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Teaching – learning media in medical education


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an interesting ppt on using audiovisual aids for medical students, highlighting the advantages, disadvantages with know - hows..... <3... satya

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Teaching – learning media in medical education

  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVESTo list various audio visual aidsTo know the merits and demerits of eachTo know the do’s and don’ts when using themTo select appropriate teaching aidTo express enthusiasm about making efforts for thepreparation process
  3. 3. TEACHING Is an art Requires 3 things1) Expertise at the subject2) Grasp of the language3) Skills to communicate
  4. 4. TEACHING4th important thing required is CHOOSING THE APPROPRIATE TEACHING AID
  5. 5. AUDIOVISUAL AIDSThe writing boardThe flip chartTransparencies on Overhead ProjectorThe Slide ProjectorThe Power Point PresentationThe video on LCD panelVirtual Reality Shows
  6. 6. THE WRITING BOARDMost commonly usedBlack board or White board
  7. 7. ADVANTAGESEasy to useInexpensiveQuickly cleaned and reusedReliable aidConvenient to list items and draw diagramsAllows step by step build upStudents can keep pace with the teacher
  8. 8. DISADVANTAGESCannot hold large amount of materialHas to be erased, so no permanent record of what iswrittenTime consumingDifficulty in keeping the attention of the studentsNot so effective for large audiences
  9. 9. GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE USE Availability of material Good illumination Plan the presentation Ensure clarity Arrange the material in sequence Emphasize key points Position of teacher Rubbing the board
  10. 10. THE FLIP CHARTLarge chart with a pad of paper on a tripod or stand
  11. 11. ADVANTAGESThe notes, diagrams or flow charts can be prepared inadvanceRevealed at the appropriate points of the teachingsessionPages can be removed and taped on the walls forfuture reference.Can be preserved for display even after the class
  12. 12. DISADVANTAGESNot effective larger audiencesThe chart cannot hold large amount of materialWriting at the same time during session is timeconsumingDifficult to talk at the same timeSometimes writing is illegible
  13. 13. GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE USE Availability of materials Good illumination Plan the presentation Ensure clarity Position of teacher Displaying material on flip charts
  14. 14. TRANSPARENCIES AND PROJECTOR A transparency  Plastic film containing written or drawn material preferably in horizontal format With Overhead projector, previously prepared transparencies are projected Magnification 5 times Letters – 5-7 mm in height
  15. 15. ADVANTAGESSimpleCan be used with the classroom lights onImage can be projected highEasily available and inexpensiveCan be prepared quickly and in advanceAllows more time for discussionAllows step-wise presentation of materialOverlay can be done can be Preserved for future use
  16. 16. DISADVANTAGESSpeaker has to be careful not to block the view of thescreenCan go out of focus if it is moved on the stageCrowding can happen
  17. 17. PREPARING TRANSPARENCIESThicker sheets are more durableCan be displayed in black and white or colourComputer printing affords clarity of textLimit each visual to one main ideaUse 6 -7 lines, 6 words in each lineUse large lettering ( 5 mm tall )Printed text is easier to read
  18. 18. GUIDELINESCheck the on/off switchCheck if the extra bulb is workingFamiliarise with focusing and adjustingScreen for projection placed on a higher level thanthe speaker
  19. 19. GUIDELINES place the projector 2 meters from the screenRotate nob to FAN position, pre-heating for ½ min thento desired intensity of lightMove lens mirror frame to project ( 45 degrees inclined )To focus, move the mirror assembly up or down
  20. 20. GUIDELINESPlace the transparencyTurn the projector onBring the knob to FAN positionUncover information gradually by a white sheetUse a pointer or pencil directly on the transparency to focusattention on a specific areaNotes on a piece of paper can be clipped to the mountFace the participants while talkingTurn the projector off before removing transparencyBefore switching off, ensure cool air comes out
  21. 21. THE SLIDE PROJECTORUses 35 mm photographic slides for projection
  22. 22. ADVANTAGESSuitable for large and small audiencesEasy to carry, store and re-useWith automatic slide projectors, speaker can manageindependently allows projection of X-ray images, scans, specimens,photos etcDouble slide projection can be used for comparison
  23. 23. DISADVANTAGESNeed to darken the hall for slide projectionLoss of eye contactExcessive numbers will result in loss ofcommunication
  24. 24. THE POWER POINT PRESENTATION Used widely as computers are available Offers tremendous multimedia capabilities Great impact can be created by proper use Use humour, anecdotes, stories to illustrate your presentation
  25. 25. I like whiskey. I always did, and that is why I never drink it.
  26. 26. ADVANTAGESCan keep the attention on the topicSlide lay out, colour, font can be modified andupdatedText, graphics, photographs, figures, X-rays, charts,diagrams can all be presentedAnimation can be given for cues or emphasisVideo clips can be incorporated
  27. 27. WILDLIFE
  28. 28. DISADVANTAGESDim light can cause loss of eye contactSpeaker cannot be seenNote taking is difficultDanger of overcrowding the slideMay distract the audience from the messageTendency to overload informationRequires Good functioning of technology, electricityNeeds back-up arrangements
  29. 29. GUIDELINESPresent in 4-5 bulleted pointsin 6 lines, 6 words in each lineContrast the textHighlight vital pointsUse multimedia to demonstrateUse laser beam not arm“ go slow”, don’t rush
  30. 30. Slide Structure – GoodUse 1-2 slides per minute of your presentationWrite in point form, not complete sentencesInclude 4-5 points per slideAvoid wordiness: use key words and phrases only
  31. 31. Slide Structure - BadThis page contains too many words for a presentationslide. It is not written in point form, making it difficultboth for your audience to read and for you to presenteach point. Although there are exactly the samenumber of points on this slide as the previous slide, itlooks much more complicated. In short, youraudience will spend too much time trying to read thisparagraph instead of listening to you.
  32. 32. Fonts - BadIf you use a small font, your audience won’t be able to read what you have writtenCAPITALIZE ONLY WHEN NECESSARY. IT IS DIFFICULTTO READDon’t use a complicated font
  33. 33. Colour - GoodUse a colour of font that contrasts sharply with thebackground Ex: blue font on white backgroundUse colour to reinforce the logic of your structure Ex: light blue title and dark blue textUse colour to emphasize a point But only use this occasionally
  34. 34. Colour - BadUsing a font colour that does not contrast with thebackground colour is hard to readUsing colour for decoration is distracting andannoying.Using a different colour for each point is unnecessary Using a different colour for secondary points is also unnecessaryTrying to be creative can also be bad
  35. 35. Background – BadAvoid backgrounds that are distracting or difficult toread fromAlways be consistent with the background that youuse
  36. 36. Graphs - Good Items Sold in First Quarter of 200210090807060 Blue Balls50 Red Balls40302010 0 January February March April
  37. 37. Graphs - Bad100 90 90 80 70 60 Blue Balls 50 Red Balls 38.6 40 34.6 30.6 31.6 30 27.4 20.4 20.4 20 10 0 January February March April
  38. 38. SMART TIPSGo blankAdd speaker notesNavigate
  39. 39. THE VIDEOA very creative audio-visual aidCaptured using digital camerasRecorded on CDs, DVDsElectronic LCD panel can be used for to display
  40. 40. ADVANTAGESCan capture events the eye alone cannot seeIndividual steps can be shownMake the participants to watch step by stepAnimation can be used to show an abstract concept
  41. 41. DISADVANTAGESKey steps may be omitted or rearrangedCommercially prepared video may be out-datedStudents may be distracted
  42. 42. GUIDELINESPreview the video CDArrange the room so that all can seePrepare the participantsState the session objectivesProvide an overviewFocus attention to look for whatDiscuss the video after the showReview the main points
  43. 43. VIRTUAL REALITY PROGRAMMESComputer based 3 dimensional interactive programmesUser wears a virtual reality helmetAn electronic glove is wornInteract with the computer programmeAvailable in other disciplines as wellIn near future, surgical skills can be learnt
  44. 44. CONCLUSIONUsing Audio visual aids properly Is a critical step intrainingHighlight important thingsSupplement learning activitiesReinforce the learning processReduces the burden of present students