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United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia 
Regional Advisor Environment and Water 
MANAGED AQUIFER RE...
Page 2 
Outline 
•Managed Aquifer Recharge / Aquifer Storage and Recovery: 
•Why? 
•How? 
•Examples from the Arab Region 
...
Page 3 
Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery 
Reasons for Managed Aquifer Recharge 
•Strategic water re...
Page 4 
Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery 
Another Attempt for a Definition 
International Associati...
Page 5 
Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery 
Using the Groundwater Buffer Wisely: Overview 
Internatio...
Page 6 
Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery 
What falls under Managed Aquifer Recharge? 
International...
Page 7 
Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery 
What includes Managed Aquifer Recharge? 
•Aquifer Storage...
Page 8 
Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery 
Challenges: Technological, Scientific 
•Groundwater level...
Page 9 
Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery 
Challenges: Socio-Economic Viability 
•Investigation of e...
Page 10 
Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery 
Challenges: Governance, Regulations 
•Are all necessary ...
Page 11 
Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery 
Examples from the Region 
International Association of H...
Page 12 
Bahrain 
Isa Town: Storm Water Runoff 
•Unique gravity-fed aquifer recharge system: 
•Gulleys, catch pits, delive...
Page 13 
Bahrain 
Potential Larger Scale ASR / ASTR 
•1986: TSE recharge to Khobar aquifer 
•2010: Dammam aquifer regional...
Page 14 
Jordan 
MAR: Infiltration of Floodwater 
•2012: Cooperation JOR – GER 
•Guideline for assessment and implementati...
Page 15 
Kuwait 
Dammam, Kuwait Group 
•1964: Raudhatain, passive infiltration in depression 
•1972-1973: Raudhatain, inje...
Page 16 
Kuwait 
Dammam, Kuwait Group 
•2002: Numerical modeling of artificial recharge options for Dammam formation at pi...
Page 17 
Lebanon 
ARAK: Aquifer Rechargeability Assessment in Karst 
•Determine ability of karst aquifer to be artificiall...
Page 18 
Oman 
Groundwater Recharge Dams 
•> 30 groundwater recharge dams, intercepting wadi runoff, allowing for controll...
Page 19 
Oman 
TSE Reuse and MAR, Salalah 
•Salalah Sanitary Drainage Services Co.: SSDS 
•Ownership, management, O&M of c...
Page 20 
Qatar 
Northern Groundwater Basin, ASR 
•1976: “Artificial recharge with desalted sea water to permit additional ...
Page 21 
•Hydraulic barrier against seawater intrusion 
•Treated WW better suited for irrigation due to reduced need for f...
Page 22 
United Arab Emirates - Sharjah 
Nizwa: 1st Operational ASR 
•To replace seasonal peak load capacity 
•2001-2002 f...
Page 23 
United Arab Emirates – Abu Dhabi 
Liwa: Strategic Water Storage and Recovery Project (SWSR) 
•2003-2005: Feasibil...
Page 24 
Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery 
Conclusions and Recommendations 
1.Technical and scienti...
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia 
Regional Advisor Environment and Water 
MANAGED AQUIFER RE...
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R. Klingbeil, 2014. Managed Aquifer Recharge - Aquifer Storage and Recovery: Regional Experiences and Needs for Further Cooperation and Knowledge Exchanges.

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Klingbeil, R., 2014. Managed Aquifer Recharge - Aquifer Storage and Recovery: Regional Experiences and Needs for Further Cooperation and Knowledge Exchanges. Presentation at the 41st Congress of the International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH) “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakesh, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014.

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R. Klingbeil, 2014. Managed Aquifer Recharge - Aquifer Storage and Recovery: Regional Experiences and Needs for Further Cooperation and Knowledge Exchanges.

  1. 1. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia Regional Advisor Environment and Water MANAGED AQUIFER RECHARGE – AQUIFER STORAGE AND RECOVERY: REGIONAL EXPERIENCES AND NEEDS FOR FURTHER COOPERATION AND KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGES Ralf Klingbeil International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014
  2. 2. Page 2 Outline •Managed Aquifer Recharge / Aquifer Storage and Recovery: •Why? •How? •Examples from the Arab Region •Conclusions and Recommendations International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014
  3. 3. Page 3 Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery Reasons for Managed Aquifer Recharge •Strategic water reserve for emergency situations •Short-term or seasonal peak demands •Reducing runoff losses •Preparation for drought periods / dry years •Vulnerability of desalination to pollution / algae •Constant desalination production vs. variable demands •Recharging / improving brackish groundwater •Preventing / reversing saltwater intrusion / controlling salinity upconing •Injection / infiltration of excess rain / flood waters •Intermediate storage of Treated Sewage Effluent (TSE) mainly for agriculture or industrial uses •Avoiding potential evaporation losses from dams International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014
  4. 4. Page 4 Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery Another Attempt for a Definition International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 Human enhanced and managed groundwater recharge [with the purpose of later abstraction or use either as a fresh groundwater resource or as hydraulic barrier against other threats such as seawater or saline water intrusion].
  5. 5. Page 5 Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery Using the Groundwater Buffer Wisely: Overview International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 UNESCO, 2005.
  6. 6. Page 6 Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery What falls under Managed Aquifer Recharge? International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre, 2007, www.un-igrac.org Technology AS(TR) ASRSpreading methodsinfiltration ponds & basinsfloodingditch, furrow, drainsirrigationsand damschannel spreading Induced bank infiltrationWell, shaft and borehole rechargedeep well injectionshallow well/ shaft/ pit infiltrationSub type Runoff harvestingbarriers and bundstrenches Techniques referring primarily to getting water infiltratedTechniques referring primarily to intercepting the water In-channel modificationsrecharge dams sub surface dams
  7. 7. Page 7 Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery What includes Managed Aquifer Recharge? •Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR): “well/borehole is used for both injection and recovery, costs are minimised and clogging is removed during the recovery cycle.” •Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery (ASTR): “Water can be injected into a borehole and recovered from another, some distance away, to increase travel time and benefit from water treatment capacity of the aquifer” International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 UNESCO, 2005.
  8. 8. Page 8 Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery Challenges: Technological, Scientific •Groundwater level rise: •risk of flooding, esp. in case of unconfined aquifers •Hydrochemical mixing: •risk of precipitation causing clogging of well screens or aquifer pore space •risk of mineral dissolution causing mobilization of harmful substances or development of cavities •System efficiencies: •injected vs. recovered volumes •Health risks: •potential risks to human health when injecting / infiltrating treated sewage effluent, mobilizing minerals from the aquifer matrix International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014
  9. 9. Page 9 Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery Challenges: Socio-Economic Viability •Investigation of economic alternatives: •cost of surface vs. groundwater storage •direct use of TSE vs. intermediate storage •infrastructure, access to injection / recovery sites •compromise between deep groundwater table to prevent flooding and shallow to reduce energy costs for pumping •alternative feasibility studies •environmental costs – environmental impact assessments •System efficiencies: •injected vs. recovered volumes •Social acceptance: •health and environmental risk analysis •awareness raising campaigns International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014
  10. 10. Page 10 Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery Challenges: Governance, Regulations •Are all necessary laws, regulations and guidelines in place and officially approved to ensure prevention of negative impacts on the groundwater, ecosystems, water users, the people? •Accountable and transparent decision making … and tendering processes? •Do we have mechanisms in place to allow for participation and constructive criticism? •International / national advisory bodies with multi-sectoral experiences? International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014
  11. 11. Page 11 Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery Examples from the Region International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 www.escwa.un.org
  12. 12. Page 12 Bahrain Isa Town: Storm Water Runoff •Unique gravity-fed aquifer recharge system: •Gulleys, catch pits, delivery pipes, oil trap, filter chamber, and recharge well •Direct urban storm water flows from suitable low points to targeted Khobar aquifer •Estimated 1,389 m3 recharged •Water level rise 0.6 m •Reduced salinity •Necessity for monitoring potentially harmful substances (esp. nickel, zinc, copper) International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 Al-Noaimi, 2010
  13. 13. Page 13 Bahrain Potential Larger Scale ASR / ASTR •1986: TSE recharge to Khobar aquifer •2010: Dammam aquifer regional study •2010: Feasibility of GW recharge with TSE •2011: National approach to assessing reuse of TSE and MAR •Future TSE production: •2015: 390,000 m3/day •2030: 500,000 m3/day •Alternative uses: •More direct TSE reuse in agriculture •Potential target aquifers: Alat (A) and Khobar (B), both Dammam formations •Expected total volume of TSE to be stored: 24 MCM International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 Al-Mannai, 2010, MoW, 2011
  14. 14. Page 14 Jordan MAR: Infiltration of Floodwater •2012: Cooperation JOR – GER •Guideline for assessment and implementation of MAR in (semi-) arid regions •Pre-feasibility study for infiltration of floodwater •MAR potential map for water availability & site suitability for two surface water basins •Limitations: •Source water availability in regions with rainfall of less than 200 mm/a •High sediment load of runoff waters •Operation and maintenance •Monitoring •Assess actual effectiveness •Involvement of local communities International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 Steinel / BGR, 2012
  15. 15. Page 15 Kuwait Dammam, Kuwait Group •1964: Raudhatain, passive infiltration in depression •1972-1973: Raudhatain, injection of desalinated water •1992: Sulaibiya, injection in Dammam limestone and Kuwait Group •200,000 m3 injected desalinated water in two wells (18,000 and 180,000) over 30 days •Dammam: Injection possible, rel. low system efficiency (10-20%) •Kuwait Group: severe clogging of the injection well, due to suspended solids and dissolved air •1994: Physical properties of Dammam formation in contact with fresh water •1997: Compatibility of desalinated water with Dammam formation aquifer at pilot recharge site International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 Abdel-Jawad/KISR, 2008; Dawoud/EAD, 2005; Mukhopadhyay/KISR, 2010 and 2013
  16. 16. Page 16 Kuwait Dammam, Kuwait Group •2002: Numerical modeling of artificial recharge options for Dammam formation at pilot recharge site •2004: Laboratory investigation compatibility of desalinated water, RO-treated wastewater with the Kuwait Group aquifer •2010: Selection of suitable sites for artificial recharge •Kuwait Group: Mutla, Sulaibiya, Raudhatain areas •Dammam Formation: Kabd area •2013: Start of KISR pilot project in Kabd, injecting RO-treated wastewater International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 Abdel-Jawad / KISR, 2008; Dawoud / EAD, 2005; Mukhopadhyay / KISR, 2010 and 2013
  17. 17. Page 17 Lebanon ARAK: Aquifer Rechargeability Assessment in Karst •Determine ability of karst aquifer to be artificially recharged & managed •Best sites for implementing artificial recharge from surface •Multi-criteria indexation analysis modeled on karst vulnerability assessment methods •Four independent criteria, i.e. Epikarst, Rock, Infiltration and Karst •Rechargeability index - product of two factors, intrinsic rechargeability and feasibility index •Damour site: salinization and insufficiency of resource International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 Daher, 2011.
  18. 18. Page 18 Oman Groundwater Recharge Dams •> 30 groundwater recharge dams, intercepting wadi runoff, allowing for controlled recharge downstream of dam •Managed to hold about 1064 MCM of flood waters until end of 2009 •Substantial experiences in siting and dimensioning of groundwater recharge dams International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014
  19. 19. Page 19 Oman TSE Reuse and MAR, Salalah •Salalah Sanitary Drainage Services Co.: SSDS •Ownership, management, O&M of current network for groundwater recharge and future expansions •No legislation in Oman yet on TSE reuse for aquifer recharge •Average quantity of treated water •to recharge wells: 18,090 m3 •to SSDS clients/consumers: 2,680 m3 •48 recharge wells International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 AlQasmi, 2011; Shammas, 2007; Wahaibi, 2011. Groundwater Levels
  20. 20. Page 20 Qatar Northern Groundwater Basin, ASR •1976: “Artificial recharge with desalted sea water to permit additional agricultural development appears technically feasible but its practicability needs to be examined further.” (Vecchioli) •1992-1994: Feasibility study for injection of desalinated water in Rus and Umm er-Radhuma with positive results •2012: QNFSP/KAHRAMAA: Northern groundwater basin, investigation of four sites to store 136 MCM for emergency (interruption of desalination) •Tertiary WW Treatment imperative for utilities, i.e. TSE available for non-potable applications such as agricultural irrigation possibly with intermediate aquifer storage International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 Dawoud/EAD, 2009; MEED, 2012; Streetly, 1998; Vecchioli/USGS, 1976.
  21. 21. Page 21 •Hydraulic barrier against seawater intrusion •Treated WW better suited for irrigation due to reduced need for fertilizers •Ongoing: improvement to tertiary WW treatment Salinity of groundwater prior to recharge Groundwater Simulation Salinity of groundwater after 3 years of recharge Tunisia Korba Aquifer Recharge International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 Cherif, S. et al., 2013, Gaaloul, N., 2014.
  22. 22. Page 22 United Arab Emirates - Sharjah Nizwa: 1st Operational ASR •To replace seasonal peak load capacity •2001-2002 feasibility study •2003-2004 pilot project •Site characterization and evaluation, geophysics, trial boreholes, monitoring •Hydrochemical modeling: Mixing of injected RO product (250 μS/cm) and native groundwater •Cycles of injection - storage - recovery •System efficiency: 95% recovery (4th) 24,700 m3 / 26 days injection, 30 days storage, 23,400 m3 / 19 days recovery •Cost efficiency 10% of surface storage •Planned for 1.8 MCM International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 Labaky, W. / SWS, 2013; SEWA, 2009.
  23. 23. Page 23 United Arab Emirates – Abu Dhabi Liwa: Strategic Water Storage and Recovery Project (SWSR) •2003-2005: Feasibility study •2006-2009: Pilot project •2010-2013: Construction •Planned for 23 MCM of surplus desalinated seawater •Emergency water supply for Abu Dhabi up to three months at 181,800 m3/d •Extensive site characterisation, shallow aquifer system, semi-consolidated Aeolian dune sands •When completed: Benchmark for water management in arid regions International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014 Koziorowski, 2012 ; Wolke, 2011.
  24. 24. Page 24 Managed Aquifer Recharge – Aquifer Storage and Recovery Conclusions and Recommendations 1.Technical and scientific issues: •investing into hydrogeological science, research, •open dialogues between scientists from different disciplines, 2.Socio-economic issues: •cost-benefit analysis, assessment of alternative scenarios, •optimize complex multi-faceted challenges, •interaction b/w economists, engineers, social and natural scientists, 3.Legislative and regulatory issues: •understanding legal frameworks, regulatory approaches and needs, 4.Regional knowledge exchanges: •dedicated MAR / ASR research conferences, •joint research programmes, •technical exchange visits, 5.Mutli-sectoral advice to government authorities: •adequate technical, scientific and socio-economic support, •advisory bodies with senior experts from different disciplines. International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014
  25. 25. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia Regional Advisor Environment and Water MANAGED AQUIFER RECHARGE – AQUIFER STORAGE AND RECOVERY: REGIONAL EXPERIENCES AND NEEDS FOR FURTHER COOPERATION AND KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGES Ralf Klingbeil International Association of Hydrgeologists (IAH), 41st International Congress, “Groundwater: Challenges and Strategies”, Marrakech, Morocco, 15-19 Sep 2014

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