alternative (water source) for uses of future generations World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
  • 19. Page 19 Non-Renewable (Ground-)Water Reserves Similar Approaches Possible for Water? • Ideally benefits from non-renewable water reserves are “invested” into “products” that eventually pay out, i.e. pay back for future generations • Such “products” could be linked to • High-tech industries, • Education, • Pension schemes, etc. • Managing non-renewable natural resources in a manner that guarantees benefits for future generations means: • Limiting extraction so as to maintain some reserves for future use, or • Converting resources into wealth to be invested in long-term and more sustainable economic activities, including industry World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
  • 20. Page 20 Non-Renewable Reserves – Groundwater, Natural Gas, Petroleum Sovereign Wealth Funds – A Solution also for Water? • Revenues from petroleum and natural gas incorporated in Sovereign Wealth Funds; handling national investments into future development options and wealth protection schemes • Revenues from subsidized abstraction of non-renewable groundwater reserves rarely included in Sovereign Wealth Funds; contribute primarily to personal wealth of few elites World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
  • 21. Page 21 Debt-Increasing Investments in Large Scale Infrastructure Other Challenges for Inter-generational Justice • Investments into large scale water infrastructure: Storage, production (desalination) or transfer • Not (re-)financed through direct state budget investments, • Countries without strong economic or resource base and little financial strength, • Accumulation of long term debt, • Future generations may carry burden of paying off debt accumulated by their ancestors • Substantial debt-increasing water infrastructure still rare • Different from other sectors, i.e. nuclear energy or other high cost - high tech industries World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
  • 22. Page 22 Water and Inter-generational Justice What needs to be done … Inter-generational equity and justice • Should address • Preservation of environment for future generations • Economic and social options for succeeding generations (match or exceed those of their ancestors) • Need to focus at least on five areas 1. Fair inter-temporal distribution of natural resource wealth, 2. Just taxation and just accumulation of national debt, 3. Physical stocks of capital, 4. Social and education systems, and 5. Improved income brackets and social mobility for future generations. World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
  • 23. Living on borrowed time Without a thought for tomorrow UNESCWA,2014.SocialJusticeinthePoliciesofArabStates. John Lennon, 22 June 1980
  • 24. Page 24 Water for … Water Connects and Enables • Water is essential, finite and vulnerable • Water is a driver for development and enables: • Health • Nature • Urbanization • Industry • Energy • Food • Equality World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 … Sustainable Development … The Future We Want Cap-NeUNDPandUN-Water,2015.
  • 25. Page 25 Water for … Sneak Preview … • Energy Use for Groundwater Pumping 2010, and • Saq-Ram Aquifer System (West), Exploitable Area World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 Water for Energy - Energy for Water ESCWA,forthcoming.WaterDevelopmentReport6.
  • 26. Page 26 Water for Sustainable Development - Water for The Future We Want World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 Process Towards SDGs: Requiring a Logical Structure Goals: universal, integrative, transformative Targets: realistic, ambitious (not too), but not ambiguous Indicators: measurable, combinable
  • 27. Page 27 Water for Sustainable Development - Water for the Future We Want World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 Process Towards SDGs Global Process
  • 28. Page 28 Water for Sustainable Development: As Proposed by UN Water UN-Water’s Technical Advice (TA): • January 2014: TA paper adopted, 20th UN-Water meeting in New York • February 2014: TA paper presented, in connection with PGA discussion on water, sanitation and sustainable energy, New York • July 2014: Open Working Group (OWG) adopts its final report World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 Process Towards SDGs Harlin,J.,2014.UN-WaterTechnicalAdviceonPost-2015 GlobalGoalforWater:SecuringSustainableWaterforAll. WorldWaterWeek,Stockholm.
  • 29. Page 29 Water for SD: As Proposed by UN Water A. Achieve universal access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene B. Improve by (x%) the sustainable use and development of water resources in all countries C. All countries strengthen equitable, participatory and accountable water governance D. Reduce untreated wastewater by (x%), nutrient pollution by (y%) and increase wastewater reuse by (z%) E. Reduce mortality by (x%) and economic loss by (y%) from natural and human-induced water-related disasters World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 UN-Water Technical Advice (TA) Harlin,J.,2014.UN-WaterTechnicalAdviceonPost-2015 GlobalGoalforWater:SecuringSustainableWaterforAll. WorldWaterWeek,Stockholm.
  • 30. Page 30 Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs • 17 SDGs (Goals), 169 Targets • One explicit SDG 6 on water and sanitation with 8 Targets, • Chapeau and at least 8 other SDGs with 10 Targets directly or indirectly linked to water-related issues World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 OWG Proposal for SDGs OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
  • 31. Page 31 Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs Chapeau Paragraph 7. Rio+20 outcome reaffirmed the need to be guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, with full respect for international law and its principles. It reaffirmed the importance of freedom, peace and security, respect for all human rights, including the right to development and the right to an adequate standard of living, including the right to food and water, the rule of law, good governance, gender equality, women’s empowerment and the overall commitment to just and democratic societies for development. World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 OWG Proposal for SDGs OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html. Chapeau
  • 32. Page 32 Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs Proposed goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all 6.1 by 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all 6.2 by 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations 6.3 by 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater, and increasing recycling and safe reuse by x% globally World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 OWG Proposal for SDGs OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html. Goal6
  • 33. Page 33 Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs Proposed goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all 6.4 by 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity 6.5 by 2030 implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate 6.6 by 2020 protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 OWG Proposal for SDGs OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html. Goal6
  • 34. Page 34 Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs Proposed goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all 6.a by 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water and sanitation related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies 6.b support and strengthen the participation of local communities for improving water and sanitation management World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 OWG Proposal for SDGs OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html. Goal6
  • 35. Page 35 Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs Proposed goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere 1.5 by 2030 build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations, and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 OWG Proposal for SDGs OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html. Goal1
  • 36. Page 36 Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs Proposed goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well- being for all at all ages 3.3 by 2030 end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases, and other communicable diseases 3.9 by 2030 substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water, and soil pollution and contamination World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 OWG Proposal for SDGs OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html. Goal3
  • 37. Page 37 Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation 9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 OWG Proposal for SDGs OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html. Goal9
  • 38. Page 38 Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs Proposed goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable 11.5 by 2030 significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of affected people and decrease by y% the economic losses relative to GDP caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with the focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 OWG Proposal for SDGs OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html. Goal11
  • 39. Page 39 Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs Proposed goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns 12.4 by 2020 achieve environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle in accordance with agreed international frameworks and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment 12.c Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, (…), including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, (…) World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 OWG Proposal for SDGs OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html. Goal12
  • 40. Page 40 Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development 14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 OWG Proposal for SDGs OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html. Goal14
  • 41. Page 41 Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs Proposed goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss 15.1 by 2020 ensure conservation , restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements 15.8 by 2020 introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems, and control or eradicate the priority species World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 OWG Proposal for SDGs OWG,2014.ProposalofTheOpenWorkingGroupfor SustainableDevelopmentGoals,19Jul2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html. Goal15
  • 42. Page 42 Water Aspects Within UN SG Synthesis Report Six Essential Elements for Delivering the SDGs World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 “The Road to Dignity by 2030”, UN SG Synthesis Report on Post-2015 Agenda UNSG,2014.TheRoadtoDignityby2030.SynthesisReport oftheSecretary-GeneralonthePost-2015Agenda,04Dec 2014,http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015. Synthesis Report
  • 43. Page 43 Water Aspects Within UN SG Synthesis Report 3. Framing the New Agenda - 3.1. Setting the stage 58. (…) the proposal by the Open Working Group of such a far-reaching set of goals and targets is to be welcomed as a remarkable step forward in the international community’s quest for effective solutions to an increasingly complex global agenda. 59. As Secretary-General of the United Nations, I therefore welcome the outcome produced by the Open Working Group. (…) I take positive note of the decision of the General Assembly that the proposal of the Group be the main basis for the post-2015 intergovernmental process. World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 “The Road to Dignity by 2030”, UN SG Synthesis Report on Post-2015 Agenda UNSG,2014.TheRoadtoDignityby2030.SynthesisReport oftheSecretary-GeneralonthePost-2015Agenda,04Dec 2014,http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015. Synthesis Report
  • 44. Page 44 Water Aspects Within UN SG Synthesis Report 3. Framing the New Agenda - 3.1. Setting the stage 63. Member States have agreed that the agenda laid out by the Open Working Group is the main basis for the Post-2015 intergovernmental process. We now have the opportunity to frame the goals and targets in a way that reflects the ambition of a universal and transformative agenda. I note, in particular, the possibility to maintain the 17 goals and rearrange them in a focused and concise manner that enables the necessary global awareness and implementation at the country level. World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 “The Road to Dignity by 2030”, UN SG Synthesis Report on Post-2015 Agenda UNSG,2014.TheRoadtoDignityby2030.SynthesisReport oftheSecretary-GeneralonthePost-2015Agenda,04Dec 2014,http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015. Synthesis Report
  • 45. Page 45 Water Aspects Within UN SG Synthesis Report 3.3. Six essential elements for delivering on the SDGs People: to ensure healthy lives, knowledge, and the inclusion of women and children 70. The agenda must address (…) reduce the burden of non- communicable diseases (…); and promote healthy behaviours, including those related to water, sanitation and hygiene. Prosperity: to grow a strong, inclusive, and transformative economy 73. Innovation and investments in sustainable and resilient infrastructure, settlement, industrialization, small and medium enterprises, energy and technology can both generate employment, and remedy negative environmental trends. World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 “The Road to Dignity by 2030”, UN SG Synthesis Report on Post-2015 Agenda UNSG,2014.TheRoadtoDignityby2030.SynthesisReport oftheSecretary-GeneralonthePost-2015Agenda,04Dec 2014,http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015. Synthesis Report
  • 46. Page 46 Water Aspects Within UN SG Synthesis Report Planet: to protect our ecosystems for all societies and our children 75. To respect our planetary boundaries we need to equitably address climate change, halt biodiversity loss, and address desertification and unsustainable land use. (…) We must promote sustainable agriculture, fisheries and food systems; foster sustainable management of water resources, and of waste and chemicals; foster renewable and more efficient energy; decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, advance sustainable industrialisation and resilient infrastructure; ensure sustainable consumption and production; and achieve sustainable management of marine and terrestrial ecosystems and land use. World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 “The Road to Dignity by 2030”, UN SG Synthesis Report on Post-2015 Agenda UNSG,2014.TheRoadtoDignityby2030.SynthesisReport oftheSecretary-GeneralonthePost-2015Agenda,04Dec 2014,http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015. Synthesis Report
  • 47. Page 47 The Science Perspective World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 Review of Targets for the SDGs ICSU,ISSC,2015.ReviewoftheSustainableDevelopment Goals:TheSciencePerspective.Paris:InternationalCouncil forScience(ICSU). Science Perspective
  • 48. Page 48 The Science Perspective Review of Targets for the SDGs ICSU,ISSC,2015.ReviewoftheSustainableDevelopment Goals:TheSciencePerspective.Paris:InternationalCouncil forScience(ICSU). Regrouping: (I) water, sanitation and health; (II) reducing pollutant and untreated waste water discharge into rivers and water bodies; and (III) reducing water scarcity by protecting water sources, increasing the efficiency of water use, and better governance. X X
  • 49. Page 49 The Science Perspective World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 Review of Targets for the SDGs ICSU,ISSC,2015.ReviewoftheSustainableDevelopment Goals:TheSciencePerspective.Paris:InternationalCouncil forScience(ICSU). Science Perspective The science community supports this goal but recommends that steps be taken to strengthen its credibility through the more effective use of science and state-of-the-art data and information systems and innovative policy programs.
  • 50. Page 50 Water for Sustainable Development: As Proposed by UN Water Target 6.3: by 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater, and increasing recycling and safe reuse by x% globally Proposed core-indicators: 6.3.1 Percentage of waste water safely treated Definition & Measurability: Composite indicator based on treatment ladders for domestic and industrial waste water. - Partial monitoring framework in place (AQUASAT, IBNET, GLAAS): A waste water monitoring protocol is proposed to aggregate best national available data. In the absence of verified national data modelled estimates can be generated using JMP data combined with treatment performance in different population density and income settings. World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 From Goals and Targets to Indicators: UN-Water Proposal UN-Water,2015. Indicators6.3
  • 51. Page 51 Water for Sustainable Development: As Proposed by UN Water Target 6.4: by 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity Proposed core-indicators: 6.4.2 Water Productivity Definition & Measurability: Water productivity tracks change in water-use efficiency over time for major sectors, including energy, domestic, industrial, and agricultural. Value defined for each sector is divided by water withdrawn or consumed. The indicator can be aggregated to reflect overall change in productivity across sectors or disaggregated to the sector level. The indicator can be calculated using existing datasets including National Accounts Main Aggregates (UNSD), Aquastat (FAO), World Energy Outlook (International Energy Agency), World Bank demographic datasets, and WaterStat Database (Water Footprint Network). Further development of the monitoring framework is needed to integrate these datasets and to fill existing data gaps. World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 From Goals and Targets to Indicators: UN-Water Proposal UN-Water,2015. Indicators6.4
  • 52. Page 52 Water for Sustainable Development: As Proposed by UN Water Target 6.6: by 2020 protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes Proposed core-indicators: 6.6.1 Change in wetlands extent over time (% change over time) Definition & Measurability: The Change in Wetland Extent uses an existing methodology for data collection and analysis to calculate a global average of change in wetland extent and can be disaggregated geographically and by wetland type. The Ramsar broad definition of "wetland" is used which includes rivers and lakes (enabling three of the biome types mentioned in the target to be assessed - wetlands, rivers, lakes - plus other wetland types). Universal coverage. Monitoring and Reporting Framework in-place: Ramsar Convention through its regular State of the World’s Wetlands and their Services reports and is also a sub-indicator for Aichi Biodiversity Target 14 (with reporting mechanism in place for that). The proposed indicator is intelligible, sensitive to drivers and protection and restoration measures, comparable over time, and universally applicable. World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 From Goals and Targets to Indicators: UN-Water Proposal UN-Water,2015. Indicators6.6
  • 53. Page 53 Water for Sustainable Development - Water for the Future We Want World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 Outlook Global Process
  • 54. Page 54 Water for Sustainable Development - Water for the Future We Want • March 2015 Sustainable Development Goals and Targets • April 2015 Framework for Monitoring and Review of Implementation • May 2015 2nd Arab Sustainable Development Forum, Bahrain • May 2015 Means of Implementation and Revitalised Global Partnership • July 2015 Finalization of the Outcome Document • September 2015 UN General Assembly World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015 Outlook Next Steps
  • 55. What is the Future We Want? What is the Future You Want?
  • 56. UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, 18 March 2015 Water for Sustainable Development – Water for the Future We Want Ralf Klingbeil, Regional Advisor Environment and Water