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Enhancing writing skills for librarians and information professionals

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Lecture presented by Nap Apolinario at PAARL Seminar- workshop with the theme "Managing Today’s Learning Commons: Re-Skilling Seminar for Information Professionals" held on September 20-22, 2016 at the Crown Legacy Hotel, Kisad Road, Baguio City.

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Enhancing writing skills for librarians and information professionals

  1. 1. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 1 Enhancing Writing Skills for Librarians and Information Professionals Philippine Association of Academic/Research Librarians, Inc. Crown Legacy Hotel, Baguio City Sept 20, 2016 Nap Apolinario, Jr. Our Objectives YOU should know how to create an engaging project proposal for a library-related project or program
  2. 2. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 2 Schedule • 9:00 – 10:30 AM Lecture • 10:30 – 10:45 AM Q&A • 10:45 – 11:00 AM Thinking Break • 11:00 – 11:30 AM Workshop: Writing • 11:30 – 12:00 NN Workshop: Presentation Why do we need library programs?
  3. 3. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 3 CHANGE “This  is  a  remarkably  challenging  and   invigorating time to work in library and information services. The entire model upon which libraries were established is being fundamentally challenged by the digital revolution. This is not only redefining the way that knowledge and information is created and distributed, it is also redefining the way that it is accessed and used.”    (Martyn Wade, 2012)
  4. 4. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 4 “…  library  and  information  services  must   respond by similarly challenging and redefining their own ways of working – and achieve this at a  time  when…  there  are  significant  reductions  in   funding... However, if libraries do not rise to this challenge, they are likely to be increasingly marginalized by commercial organizations which can use the ubiquity of the internet to provide services, without necessarily providing the quality  of  content  or  equality  of  access.”     (Martyn Wade, 2012) Why Do We Need Library Programs • Strategic alignment • Operating necessity • Competitive necessity • Sacred cow
  5. 5. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 5 Library Programs • Can you give examples of library programs in your respective libraries? Definition of a Project • A project delivers unique results • A project is temporary – definite beginning and end – the output usually outlives the project • A project has progressive elaboration – Details are broad at the start then become more specific as the project progresses Definition adapted from PMBOK Guide, 3rd Edition
  6. 6. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 6 Projects & Operations • Similarities – Both are performed by people – Both consume resources – Both are planned, executed, and controlled – Both have desired goals • Differences – Projects are temporary and unique. Operations are ongoing and repetitive. – Projects are terminated when the goal is achieved. In operations, new goals are set when goals are achieved. Which of the Following are Projects? 1. Conducting an inventory count of the collection 2. Cataloguing 20 books 3. Marketing library services 4. Learning commons duties Project Operations Conducting an inventory count for the first time Conducting the quarterly inventory count Cataloguing 20 books written in a rare language Cataloguing books everyday Conducting an aggressive marketing blitz to let people know of a newly opened section of the library Marketing library services through announcements on Facebook, Twitter, learning management system/s, and bulletin boards Renovating the library to accommodate the learning commons Day-to-day management of the learning commons
  7. 7. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 7 Where do we start? Let’s  write  a  project  proposal! Why do Projects Fail
  8. 8. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 8 Project Proposal • The terms of reference of the proposed project • Decision makers will use this as the basis for their GO/NO-GO decision • It is oftentimes considered as the first cut of the project plan • Includes the ff: – Summary – Rationale (problem or opportunity statement) – Objectives and Output – execution strategy, budget, resources needed, schedule, risks Components of a Project Proposal Project Summary Rationale Objectives & Output Scope Resources Schedule Cost Communications Plan Risk Management Plan
  9. 9. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 9 The problem or opportunity You are a librarian at an arts and engineering university and your library is due for repair works and renovation. You were tasked by the head librarian to come up with a proposal to repair and renovate the library. Components of a Project Proposal Project Summary Rationale Objectives & Output Scope Resources Schedule Cost Communications Plan Risk Management Plan Project Summary Title: Description and objectives: Duration: Key Stakeholders: Proposed Budget:
  10. 10. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 10 The problem or opportunity Let’s  take  advantage  of  the  opportunity. Let’s  not just renovate but let’s  redesign the library! Components of a Project Proposal Project Summary Rationale Objectives & Output Scope Resources Schedule Cost Communications Plan Risk Management Plan Project Summary Title: Project Evolve Description and objectives: The project aims to provide a redesigned library which caters to the evolving needs of the university’s  students.  Three  new  spaces  will  be   constructed within the current reference section. Additionally, the whole library building will be repaired and renovated. Duration: 9 months Key Stakeholders: Head librarian, librarians and library staff, faculty, students, 3rd parties (architect, contractor, vendors) Proposed Budget: 5,000,000 pesos
  11. 11. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 11 Components of a Project Proposal • Why is the project needed? • What is the problem being addressed? Project Summary Rationale Objectives & Output Scope Resources Schedule Cost Communications Plan Risk Management Plan Components of a Project Proposal EXAMPLE: The library needs of our students are evolving. Aside from needing a place for research and accessing information, students now need a venue wherein they can think, collaborate, communicate, and create with their fellow students. In addition, the library is in need of a long due repair and renovation as the building is already showing signs of age and neglect. Project Summary Rationale Objectives & Output Scope Resources Schedule Cost Communications Plan Risk Management Plan
  12. 12. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 12 Components of a Project Proposal • What are the outputs/ deliverables of the project? • What impact or benefit will the project have? • SMART – Specific – Measurable – Assignable – Realistic – Time-bound Project Summary Rationale Objectives & Output Scope Resources Schedule Cost Communications Plan Risk Management Plan Components of a Project Proposal EXAMPLE: Project Evolve aims to redesign the offerings of the library as well as repair and renovate the library building. The project will determine the needs of the university population, plan ways of address those needs, and address those needs. Three new spaces will be created, specifically the Fab space, the Collab space, and the Lab space. The makerspaces are expected to enhance the critical thinking, collaboration, communication, and creation skills of the students. In addition, the rest of the library building will undergo repair and renovation to keep the building in excellent shape and to align its design to the current architectural design theme of the university. Project Summary Rationale Objectives & Output Scope Resources Schedule Cost Communications Plan Risk Management Plan
  13. 13. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 13 Components of a Project Proposal • What are included? • What are not included? • Some tools for defining and refining the project scope: – Product Analysis – Stakeholder Analysis – Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Project Summary Rationale Objectives & Output Scope Resources Schedule Cost Communications Plan Risk Management Plan Components of a Project Proposal • Product Analysis Redesigned library 1. Renovated building and rooms 2. Redesigned library offerings
  14. 14. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 14 Components of a Project Proposal • Stakeholder Analysis Redesigned library 1. Renovated building and rooms 2. Redesigned library offerings 3. New equipment Components of a Project Proposal • Work Breakdown Structure – It subdivides the work into more manageable work packages – It breaks down the project deliverables into more specific sub-deliverables with the associated work packages Redesignedlibrary 1.Renovated buildingand rooms 2. Redesigned library offerings 3.New equipment 1.1 Acquire architect and contractor services 1.2 Move books, shelves, and furniture/ equipment 1.3 Renovate building androoms 1.4 Move in books, shelves, and furniture/ equipment 2.1 Determine needsof the studentsand facultyof the university 2.2 Design newlibrary offerings basedonthe determined needs 2.3 Develop marketing strategy 2.4 Implement newlibrary offeringsand marketing strategy 3.1 Discuss eqptreqts withthe deanof the coll.of engg 3.2 Acquire equipment 3.3 Deliver andinstall new equipment
  15. 15. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 15 Components of a Project Proposal • Work Breakdown Structure 2nd Level 1st Level Redesigned library 1. Renovated building and rooms 2. Redesigned library offerings 3. New equipment 2nd Level Components of a Project Proposal • Work Breakdown Structure 3rdLevel 1. Renovated building and rooms 1.1 Acquire architect and contractor services 1.2 Move out books, shelves, and furniture/ equipment 1.3 Renovate building and rooms 1.4 Move in books, shelves, and furniture/ equipment
  16. 16. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 16 Components of a Project Proposal • Work Breakdown Structure 2nd Level 3rdLevel 2. Redesigned library offerings 2.1 Determine needs of the students and faculty of the university 2.2 Design new library offerings based on the needs 2.3 Develop marketing strategy 2.4 Implement new library offerings and marketing strategy Components of a Project Proposal • Work Breakdown Structure 2nd Level 3rdLevel 3. New equipment 3.1 Discuss equipment requirements with the dean of the colleges of engineering & architecture 3.2 Acquire equipment 3.3 Deliver and install new equipment
  17. 17. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 17 Components of a Project Proposal • Work Breakdown Structure Redesigned library 1. Renovated building and rooms 2. Redesigned library offerings 3. New equipment 1.1 Acquire architect and contractor services 1.2 Move out books, shelves, and furniture/ equipment 1.3 Renovate building and rooms 1.4 Move in books, shelves, and furniture/ equipment 2.1 Determine needs of the students and faculty of the university 2.2 Design new library offerings based on the determined needs 2.3 Develop marketing strategy 2.4 Implement new library offerings and marketing strategy 3.1 Discuss eqpt reqts with the dean of the coll. of engg & archi 3.2 Acquire equipment 3.3 Deliver and install new equipment Components of a Project Proposal • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) in outline format 1. Renovated building and rooms 1.1 Acquire architect and contractor services 1.2 Move books, shelves, and furniture/equipment 1.3 Renovate building and rooms 1.4 Move back books, shelves, and furniture/equipment 2. Redesigned library offerings 2.1 Determine needs of the students and faculty of the uni ersity 2.2 Design new library offerings based on the determined needs 2.3 Develop marketing strategy 2.4 Implement new library offerings and marketing strategy 3. New Equipment 3.1 Discuss equipment requirements with the dean of the college of engineering and college of architecture 3.2 Acquire equipment 3.3 Deliver and install new equipment
  18. 18. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 18 Refine the Scope • Some reminders when developing the WBS – Find the right level of detail which will work for your project; Not too microscopic and not too general – Details can be progressively added as the project progresses Components of a Project Proposal  Who will be involved in the project and what will be their responsibilities with the project?  How will they be organized?  Steps – List down the activities or work packages from the WBS – Assign resources to each work package – Develop project org structure Project Summary Rationale Objectives & Output Resources Schedule Cost Communications Plan Risk Management Plan Scope
  19. 19. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 19 Components of a Project Proposal • Resources Activity University Librarian Librarian I Library staff Janitorial services Others 1. Renovated building and rooms 1.1 Acquire architect and contractor services X 1.2 Move books, shelves, and furniture/equipment X X X 1.3 Renovate building and rooms Contractor 1.4 Move back books, shelves, and furniture/equipment X X X 2. Redesigned library offerings 2.1 Determine needs of the students and faculty of the university X Research assistants, Faculty, students 2.2 Design new library offerings based on the determined needs X X 2.3 Develop marketing strategy X Components of a Project Proposal • Resources Activity University Librarian Librarian I Library staff Janitorial services Others 3. New Equipment 3.1 Discuss equipment requirements with the dean of the colleges of eng’g & archi X 3.2 Acquire equipment College of Engineering 3.3 Deliver and install new equipment Vendors (c/o College of Engineering)
  20. 20. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 20 Components of a Project Proposal • Project OrganizationProject Summary Rationale Objectives & Output Resources Schedule Cost Communications Plan Risk Management Plan Scope Project Manager/ Librarian I Internal Providers External Providers Project Steering Committee Components of a Project Proposal • What is the project timeline and when will important dates, such as project milestones, be completed? Project Summary Rationale Objectives & Output Resources Schedule Cost Communications Plan Risk Management Plan Scope
  21. 21. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 21 Components of a Project Proposal • Steps – Estimate effort and duration for each activity – Determine dependencies – Draw the project network and identify the critical path – Review constraints and revise the schedule as necessary Project Summary Rationale Objectives & Output Resources Schedule Cost Communications Plan Risk Management Plan Scope Components of a Project Proposal • Schedule – Estimate the effort and duration for each activity – Research on Program Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT) duration estimation methods Activity Duration 2.1 Determine needs of the students and faculty of the university 2 months 2.2 Design new library offerings based on the determined needs 1 month 2.3 Develop marketing strategy 1 month
  22. 22. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 22 Components of a Project Proposal • Schedule – Determine dependencies Activity Duration Pre- requisite 2.1 Determine needs of the students and faculty of the university 2 months - 2.2 Design new library offerings based on the determined needs 1 month 2.1 2.3 Develop marketing strategy 1 month 2.2 Components of a Project Proposal • Schedule – Develop the actual schedule Oct 2016 Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan 2017 Feb 2017 Mar 2017 Apr 2017 May 2017 2.1 Determine needs of the students and faculty of the university 2.2 Design new library offerings based on the determined needs 2.3 Develop marketing strategy
  23. 23. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 23 Components of a Project Proposal • Schedule – Review constraints and revise schedule as necessary Oct 2016 Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan 2017 Feb 2017 Mar 2017 Apr 2017 May 2017 2.1 Determine needs of the students and faculty of the university 2.2 Design new library offerings based on the determined needs 2.3 Develop marketing strategy Components of a Project Proposal • Assign costs to the following: – Human resources – Purchased, rented, or leased equipment, materials, and services – Administrative expenses Project Summary Rationale Objectives & Output Resources Schedule Cost Communications Plan Risk Management Plan Scope
  24. 24. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 24 Components of a Project Proposal • When/how often do we update those concerned (both internal and external parties)? • What do those concerned need to know? • Who is responsible for each type of communication? Project Summary Rationale Objectives & Output Resources Schedule Cost Communication Plan Risk Management Plan Scope Components of a Project Proposal • Sample Communication Plan Stakeholder Information Needs Timing Medium Head Librarian General project cost schedule showing planned vs. actual figures •Monthly - Every 1st Monday of the month •Written report •Management Meeting General project progress in a Gantt chart showing planned vs. actual activities •Weekly – Every Monday morning • Written report to be emailed Issues affecting the schedule and/or requiring action from management • Non-critical issues – Weekly • Critical issues - ASAP •Non-critical - written report to be emailed •Critical – written or verbal Finance Department Detailed project cost schedule showing planned vs. actual figures •3 days before any major purchase •Excel spreadsheet (project cost yymmdd.xls) to be emailed
  25. 25. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 25 Components of a Project Proposal • Risks – an uncertain even or condition which can have negative or positive impact to the project if it happens • The Risk Management Plan details how you will manage risks, both good and bad • Some sources of risk – Poorly defined and/or miscommunicated scope, schedule, quality, cost, roles, etc – Wrong estimates, human uncertainties – Changes in project scope, schedule, environment Project Summary Project Rationale Project Objectives & Output Resources Schedule Cost Communications Plan Risk Management Plan Project Scope Components of a Project Proposal • Other parts of a Project Proposal – Procurement Plan • Make or buy • What type of contract/s will be used in procuring products or services • Procurement schedule – Quality Plan • Which quality standards are relevant to the various elements of the project • How will the project satisfy them • Tools – research, benchmarking, cost-benefit analysis
  26. 26. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 26 Tips and Reminders • GET MANAGEMENT SUPPORT: No one will move a finger  if  management  doesn’t  support  the  project. • PLAN AND SCOPE PROPERLY: The more time you invest in planning, the better and less mistakes your project will have. Do not skip the work breakdown structure. Set deadlines. • COMMUNICATE: Project stakeholders do not want to guess  what’s  is  going  to  happen  in  the  project.   Provide and get feedback. • CLARIFY ROLES: Make sure that roles are very clear for each project team member • BE REALISTIC! How to make it more engaging? • Make it short and sweet – Provide summarized information; – Do not put every detail in the body • Aesthetically pleasing – Easy to read formatting and layout – Graphs and illustrations should be straight to the point and easy to understand • Grammatically correct • Accurate content • It should touch the heart
  27. 27. Nap Apolinario, Jr. © 2009-2016 27 Components of a Project Proposal Project Summary Rationale Objectives & Output Scope Resources Schedule Cost Communications Plan Risk Management Plan These are also the components of the project plan!

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