Food Security, Water Security,
Improved Food Value Chains for
Sustainable Socio-economic Development
IFI - AUB
Beirut, Leb...
UN ESCWA

23 January 2014

www.escwa.un.org

2
Opening Quotes
“Nobody is qualified to become a statesman
who is entirely ignorant of the problems of wheat.”
Socrates

“T...
Outline
• Definitions:
– Food security  Water security
• Challenges / Opportunities
– Food losses & food waste
– Trade
– ...
• Drought since
at least 2008
• Inability to
“make a living”
• Internal
displacements
• Additional
stress on
resources and...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
23 January 2014

CCS, CAP and Stimson, 2013. Arab Spring and Climate Change.

Syria’s Past! – Syria’s ...
UN Water, 2013. Water Security & the Global Water Agenda.

Water – Food – Energy
The Nexus

23 January 2014

www.escwa.un....
People, Water & Land, Food, Energy
Demographics

Water
& Land

Governance

Food

Energy
23 January 2014

www.escwa.un.org
...
Food Security
FAO, 2009. Declaration of the World Summit on Food Security (WSFS).

Definition:
“Food security exists when ...
FAO, IFAD, and WFP, 2013. The State of Food Insecurity in the World.

Food Security Indicators:
Based on Four Dimensions o...
UN Water, 2013. Water Security & the Global Water Agenda.

Water Security
Definition:
“The capacity of a population to saf...
UN Water, 2013. What Is Water Security?

Water Security

23 January 2014

www.escwa.un.org

12
Challenges to / Opportunities for
Food & Water Security

Food
Losses and Waste

23 January 2014

www.escwa.un.org

13
http://thepeninsulaqatar.com/qatar/240072-massive-amount-of-food-wa

Qatar:
“Massive amount of food wasted”

Qatar Statist...
BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals.

Food Losses – Food Waste

23 January 2014

www.escwa.un.org

15
Gustavsson, J., et al., 2011. Global Food Losses and
Food Waste. Extent, Causes and Prevention.

Food Supply Chains:
Losse...
BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals.

Food Losses – Food Waste:
Total Carbon Footprint, GB

23 January 2...
BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals.

Food Losses – Food Waste:
Carbon Footprint per Category, GB

23 Ja...
BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals.

Food Losses – Food Waste:
Total Water Footprint, GB

X million m3
...
BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals.

Food Losses – Food Waste:
Water Footprint per Category, GB

23 Jan...
BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals.

Food Losses – Food Waste:
Economic Impact along Supply Chain, ITA
...
Inamo, 2001. 7 (27), www.inamo.de.

Challenges to / Opportunities for
Food & Water Security

Water

23 January 2014

www.e...
Agricultural Water Use
e.g. Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia

1991
2000

2012

23 January 2014

www.escwa.un.org

23
Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia

Accumulated 30 year groundwater abstraction, 1975 - 2004 per
Region for Saudi Arabi...
Transboundary / Shared Water Resources
and Aquifers in Middle East

23 January 2014

www.escwa.un.org

25
Transboundary / Shared Water Resources
and Aquifers in Middle East
A total of 22 shared aquifer systems
and 6 shared river...
Challenges to / Opportunities for
Food & Water Security

Trade

23 January 2014

www.escwa.un.org

27
Khouri, N. 2013. Food Security in Saudi Arabia - A Framework.

Combining Indicators:
Hunger, Food Balance and Price Risk

...
The Economist, 2012. Food. How to feed a planet, continued, 28 May
2012, www.economist.com/blogs/feastandfamine/2012/05/fo...
Jordan
Saudi Arabia
UAE

23 January 2014
www.escwa.un.org
Keulertz, M., 2013. Arab Vulnerability in Global Food Supply Cha...
Hoekstra, A.Y. and Mekonnen, M.M., 2012.
The Water Footprint of Humanity.

Net Virtual Water Imports
per Country, 1996-200...
UN ESCWA & GIZ, forthcoming. Green Agricultural Value
Chains for Improved Livelihood in the Arab Region.

Cereal Trade Glo...
GeoEconomica, 2011. Saudi Arabia’s Food
Diplomacy: Searching for Fertile Ground.

Saudi Arabia: Wheat Production,
Consumpt...
Woertz, E., 2013. Food Security in the UAE.

Agro-Projects and MoUs
Announced in the UAE, 2008-2011

23 January 2014

www....
Challenges to / Opportunities for
Food & Water Security

Improving Value Chains

23 January 2014

www.escwa.un.org

35
Byiringiro, F., 2013. Green Agricultural Value Chains
for Improved Livelihood in the ESCWA Region.

Green Value Chains: Ch...
UN ESCWA & GIZ, forthcoming. Green Agricultural Value
Chains for Improved Livelihood in the Arab Region.

Repositioning of...
Ways Forward ?
1. Holistic approaches to the management of
natural resources
2. International trade and regional cooperati...
Woertz, E., 2013. Oil for Food.

Today ! – Tomorrow ?

23 January 2014

www.escwa.un.org

39
Food Security, Water Security,
Improved Food Value Chains for
Sustainable Socio-economic Development
IFI - AUB
Beirut, Leb...
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R. Klingbeil, R. Nejdawi & F. Byiringiro, 2014. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development.

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Klingbeil, R., Nejdawi, R. & Byiringiro, F., 2014. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development. Presentation at the seminar “The Nexus Approach: The Road to Water, Energy and Food Security in the Arab World”, Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs (IFI), American University of Beirut (AUB), Beirut, Lebanon, 22 Jan 2014.

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R. Klingbeil, R. Nejdawi & F. Byiringiro, 2014. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development.

  1. 1. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development IFI - AUB Beirut, Lebanon 22 Jan 2014 Ralf Klingbeil, RA Environment & Water Reem Nejdawi, Chief, FEPS Fidele Byiringiro, Economic Affairs Officer
  2. 2. UN ESCWA 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 2
  3. 3. Opening Quotes “Nobody is qualified to become a statesman who is entirely ignorant of the problems of wheat.” Socrates “There are no water wars because food wars are not judged to be necessary.” J.A. Allan, 1981 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 3
  4. 4. Outline • Definitions: – Food security  Water security • Challenges / Opportunities – Food losses & food waste – Trade – Improving value chains • Ways Forward ? 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 4
  5. 5. • Drought since at least 2008 • Inability to “make a living” • Internal displacements • Additional stress on resources and society in urban areas 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 5 irinnews.org, 2009. Syria’s drought-affected provinces as of Aug 2009. Syria’s Drought
  6. 6. • • • • • • • • • • 23 January 2014 CCS, CAP and Stimson, 2013. Arab Spring and Climate Change. Syria’s Past! – Syria’s Future? Demographics Drought and water scarcity Water shortages Crop failure Natural resource mismanagement Climate change Internal displacement Rural disaffection Political unrest ... www.escwa.un.org 6
  7. 7. UN Water, 2013. Water Security & the Global Water Agenda. Water – Food – Energy The Nexus 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 7
  8. 8. People, Water & Land, Food, Energy Demographics Water & Land Governance Food Energy 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 8
  9. 9. Food Security FAO, 2009. Declaration of the World Summit on Food Security (WSFS). Definition: “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” Four Pillars / Dimensions of Food Security: • Availability • Access • Utilization • Stability 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 9
  10. 10. FAO, IFAD, and WFP, 2013. The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Food Security Indicators: Based on Four Dimensions of Food Security 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 10
  11. 11. UN Water, 2013. Water Security & the Global Water Agenda. Water Security Definition: “The capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality water for sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, and socioeconomic development, for ensuring protection against water-borne pollution and water-related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability.” 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 11
  12. 12. UN Water, 2013. What Is Water Security? Water Security 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 12
  13. 13. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Food Losses and Waste 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 13
  14. 14. http://thepeninsulaqatar.com/qatar/240072-massive-amount-of-food-wa Qatar: “Massive amount of food wasted” Qatar Statistics Authority (QSA): “(...) more than half of the municipal waste generated (...) contains discarded food.” The Peninsula, 05 Jun 2013 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 14
  15. 15. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 15
  16. 16. Gustavsson, J., et al., 2011. Global Food Losses and Food Waste. Extent, Causes and Prevention. Food Supply Chains: Losses of Food – and Water Production Volumes per Commodity Group (million tonnes) 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 16
  17. 17. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Total Carbon Footprint, GB 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 17
  18. 18. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Carbon Footprint per Category, GB 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 18
  19. 19. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Total Water Footprint, GB X million m3 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 19
  20. 20. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Water Footprint per Category, GB 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 20
  21. 21. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Economic Impact along Supply Chain, ITA XXX million euro 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 21
  22. 22. Inamo, 2001. 7 (27), www.inamo.de. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Water 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 22
  23. 23. Agricultural Water Use e.g. Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia 1991 2000 2012 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 23
  24. 24. Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia Accumulated 30 year groundwater abstraction, 1975 - 2004 per Region for Saudi Arabia (WaterWatch, 2006) 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 24
  25. 25. Transboundary / Shared Water Resources and Aquifers in Middle East 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 25
  26. 26. Transboundary / Shared Water Resources and Aquifers in Middle East A total of 22 shared aquifer systems and 6 shared river basins were identified. 9 chapters on shared surface waters and 17 chapters on shared aquifer systems, each following a standardized structure and methodology. 624 pages of detailed information with 60 new maps and over 200 figures, tables and boxes. Saq-Ram Aquifer System (West) 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 26
  27. 27. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Trade 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 27
  28. 28. Khouri, N. 2013. Food Security in Saudi Arabia - A Framework. Combining Indicators: Hunger, Food Balance and Price Risk 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 28
  29. 29. The Economist, 2012. Food. How to feed a planet, continued, 28 May 2012, www.economist.com/blogs/feastandfamine/2012/05/food Food Surpluses and Deficits by Region 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 29
  30. 30. Jordan Saudi Arabia UAE 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org Keulertz, M., 2013. Arab Vulnerability in Global Food Supply Chains. Based on : Water and Food data base and COMTRADE. Average Annual Wheat Imports, 2008-2012 30
  31. 31. Hoekstra, A.Y. and Mekonnen, M.M., 2012. The Water Footprint of Humanity. Net Virtual Water Imports per Country, 1996-2005 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 31
  32. 32. UN ESCWA & GIZ, forthcoming. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the Arab Region. Cereal Trade Globally and in the Region: Net Cereal Import 1980-2011 (million tons) 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 32
  33. 33. GeoEconomica, 2011. Saudi Arabia’s Food Diplomacy: Searching for Fertile Ground. Saudi Arabia: Wheat Production, Consumption, and Trade, 1983-2019 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 33
  34. 34. Woertz, E., 2013. Food Security in the UAE. Agro-Projects and MoUs Announced in the UAE, 2008-2011 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 34
  35. 35. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Improving Value Chains 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 35
  36. 36. Byiringiro, F., 2013. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the ESCWA Region. Green Value Chains: Characteristics • Addresses socio-economic and environmental development : – – – – higher income, jobs, equity, conservation, etc. • Global companies increasingly looking at issues such as safety, fairness, etc. • Need to prove performance standards • Given the continuously rising global ramifications:  Adapt or be left out • Covers economic, social and environmental (and institutional) issues 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 36
  37. 37. UN ESCWA & GIZ, forthcoming. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the Arab Region. Repositioning of Moroccan Vegetable Market for Export 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 37
  38. 38. Ways Forward ? 1. Holistic approaches to the management of natural resources 2. International trade and regional cooperation 3. Focus primarily on local vulnerable population 4. Support for research related to food security and food-related conflicts 5. Equitable and just international trade relations 6. Governments accountable; not further ignoring plight of their rural, disadvantaged and poor 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 38
  39. 39. Woertz, E., 2013. Oil for Food. Today ! – Tomorrow ? 23 January 2014 www.escwa.un.org 39
  40. 40. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development IFI - AUB Beirut, Lebanon 22 Jan 2014 Ralf Klingbeil, RA Environment & Water Reem Nejdawi, Chief, FEPS Fidele Byiringiro, Economic Affairs Officer

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