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Solar Irrigation and Groundwater Management

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Presented by Dr. Karen Villholth of IWMI at the International Forum on Solar Technologies for Small-Scale Agriculture and Water Management on April 13, 2018 at FAO Headquarters in Rome, Italy. The presentation draws on groundwater research done in Africa, including the article "Mapping irrigation potential from renewable groundwater in Africa – a quantitative hydrological approach:" https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/58399

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Solar Irrigation and Groundwater Management

  1. 1. Solar Irrigation and Groundwater Management Karen G. Villholth International Water Management Institute 13th April, Rome, Italy
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. GLOBAL GROUNDWATER FIGURES • 41% of irrigated area from GW • 16 to 19% of area supplied by unsustainable GW use • 21 to 27% of GWA for irrigation is from unsustainable abstraction • 14 to 17% of global food production from GW is unsustainable
  4. 4. GLOBAL FOOD PRODUCTION FROM GW DEPLETION Cereal Production
  5. 5. 6 The hidden drought
  6. 6. Groundwater irrigation potential in Africa Environmental groundwater requirements represents 50% of the recharge (Altchenko and Villholth, 2015) of the area irrigated with groundwater in 2005
  7. 7. Categorization of groundwater assessment units in India (2013) Arsenic risk in SEA EAWAG, Winkel et al., 2016. http://www.eawag.ch/en/research /humanwelfare/drinkingwater/wrq/ risk-maps/
  8. 8. Solar Water Pumping Knowledge Base Source: The information shown in this map is not exhaustive. Based on knowledge resources listed (PCNs, project reports, articles, technical studies, case studies) - Solar Water Pumping Knowledge Base, The World Bank Group, 2016.
  9. 9. LOCAL MANAGEMENT OPTIONS • Simple GW monitoring • Permitted crops • Acreage allowed • Depth of wells allowed • Irrigation timing
  10. 10. Grundfos Lifelink ()
  11. 11. CONCLUSIONS • SPI needs to be Groundwater-Smart to be Climate-Smart • Present approaches piecemeal, unrealistic, poorly informed, and insufficient, delinked from technology and promotion • Recommendations: – Provide targeted guidelines – Develop simple calculation tools for sustainable crop production – Develop GW-Smart SPIS technologies – Conjunctive use and enhanced GW capture and storage – Capacitate at all levels
  12. 12. References • Altchenko, Y. and Villholth, K.G, 2015. Mapping irrigation potential from renewable groundwater in Africa – a quantitative hydrological approach, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1055-1067. • Bloomberg New Energy finance, Q1 2017 Off-grid and mini-grid market outlook, https://about.bnef.com/blog/off-grid-mini-grid-q1-2017-market-outlook/ • Central Ground Water Board, 2016. Annual Report 2015-2016. Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, Government of India, http://cgwb.gov.in/Annual- Reports/Annual%20Report%202015-16.pdf • CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE), 2017. Building resilience through sustainable groundwater use. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR-WLE. 12p. (WLE Towards Sustainable Intensification: Insights and Solutions Brief 1). DOI: 10.5337/2017.208. • Climatescope 2017, 4Q 2017 Off-grid and mini-grid market outlook, http://global- climatescope.org/en/off-grid-quarterly/q4-2017/ • Closas, A., and E. Rap, 2017. Solar-based groundwater pumping for irrigation: Sustainability, policies, and limitations. Energy Policy, 104, 33-37. • Winkel, L., Berg, M., Amini, A, Hug, S.J. and Johnson, C.N., 2016. Predicting groundwater arsenic contamination in Southeast Asia from surface parameters. Nature Geoscience, Vol 1. • The World Bank, 2016. Solar Water Pumping Knowledge Base, The World Bank Group, 2016. http://www.worldbank.org/en/data/interactive/2016/12/08/solar-water-pumping-knowledge- base 13

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