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UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia
Seminar, Water Resources Department, AUT, Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016
W...
Page 2
World Economic Forum 2016
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat...
Page 3
Opening Quotes
• “Arabs are already in the heart of the water
catastrophe.”
• “Any delay in a serious response to t...
Page 4
Water Challenges in the Arab Region
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (A...
Page 5
Water Challenges in the Arab Region
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (A...
Page 6
Outline
• Regional Water Overview
• Many dimensions of water
• Water availability and demand
• Water and food, virt...
Page 7
UN ESCWA
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan...
Page 8
Sustainable Development Policies
Division SDPD
Social Development Division SDD
Economic Development & Integration
D...
Credit: Nicholas Clive Marcroft
Let’s talk about water …
Page 10
Scarcity of Water Contributes to …
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (A...
Page 11
Scarcity of Water Contributes to …
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (A...
Page 12
Scarcity of Water Contributes to …
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (A...
Page 13
Scarcity of Water Contributes to …
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (A...
Page 14
Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand
• Status and Trends
• Availability vs. Use and Demand
• Re...
Page 15
Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American Univer...
Page 16
Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American Univer...
Page 17
Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American Univer...
Page 18
Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American Univer...
Page 19
Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American Univer...
Page 20
Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American Univer...
Page 21
Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American Univer...
Page 22
Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American Univer...
Page 23
Regional Water Overview - Solutions to a Dilemma?
• Increase water efficiency and
conservation
• Reuse of all form...
Page 24
Regional Water Overview - Solutions to a Dilemma?
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University o...
Page 25
Regional Water Overview - Solutions to a Dilemma?
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University o...
Page 26
Regional Water Overview - Food and Water
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technol...
Page 27
Food and Water
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon,...
Page 28
Food and Water
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon,...
Page 29
Regional Water Overview - Food and Water
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technol...
Page 30
Regional Water Overview - Food and Non-Renewable Water
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American Univers...
Page 31
Regional Water Overview - Food and Non-Renewable Water
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American Univers...
Page 32
Regional Water Overview - Non-Renewable Groundwater
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University...
Page 33
Regional Water Overview - Food and Non-Renewable Water
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American Univers...
Page 34
Regional Water Overview - National Agricultural Strategies and Water Use
Seminar at the Water Resources Department...
Page 35
Regional Water Overview – Agriculture Contributions to GDP
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American Uni...
Page 36
Regional Water Overview - Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, A...
Page 37
Regional Water Overview - Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, A...
Page 38
Water in Lebanon
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebano...
Page 39
Water in Lebanon
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebano...
Page 40
Water and water scarcity in Lebanon
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (...
Page 41
Water and water scarcity in Lebanon
“(…) Airport’s Bureau of Meteorology
told The Daily Star Wednesday that the
la...
Page 42
Water and water scarcity in Lebanon
More critical
years:
2003-2004
2007-2008
2013-2014
Seminar at the Water Resour...
Page 43
Water and water scarcity in Lebanon
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (...
Page 44
Water in Lebanon
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebano...
Page 45
Water and water scarcity in Lebanon
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (...
Page 46
Water and water scarcity in Lebanon
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (...
Page 47
Water and Snow in Lebanon
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Hala...
Page 48 Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016
Wa...
Page 49
Water and water scarcity in Lebanon
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (...
Page 50
Water and water scarcity in Lebanon
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (...
Page 51
Water and water scarcity in Lebanon
• Coordinate  Cooperate  Concerted Action
• National Strategy to Overcome Wa...
Page 52
Water and scarcity in the MENA Region
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology...
Page 53
Future Directions
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Leban...
Page 54
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technolo...
Page 55
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technolo...
Page 56
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technolo...
Page 57
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technolo...
UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia
Seminar, Water Resources Department, AUT, Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016
W...
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R. Klingbeil, 2016. Water Challenges in the Arab Region: How did we get where we are? And where do we go from here?

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Klingbeil, R. 2016. Water Challenges in the Arab Region: How did we get where we are? And where do we go from here? Presentation at the Seminar of the Water Resources Department. AUT, Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016.

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R. Klingbeil, 2016. Water Challenges in the Arab Region: How did we get where we are? And where do we go from here?

  1. 1. UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia Seminar, Water Resources Department, AUT, Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Water Challenges in the Arab Region: How did we get where we are? And where do we go from here? Ralf Klingbeil, Regional Advisor Environment and Water Inamo,2001.
  2. 2. Page 2 World Economic Forum 2016 Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Global Risks of Highest Concern 2016 WEF,2016.Whatarethetopglobalrisksfor2016? 14Jan2016,www.wef.ch/risks2016.
  3. 3. Page 3 Opening Quotes • “Arabs are already in the heart of the water catastrophe.” • “Any delay in a serious response to the water challenge corresponds to mass suicide. The water apocalypse is knocking on Arab doors, right now.” Najib Saab, Secretary General Arab Forum for Environment and Development (AFED) 12 June 2010 Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016
  4. 4. Page 4 Water Challenges in the Arab Region Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Lebanon ‫ﻟﺑﻧﺎﻥ‬
  5. 5. Page 5 Water Challenges in the Arab Region Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Lebanon ‫ﻟﺑﻧﺎﻥ‬ http://ilndation-elaof.blogspot.com/2009/11/how-to-make- bucket-margarita.html2,2009.
  6. 6. Page 6 Outline • Regional Water Overview • Many dimensions of water • Water availability and demand • Water and food, virtual water, food imports, trading water • Water in Lebanon • What do we know about our water? • Preparedness for droughts and water scarcity • Future Directions: 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and Sustainable Development Goals Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016
  7. 7. Page 7 UN ESCWA Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 18 Member States www.unescwa.org
  8. 8. Page 8 Sustainable Development Policies Division SDPD Social Development Division SDD Economic Development & Integration Division EDID Technology for Development Division TDD Statistics Division SD Emerging & Conflict Related Issues ECRI ESCWA Centre for Women ECW Administrative Services Division ASD UNESCWA Energy Section EnS Food & Environmental Policies Section FEPS Water Resources Section WRS UN ESCWA Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Organizational Structure www.unescwa.org
  9. 9. Credit: Nicholas Clive Marcroft Let’s talk about water …
  10. 10. Page 10 Scarcity of Water Contributes to … Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Iraq: Displacement due to Drought IOM,July2010
  11. 11. Page 11 Scarcity of Water Contributes to … Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Iraq: Water Needs 2008 - 2010 IOM,July2010
  12. 12. Page 12 Scarcity of Water Contributes to … Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Syria: Recent Multi-Year Drought irinnews.org,2009.Syria’sdrought-affectedprovincesasof Aug2009. • Drought since at least 2008 • Inability to “make a living” • Internal displacements • Additional stress on resources and society in urban areas
  13. 13. Page 13 Scarcity of Water Contributes to … Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Syria: Estimated Change in Length of Dry Season Evans,J.P.,2009.21stCenturyClimateChangeintheMiddle East.
  14. 14. Page 14 Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand • Status and Trends • Availability vs. Use and Demand • Renewable vs. Non-Renewable • Population Growth and Agriculture • Pollution – Reduction of Available Resources • Virtual Water • Water Imports and Transfers • Desalination • Transboundary Water and Aquifers • ... and Climate Change Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Challenges
  15. 15. Page 15 Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 MENA Many Dimensions of Water Governance Demographics Food Water & Land Energy
  16. 16. Page 16 Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Actual Renewable Freshwater Resources per Capita by Region FAOAQUASTST,WB2007
  17. 17. Page 17 Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Percent of Total Renewable Water Resources Withdrawn, by Region FAOAQUASTATdata1998-2002,WB2007
  18. 18. Page 18 Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Total Renewable Water per Person in ESCWA Region ESCWA,2009 Extreme Water Scarcity Water Scarcity Water Stress
  19. 19. Page 19 Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Total Actual Renewable Water Resources per Capita in MENA FAOAQUASTAT,WB2007 Water Stress Water Scarcity Extreme Water Scarcity
  20. 20. Page 20 Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Sources of Water ICBA,Barghouti,2009
  21. 21. Page 21 Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 High Rate of Population Growth ICBA,Barghouti,2009
  22. 22. Page 22 Regional Water Overview - Water Availability and Demand Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 High Rate of Population Growth in ESCWA Region ESCWA,2009
  23. 23. Page 23 Regional Water Overview - Solutions to a Dilemma? • Increase water efficiency and conservation • Reuse of all forms of water and (treated) waste water • Increase smart storage options: Managed Aquifer Recharge • Resources Protection Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Efficiency, Reuse, Storage, Protection
  24. 24. Page 24 Regional Water Overview - Solutions to a Dilemma? Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Reuse: Water and (Treated) Waste Water AlBaz,GIZ,2011
  25. 25. Page 25 Regional Water Overview - Solutions to a Dilemma? Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Storage: Managed Aquifer Storage UNESCO,2005
  26. 26. Page 26 Regional Water Overview - Food and Water Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Water and food, virtual water, food imports, trading water Morelli,2012:www.angelamorelli.com/water
  27. 27. Page 27 Food and Water Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Food Losses - Food Waste Water Losses BCFN,2013.FoodWaste:Causes,ImpactsandProposals.
  28. 28. Page 28 Food and Water Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Food Losses - Food Waste Total Water Footprint, GB BCFN,2013.FoodWaste:Causes,ImpactsandProposals. X million m3
  29. 29. Page 29 Regional Water Overview - Food and Water Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Qatar: “Massive amount of food wasted” http://thepeninsulaqatar.com/qatar/240072-massive-amount-of-food-wa Qatar Statistics Authority (QSA): “(...) more than half of the municipal waste generated (...) contains discarded food.” The Peninsula, 05 Jun 2013
  30. 30. Page 30 Regional Water Overview - Food and Non-Renewable Water Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Agricultural Groundwater Use Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia 1991 2000 2012
  31. 31. Page 31 Regional Water Overview - Food and Non-Renewable Water Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia FAOAQUASTAT,2008
  32. 32. Page 32 Regional Water Overview - Non-Renewable Groundwater Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Sustainability and Non-Renewable Groundwater afterAlZubari,2010 we are here, but where are we going next? • Immediate gains vs. long term benefits • No clear “Exit Strategy” • No replacement for non-renewable (ground)water
  33. 33. Page 33 Regional Water Overview - Food and Non-Renewable Water Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Accumulated 30 yrs GW Abstractions 1975 - 2004 per Region, Saudi Arabia WaterWatch,2006.
  34. 34. Page 34 Regional Water Overview - National Agricultural Strategies and Water Use Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Wheat Production, Consumption, and Trade, 1983-2019, Saudi Arabia GeoEconomica,2011.SaudiArabia’sFood Diplomacy:SearchingforFertileGround.
  35. 35. Page 35 Regional Water Overview – Agriculture Contributions to GDP Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 GDP Shares in MENA Region ICBA,Barghouti,2009
  36. 36. Page 36 Regional Water Overview - Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia www.waterinventory.org • A total of 22 shared aquifer systems and 6 shared river basins were identified. • 9 chapters on shared surface waters and 17 chapters on shared aquifer systems, each following a standardized structure and methodology. • 624 pages of detailed information with 60 new maps and over 200 figures, tables and boxes.
  37. 37. Page 37 Regional Water Overview - Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Saq Ram Aquifer System (West) Jordan - Saudi Arabia www.waterinventory.org Example: Saq-Ram Aquifer System (West) ‘Disi’ Aquifer • approximate exploitability • groundwater development
  38. 38. Page 38 Water in Lebanon Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 What do we know about our water?
  39. 39. Page 39 Water in Lebanon Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 What do we know about our water? PartlyfromMargane,BGR,2013
  40. 40. Page 40 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 How much water will we have next year? TheDailyStar,2015.Lebanon‘srainfalllevellessthan average,14Dec2015.
  41. 41. Page 41 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon “(…) Airport’s Bureau of Meteorology told The Daily Star Wednesday that the lack of rain so far this season is considered “normal.” There is no indication that this winter will witness less rain than usual, an official at the bureau said.” Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 2014 … An exceptional water scarce year? TheDailyStar,2013.WatershortageleavesBeirutisfuming, TheDailyStar,2014.Droughtsputagriculture,tourismatrisk.
  42. 42. Page 42 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon More critical years: 2003-2004 2007-2008 2013-2014 Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 2014 … An exceptional water scarce year? TuTiempo.net,2016. http://en.tutiempo.net/climate/ws-401000.html.
  43. 43. Page 43 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 2014 … An exceptional water scarce year? TuTiempo.net,2016. http://en.tutiempo.net/climate/ws-401000.html.
  44. 44. Page 44 Water in Lebanon Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Research for Better Understanding of Jeita Spring Catchment Margane,BGR,2013 • Tectonic setting • Geological mapping • Tracer tests • Stable isotopes
  45. 45. Page 45 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 2014 … Groundwater, spring discharges affected Margane,BGR,2014.
  46. 46. Page 46 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 2014 … Groundwater, spring discharges affected Margane,BGR,2014.
  47. 47. Page 47 Water and Snow in Lebanon Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Average precipitation related to snow water equivalent for 2008 to 2012 MEW,UNDP,2014.AssessmentofGroundwaterResourcesof Lebanon.
  48. 48. Page 48 Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon 2014 … WASH Working Group: July 2014 WASHWorkingGroupLebanon,2014.UNHCR-UNICEF. “This map shows those villages in the Bekaa area facing water scarcity. Villages have been divided into rankings of high medium and low. (…)”
  49. 49. Page 49 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 July 2014: MEW Water Conservation Campaign MEW,2014.NationalWaterConservationCampaign, started15July2014.
  50. 50. Page 50 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 … but all through 2013-2014: Blue Gold Advertising Campaign CIH,2013.BlueGoldofLebanon.www.cihlebanon.org.
  51. 51. Page 51 Water and water scarcity in Lebanon • Coordinate  Cooperate  Concerted Action • National Strategy to Overcome Water Scarcity (NaSOWaS) • National Monitoring Network • Research on Recharge Mechanisms • Legal Basis for Rationalizing Water Use Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Recommendations for better preparedness .. R.Klingbeil,2014.CopingwithWaterScarcityinLebanon? SomeSuggestionsandApproachesBasedonExperiences fromtheRegion.37thWSCGMeeting,March2014, www.slideshare.net/RKlingbeil.
  52. 52. Page 52 Water and scarcity in the MENA Region Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Three Levels of (Water) Scarcity TheWorldBank,2007.MakingtheMostofScarcity.
  53. 53. Page 53 Future Directions Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 25 September 2015: The 193-Member United Nations General Assembly adopted • 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, incl. • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org
  54. 54. Page 54 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Water (and Sanitation) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Water Connects and Enables • Water is essential, finite and vulnerable • Water is a driver for development and enables: • Health • Nature • Urbanization • Industry • Energy • Food • Equality Cap-NetUNDPandUN-Water,2015.
  55. 55. Page 55 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org 6.1 By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all 6.2 By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations 6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally 6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
  56. 56. Page 56 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org 6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate 6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes 6.a By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity- building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies 6.b Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
  57. 57. Page 57 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Seminar at the Water Resources Department, American University of Technology (AUT), Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Mapping of Stakeholders per Goal / Target / Indicator: Example Lebanon
  58. 58. UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia Seminar, Water Resources Department, AUT, Halat, Lebanon, 19 Jan 2016 Water Challenges in the Arab Region: How did we get where we are? And where do we go from here? Ralf Klingbeil, Regional Advisor Environment and Water Inamo,2001.

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