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UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia 
Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiatio...
Page 2 
Outline 
•Challenges for Cooperation on Shared Water Resources 
•Groundwater 
•Common Basis for Cooperation 
•Comm...
Page 3 
Challenges for Cooperation on Shared Water Resources 
Schematic Diagram of a Shared Aquifer and Groundwater Flow D...
Page 4 
Challenges for Cooperation on Shared Water Resources 
Shared Groundwater – Transboundary Aquifers 
Advancing Hydro...
Page 5 
Challenges for Cooperation on Shared Water Resources 
Shared Groundwater: Historic and Prior Use 
Advancing Hydro-...
Page 6 
Challenges for Cooperation on Shared Water Resources 
Renewable vs. Non-renewable: Agriculture, Wadi Al-Sirhan, Sa...
Page 7 
Challenges for Cooperation on Shared Water Resources 
Renewable vs. Non-renewable: Acc. GW Abstr. 1975-2004 in Sau...
Page 8 
Challenges for Cooperation on Shared Water Resources 
Different Spatial Extend of 
Surface and Groundwater Catchme...
Page 9 
Common Basis for Cooperation 
Common Language Common Terminology 
•What is an Aquifer? 
•Permeable water-bearing f...
Page 10 
Common Basis for Cooperation 
Legal Instruments: Global and Regional 
Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared...
Page 11 
Common Basis for Cooperation 
Legal Framework for Cooperation on Shared Water in the Arab Region 
•Legal Framewor...
Page 12 
Common Basis for Cooperation 
Bi- and Multi-lateral Agreements and Cooperation 
•Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System ...
Page 13 
Common Basis for Cooperation 
Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia 
INVENTORY OF SHARED WATER RESO...
Page 14 
Common Basis for Cooperation 
Inventory - Chapter Features - Groundwater 
Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Sh...
Page 15 
Common Basis for Cooperation 
Shared Groundwater in Western Asia - Cenozoic Era 
Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills...
Page 16 
Common Basis for Cooperation 
Saq Ram Aquifer System (West) 
Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Re...
Page 17 
Common Basis for Cooperation 
Saq Ram Aquifer System (West) 
Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Re...
Page 18 
Trust Building and Dialogues 
TBA Research Cooperation between Kuwait and Neighbouring Countries 
•Kuwait Institu...
Page 19 
Compiled by ESCWA-BGR based on Rizk & Alsharhan, 2008; MRMWR, Oman, 2005. 
Trust Building and Dialogues 
TBA Rese...
Page 20 
Trust Building and Dialogues 
Jordan River Basin Dialogue 
•Requested by Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) 
•Base...
Page 21 
Conclusions and Outlook 
•Expecting global UNWC to create necessary push and mobilize more funding to support coo...
UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia 
Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiatio...
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R. Klingbeil, 2014. State of Water, Resources and Use, Trust Building and Dialogues as Basis for Enhancing Cooperation.

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Klingbeil, R., 2014. State of Water, Resources and Use, Trust Building and Dialogues as Basis for Enhancing Cooperation. Presentation at the LAS, AWC, CEDARE, UN ESCWA Workshop “Advancing Hydro-Diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations”, 3rd Arab Water Forum, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014.

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R. Klingbeil, 2014. State of Water, Resources and Use, Trust Building and Dialogues as Basis for Enhancing Cooperation.

  1. 1. UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014 STATE OF WATER RESOURCES AND USE, TRUST BUILDING AND DIALOGUES AS BASIS FOR ENHANCING COOPERATION Ralf Klingbeil, Regional Advisor Environment and Water
  2. 2. Page 2 Outline •Challenges for Cooperation on Shared Water Resources •Groundwater •Common Basis for Cooperation •Common Language / Terminology •Legal Basis / Legal Framework •Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia •Trust Building and Dialogues •On-going bilateral / multilateral research and cooperation •Conclusions and Outlook Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014
  3. 3. Page 3 Challenges for Cooperation on Shared Water Resources Schematic Diagram of a Shared Aquifer and Groundwater Flow Directions Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014 Redrawn by UN ESCWA - BGR, 2013, based on Puri and Arnold 2002.
  4. 4. Page 4 Challenges for Cooperation on Shared Water Resources Shared Groundwater – Transboundary Aquifers Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014 Klingbeil & Al-Hamdi, 2010. Historic and Prior Use Renewable vs. Non-renewable Groundwater Differences between Recharge and Use and Abstraction Areas Spatial Extent of Surface and Groundwater Catchments Aquifer Management Units ≠ Entire Aquifer / Aquifer System
  5. 5. Page 5 Challenges for Cooperation on Shared Water Resources Shared Groundwater: Historic and Prior Use Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014 Zeitoun, Messerschmid, Attili, 2009.
  6. 6. Page 6 Challenges for Cooperation on Shared Water Resources Renewable vs. Non-renewable: Agriculture, Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014 1991 2000 2012
  7. 7. Page 7 Challenges for Cooperation on Shared Water Resources Renewable vs. Non-renewable: Acc. GW Abstr. 1975-2004 in Saudi Arabia Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014 WaterWatch, 2006.
  8. 8. Page 8 Challenges for Cooperation on Shared Water Resources Different Spatial Extend of Surface and Groundwater Catchments Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014 Klingbeil, 2014. Klein, 1998. km2 MCM/y mm/y Dan 17.60 228 12,954.55 Hasbani 698.00 122 174.79 Banias 189.00 113 597.88 Dan Hasbani Banias 189.00 113 597.88 Dan Hasbani Banias 511.83 489.10 904.60 463 715.60 350 Upper Jordan River Spring Catchments
  9. 9. Page 9 Common Basis for Cooperation Common Language Common Terminology •What is an Aquifer? •Permeable water-bearing formation capable of yielding exploitable quantities of water. • خزان جوفي • طبقة حاوية للمياه الجوفية بكمية قابلة للاستثمار. •Groundwater •Subsurface water occupying the saturated area of soils or geological formations. • مياه جوفية • مياه تحت سطح الأرض تشغل المنطقة المشبعة من التربة أو التكوينات الجيولوجية. Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014
  10. 10. Page 10 Common Basis for Cooperation Legal Instruments: Global and Regional Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014 1966 Helsinki Rules 1997 UN Watercourse Convention ... 2014 UNWC Entry into Force 2008 UN GA Law of TBAs 2011 1st UN GA Review 2013 2nd UN GA Review 2016 3rd UN GA Review 1992 UN ECE Water Convention 1999 Protocol on Water and Health 2003 UN ECE Amendment 1998 SADC Water Protocol 2000 SADC Revised Water Protocol 2000 EU WFD 2006 EU GW Dir 2010 AMWC Res for Drafting AWC Annual AMWC Reviews
  11. 11. Page 11 Common Basis for Cooperation Legal Framework for Cooperation on Shared Water in the Arab Region •Legal Framework for Cooperation on Shared Water in the Arab Region - “Arab Water Convention” •Preparation of Draft Text for Legal Framework, Cooperation between •UN ESCWA •Centre of Water Studies and Arab Water Security •supported by ACSAD, BGR Germany •Arab Ministerial Water Council (AMWC) Resolutions •Res. No. 20, Second Session, Cairo - 2 Jul 2010 •Res. No. 37, Third Session, Cairo - 15 Jun 2011 •Res. No. 56, Fourth Session, Baghdad - 29 May 2012 •Res. No. 71, Fifth Session, Cairo - 06 Jul 2013 •Res. No. xx Sixth Session, Doha, May 2014 Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014
  12. 12. Page 12 Common Basis for Cooperation Bi- and Multi-lateral Agreements and Cooperation •Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System - NSAS: Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan •Système Aquifère du Sahara Septentrional - SASS (North-Western Sahara Aquifer System – NWSAS): Algeria, Libya, Tunisia •Mandated support through Observatoire du Sahara et du Sahel (Observatory of the Sahara and Sahel) OSS Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014
  13. 13. Page 13 Common Basis for Cooperation Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia INVENTORY OF SHARED WATER RESOURCES IN WESTERN ASIA
  14. 14. Page 14 Common Basis for Cooperation Inventory - Chapter Features - Groundwater Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014 www.waterinventory.org
  15. 15. Page 15 Common Basis for Cooperation Shared Groundwater in Western Asia - Cenozoic Era Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014 www.waterinventory.org Umm er Radhuma-Dammam Aquifer System (North): Widyan-Salman Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia Umm er Radhuma-Dammam Aquifer System (Centre): Gulf Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia Umm er Radhuma-Dammam Aquifer System (South): Rub’ al Khali Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Neogene Aquifer System (South-East), Dibdibba-Kuwait Group: Dibdibba Delta Basin Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia Neogene Aquifer System (North-West), Upper and Lower Fars: Jezira Basin Iraq, Syria Tawil-Quaternary Aquifer System: Wadi Sirhan Basin Jordan, Saudi Arabia Basalt Aquifer System (South): Azraq-Dhuleil Basin Jordan, Syria Basalt Aquifer System (West): Yarmouk Basin Jordan, Syria Coastal Aquifer Basin Egypt, Israel, Palestine Jezira Tertiary Limestone Aquifer System Syria, Turkey Taurus-Zagros Iran, Iraq, Turkey
  16. 16. Page 16 Common Basis for Cooperation Saq Ram Aquifer System (West) Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014 Example: Saq-Ram Aquifer System (West) ‘Disi’ Aquifer • approximate exploitability • groundwater development www.waterinventory.org
  17. 17. Page 17 Common Basis for Cooperation Saq Ram Aquifer System (West) Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014 www.waterinventory.org
  18. 18. Page 18 Trust Building and Dialogues TBA Research Cooperation between Kuwait and Neighbouring Countries •Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) •Neogene Aquifer System (South-East): Dibdibba - Kuwait Group, Dibdibba Delta •Assistance in field of shared groundwater & aquifers •KISR / ESCWA Workshop Shared Groundwater Aquifers in GCC Countries, April 2014, •ESCWA Presentation “Recent Developments at Global and Regional Level on Shared Groundwater Aquifers with a Focus on Arab Gulf Countries”, •Support and technical inputs to develop research proposal on shared groundwater aquifers between Kuwait and neighbouring countries, •Further activities envisaged •Assistance in review of research proposal, •Backstopping and advice through participation in advisory committee. Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014
  19. 19. Page 19 Compiled by ESCWA-BGR based on Rizk & Alsharhan, 2008; MRMWR, Oman, 2005. Trust Building and Dialogues TBA Research Cooperation between Oman and UAE •Research cooperation between Sultan Qaboos University, Oman and UAE University, UAE •Organization: •Joint Research Projects (more than 10 years), •Fund is shared 50%/50%, •Alternation of turns on hosting the projects, •Agreements at the lower level after establishment of the program at higher level •Research objectives: •Origin of shallow & deep groundwater along Oman - UAE border, •Age structure of deep & shallow groundwater, •Simulate groundwater flow in basin, construct water balance for basin, estimate safe yields, •Estimation of economic return from water uses for both parties sharing the resource Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014 Abdalla, SQU, 2014.
  20. 20. Page 20 Trust Building and Dialogues Jordan River Basin Dialogue •Requested by Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) •Based on ESCWA - BGR Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia (2013) •UN ESCWA facilitated riparian dialogue between Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine •Addressed themes: Hydrology and hydrogeology, historic development of water use and options for further riparian cooperation •First meeting: Amman, April 2014 Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014
  21. 21. Page 21 Conclusions and Outlook •Expecting global UNWC to create necessary push and mobilize more funding to support cooperative frameworks •Hopeful Arab Legal Framework can be finalized and will assist countries in preparing and implementing bi- and multilateral agreements •Mindful ESCWA - BGR Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia can be a basis to build on more collaborative research and cooperation •Noticing many small positive signs in the region for improved cooperation •We are a good way further than a few years ago ... but there are still some “miles“ to go Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014
  22. 22. UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia Advancing Hydro-diplomacy Skills for Shared Water Resources Negotiations, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Dec 2014 STATE OF WATER RESOURCES AND USE, TRUST BUILDING AND DIALOGUES AS BASIS FOR ENHANCING COOPERATION Ralf Klingbeil, Regional Advisor Environment and Water

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