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Project Management in Libraries for UCLA IS 410

A 3-hour class introducing project management in libraries, prepared and presented at the invitation of Dr. Beverly Lynch for her 3-credit graduate course "Management Theory and Practice for Information Professional," IS 410 in the UCLA Department of Information Studies.

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Project Management in Libraries for UCLA IS 410

  1. 1. Project Management in Libraries for UCLA IS 410 Karen Calhoun, 18 Feb 2016 1
  2. 2. Class Outline • About me • Learning objectives • Why projects and project management? • What is a project? • What do projects create? • Initiating a project • Roles of sponsors and project managers • Terminology of project management • Group work (case study) • Break • Group work (identifying project components) • “Triple constraint” and project life cycle • Working with project teams and stakeholders (group work – visibility/credibility) • Closing thoughts 2
  3. 3. About Me 3 Career focus on redesigning library services for the digital age 2011-present: Consulting, teaching, writing Senior Staff, University Library System, University of Pittsburgh 1997-2011: VP, WorldCat, OCLC Senior Associate University Librarian, Cornell University Library Karen Calhoun
  5. 5. SCOPE: When you finish this class, you should be able to: • Explain the role of project management in libraries • Describe what’s involved in initiating a project • Recognize some of the vocabulary of project management • Describe what a project manager does • Begin to plan a project • Define the “triple constraint” of project management • Recognize some key elements of working with project teams and stakeholders 5
  6. 6. This class WON’T teach you how to … • Execute, monitor and control projects • Produce or adjust time estimates or project schedules • Allocate people to tasks and delegate work • Account for dependencies • Manage project risks 6 • Close projects • Use project management software • E.g., Microsoft Project
  7. 7. Seriously interested in becoming a project manager? 7
  9. 9. By the end of this section, please make three notes: • 1 project I have worked on in the past or am working on right now • 1 benefit of learning about project management in libraries • 1 insight I can apply right now 9
  10. 10. Projects • Produce… Change • and • Innovation 10 Images: Construction of Manhattan Bridge, 1909. Public domain. Manhattan Bridge in 2007 by David Torres. CC-BY-SA 3.0.
  11. 11. Why do organizations need innovations? • All organizations rely on innovations (such as new products and services) to maintain viability in the communities they serve • A significant percentage of use comes from newly introduced products and services • Some high tech organizations expect a 100% turnover in their portfolio of products every five years • Libraries are not different in this regard 11 Source: Adapted from Cooper, Robert G. 1993. Winning at New Products. Addison-Wesley. p. 9-10.
  12. 12. Libraries Need Innovators 12 “Organizations must be retooled, new skills must be learned or brought into the organization to ensure our viability.” --Stephen Abram. Are libraries innovative enough? Presentation at OLA Superconference, Feb. 3, 2006. WE NEED YOU
  13. 13. Some Barriers to Innovation • Unclear strategic objectives or vision • Organizational silos / lack of cooperation between departments • Lack of skilled project management; too many projects • Failure to address community needs • Frequent changes in requirements • Not enough time to do the work 13 Adapted from Himmelfarb, Philip A. 1992. Survival of the Fittest: New Product Development during the 90’s. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall.
  14. 14. Winners and Losers • New products / services fail because 1. Intended users don’t need it • Inadequate understanding of community needs and preferences 2. The product / service doesn’t work • Problems or defects 3. Intended users don’t understand it • Ineffective communications (marketing) 4. Intended users resist • Perceived risks (convenience, performance) • Product incompatible with user values or work practices • Bad timing 14 Adapted from Crawford, C. Merle. 1994. New Products Management. 4th ed. Irwin.(This book, now in its 10th ed., is a standard in the field.)
  15. 15. The Project One-Pager A Simple Tool for Collaboratively Defining Project Scope Tito Sierra Digital Library Federation Forum 2011 Project Manager’s Group Meeting November 2, 2011 Pre-class reading: 15
  16. 16. Pre-class reading: Project Portfolio Management 16 Source: Vinopal, Jennifer. 2012. “Project Portfolio Management in Academic Libraries: a Gentle Introduction,” p. 386. College & Research Libraries 73(4): 379-89.
  17. 17. Over to You • 1 project I have worked on in the past or am working on right now • 1 benefit of learning about project management in libraries • 1 insight I can apply right now 17
  18. 18. Why learn project management? •Learn a structured approach to applying a defined body of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to: –Create buy-in and consensus among those with a stake in the project outcome –Increase the likelihood that the target community will accept and adopt the result (new product, service, etc.) –Increase the likelihood that project requirements will be met –Reduce the time and cost needed to produce successful results –Avoid having to do things over again! 18
  20. 20. A recent Pitt University Times issue: some articles describing projects • Page 4 – “Team Phenomenal Hope racing coast to coast” – describes a project to plan and carry out an event (a bicycle race) for a cause • Page 6 – “Senate group to look into e-speech issues” – subcommittee appointed by Faculty Assembly to look into an issue and report back • Page 6 – “Supply chain management center established” – part of article describes a search for a permanent director of the new center • Pages 8-9 – “Edible book fest” – setting up the event, soliciting and displaying the entries is a project • Page 10-13 – “Research notes” section contains entries about various funded research projects • Page 13 – “Senate committee slates announced” – setting up and running an election or elections is a project 20
  21. 21. 21 Projects Operations (business as usual)
  22. 22. How many articles describe projects? 22
  23. 23. What is a project? “A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result” – Project Management Institute – PMBOK section 1.2 •Temporary – project has a definite beginning and end •Creates a unique product, service, or result •Can involve single individuals, multiple individuals, single or multiple units, single or multiple organizations 23
  24. 24. What do projects create? •Innovations, new products and services •Changes (for example, reorganizations) •New or enhanced systems or services •New or modified processes, procedures, policies •New knowledge or understanding •New structures (like buildings, renovations, bridges, or monuments) •Events •More 24
  26. 26. Project Initiation 26  Authorize expenditure of resources  Assign project manager  Establish roles and responsibilities of project manager and other key participants  Identify high-level goals/objectives  Notify people/organizations affected by project
  27. 27. Getting Off to a Good Start 27 By British Cartoon Prints Collection [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
  28. 28. Getting Off to a Good Start The Project One-Pager Project Charter (PMI) 28 “A planning and communication tool that enables a shared understanding of the project before it begins.” --Tito Sierra “A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources project activities.” --PMI Lexicon
  29. 29. Role of the Project Sponsor • Set strategic direction, steer, guide & coach; help initiate • Stay informed; assure continued interest in project • Help resolve major issues • Obtain resources • Communicate and manage key relationships at higher levels 29 Images: Tony Fischer photo of Rembrandt Peale’s portrait of Thomas Jefferson. CC-BY 2.0. Lewis and Clark: composite image in public domain. Corps of Discovery Expedition commissioned by Jefferson in 1803
  31. 31. Role of the project manager • Plan, organize, execute, control, close the project • Continuously balance the triple constraint* • Communicate and manage relationships • Build/maintain project team performance; work with stakeholders and others; manage expectations • Anticipate and track risk • Integration (conductor of the orchestra) • Procurement/contracting (sometimes) • Quality assurance/evaluation and testing (sometimes) 31 *Triple constraint: The scope, time, and cost/resource constraints of a project, typically illustrated as a triangle.
  32. 32. Competencies and Skills of a Project Manager • “As much as 90% of a project manager’s time may be spent on communication flow.”— Marill, Jennifer L., and Marcella Lesher. 2007. “Mile High to Ground Level: Getting Projects Organized and Completed,” p. 322. The Serials Librarian 52 (3-4): 317–22. • Leadership • Team building • Motivation, coaching • Communication • Influencing • Decision making • Political and cultural awareness • Negotiation • Trust building • Conflict management • Delegation 32
  33. 33. GLOSSARY (HANDOUT) Learning the vocabulary of project management 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. Rules for glossary scavenger hunt during this class • Locate your copy of the “glossary” handout and glance through it quickly (5 minutes) • The object of the game is to listen, recognize, and “claim” the first mention of any word or phrase in the glossary • “Claim” a glossary word or phrase by raising your hand • At an appropriate point, Karen will ask you to define the word or phrase • Prizes!  35
  36. 36. The Case of the “Accidental” Project Manager: The Whirligig Collection - HANDOUT 36 Image credits: Teeny tiny toys by David Zellaby. CC-BY-NC-ND 2.0 Photo of professor. Public domain. University of Houston. Photo of file cabinets by Elizabeth Roy. CC-BY-SA 3.0
  37. 37. Whirligig Case Study Exercise (25 minutes) 1. By yourself, take a few minutes to read the HANDOUT (5 minutes) 2. Read the case a second time, considering these questions (10 minutes) a. Do you know who the project sponsor is? Does the sponsor(s) understand his/her role? b. Who is the project manager? c. Is the scope of the project clearly agreed by the sponsor(s)? d. Do you know the objectives and deliverables of this project? (At the end of the project, what will be different?) e. Who’s on the project team? f. Who are the primary stakeholders? g. Is the timeline clear? What are the major deadlines to be met? h. If not, whose responsibility is it to clarify these things? 3. Class discussion (10 minutes) 37 1 2 3 4
  38. 38. Break: 15 Minutes 38
  39. 39. Rules for glossary scavenger hunt during this class • The object of the game is to listen, recognize, and “claim” the first mention of any word or phrase in the glossary • “Claim” a glossary word or phrase by raising your hand • At an appropriate point, Karen will ask you to define the word or phrase • Prizes!  39
  40. 40. IDENTIFYING PROJECT COMPONENTS (BEGINNING TO PLAN) 40 Work Breakdown Structure Diagram (task numbering optional) Project Name 1 Activity 2 Activity 2.1 Task1.2 Task1.1 Task 2.2 Task 3 Activity 3.1 Task 3.2 Task
  41. 41. Goals, objectives, tasks, requirements and deliverables • Goal: “Enhance family relationships” • Objective: “Hold a family reunion in 2004” • Project “component”: “Pick date and location” • Requirements for date and location: – Pick date/location convenient to large number of family members – Must not be a school day – Wheelchair accessible • Deliverable: the date and location 41
  42. 42. Getting Started: Identifying project components (major tasks) • Helpful to do this as first project team exercise • Example: family reunion • Identify 2 to 5 major components of a Family Reunion Project • Articulate with a verb and an object -- for example: – Pick a date and a location – Invite people – Serve food and beverages 42
  43. 43. Examples of major project tasks/components— for a family reunion Hold a Family Reunion Pick date and location Invite people Serve food 43 Goal: Enhance family relationships Objective: Hold a family reunion
  44. 44. Next Step: Identifying project sub- components Family Reunion Pick date and location Invite people Serve food Plan menu Shop for groceries Cook food 44 Example of subcomponents for “serve food” component
  45. 45. Group work: Identifying project sub- components (task-related activities) • Two groups • Each person get Post-It note pad • Group 1: Write down 2 or 3 sub-components of “Pick a date and location” • Group 2: Write down 2 or 3 sub-components of “Invite people” • Articulate with a verb and an object -- for example: – Plan the menu – Shop for groceries – Cook the food • Stick post-its on the wall, a white board, or a flip chart(s) • Next step, working as a group, is to organize them 45
  47. 47. 47 The Triple Constraint* of Projects Schedule (Time) Resources (aka People, Budget) Project Scope/Requirements (aka Specifications) *N.B.: The PMI Lexicon no longer contains an entry for triple constraint. For why, see Duggal, Jack S. 2010. “How Do You Measure Project Success? Rethinking the Triple Constraint.”
  48. 48. What is a successful project? •Meets its objectives (satisfies scope or requirements) –Within allotted time –Within allocated resources •While … –Fulfilling needs of project sponsors and those performing the project – Maintaining harmony among project stakeholders –Producing meaningful, valuable results for target audience •Sometimes a project is canceled prior to its completion –A project that ends in mid-course (when it is no longer needed) can still be ‘successful’ 48
  49. 49. 49 Project Life Cycle: The Phases of Projects Image: Alphamu57 CC-BY-SA 3.0
  50. 50. WORKING WITH PROJECT TEAMS Leadership, influence, trust, and networking 50
  51. 51. What Makes A Good Team Leader? • Green thumb; small seeds, big trees • Driven; “miss a meal” pains • Leads from the middle • Velvet hammer • Tinker, tailor, try again • Manners matter • “Fly-eyed” 51 From Crawford, New Products Management
  52. 52. Roles in New Project Teams • Project manager • Sponsor • Team member (formal or ad hoc) • Other participants: – Champion – Reviewers, managers, committees, … – Other stakeholders 52
  53. 53. Cross-Functional Project Teams • Speed new product development • More likely to produce successful products • Ideal size of core team: 6 to 12 people • Team member more than a department’s “representative” • Collaboration, not just cooperation 53
  54. 54. Being Effective With What You Have • Be influential • Be trustworthy 54
  55. 55. What Do I Mean by “Be Influential”? • Focus on your “circle of influence” – those things you can do something about • Don’t stress too much about your “circle of concern” – those things you care about but can’t control • Be a networker • Emphasize influencing decisions rather than giving orders or “being right” • Give problems their proper weight and context 55
  56. 56. Group Work on Visibility/Credibility Inventory • Divide into groups • Spend 5 minutes discussing the matrix (and your own results if you wish to share them) • Spend 5 minutes considering the implications for leading and participating in new product development teams 56
  58. 58. What is politics? • Actions and interactions with people that affect the achievement of your goals • Using the power and influence of others to mobilize people and resources to get things done • “All the things that happen and you don’t know why”—Anon. 58
  59. 59. Basic assumptions • Politics are inevitable • Politics are necessary • Politics can’t be eliminated, but they can be managed • Don’t assume politics is somebody else’s job 59
  60. 60. Mapping the Stakeholder System of Your Project • Key to managing the politics of your project • So you focus your energy on influencing the right people • So you don’t forget anyone • So you can manage opposition and resistance • Prerequisite for “selling” your project from start to finish 60
  61. 61. A Stakeholder System Has “Clients” • Sponsoring client —person in position to set strategic goals; person who ultimately decides; person best able to break ties • Power client —person who grants access to people and resources; person with whom deals are struck • Legitimizer —person who protects the status quo; subject matter expert; person who influences acceptance • Opinion leader —Person who is receptive to new ideas; recognized as “up and coming” • Career influencer —your boss or bosses • Champion – advocates vigorously for the project 61
  62. 62. Identifying Stakeholders • Who is paying? Who makes “buy” decisions? • Who will use the results; who benefits? • Who originates? • Who defines “success”? • Who is an expert? • Who loses (credibility, something of value)? • Who is open to the new idea? • Who is good at stirring up excitement? • Who evaluates against the status quo? • Who is the first to see flaws or problems? • Who will feel the impact? • Who does the work? • Who will maintain the outcome? • Who knows the “big picture”—future direction? 62
  63. 63. GROUP EXERCISE: Stakeholder Analysis for the Whirligig Move Project—Grab Your Post-Its! 63 POWER CONCERN
  64. 64. Influence Tactics • Reason – using facts and data to develop a logical argument • Coalition – mobilize other people • Friendliness – create good will • Assertiveness – a direct and forceful approach • Negotiation – exchange of benefits • Higher authority – gain the support of higher ups to mobilize others • Sanctions – use organizationally derived rewards and punishments 64 Source material available via interlibrary loan: Kipnis, David, and Stuart M. Schmidt. 1982. Profiles of organizational influence strategies (POIS). [San Diego, Calif.]: University Associates.
  65. 65. Many project managers … • Try reason and friendliness first • Use assertiveness and higher authority second • Underuse coalition and negotiation • All tactics are good, when used in the right circumstances and for the right reasons 65
  66. 66. CLOSING THOUGHTS Failure, resilience and commitment 66
  67. 67. Scope • What the project IS and IS NOT • An element of the “triple constraint” • Ideally, what project stakeholders have agreed will be delivered, within a certain time, with a defined set of resources • A clear understanding of scope is the basis for responding to the inevitable requests for change during the project’s life cycle • Watch out for scope creep! 67 Schedule/Timeline Resources (aka People, Budget) Scope/ Requirements (aka Specs)
  68. 68. Project Changes Are Inevitable: Understand the Impact! 68 Schedule Resources (aka People, Budget) Scope/ Requirements (aka Specs) Do you remember what this triangle is called? IF: •SCHEDULE is cut THEN must either get more RESOURCES or reduce REQUIREMENTS (or both) •SCOPE/REQUIREMENTS increase THEN must either increase SCHEDULE or get more RESOURCES (or both) •RESOURCES are cut THEN must either increase SCHEDULE or reduce REQUIREMENTS (or both) …
  69. 69. Negotiation • Avoid and resist irrational assumptions • It is impossible to do the impossible • The earlier bad news is known the better • Avoid unhelpful coping behaviors - negotiate instead! 69
  70. 70. “Fall Down Seven Times; Stand Up Eight”— Japanese Proverb • Innovation is essential • There are many challenges – Libraries and library sites competing for attention from their communities – No free rides—libraries must deal with free market forces like everybody else • Project leadership and team skills are important -- more and more work is done this way in libraries • Organizational politics can’t be eliminated but they can be managed • It is work worth doing, that you can take great pride in 70
  71. 71. Closing Thoughts (Sierra’s) 1. Good communication is the key to get a project off to the right start 2. Collaborative planning at the start can help minimize gotchas later 3. Simple tools work best Source: Sierra, Tito. 2011. “The Project One-Pager.” Slide 33. PPT. file. CC-BY 3.0 US 71
  72. 72. Closing thoughts (yours) Reflect on one experience that you’ve had with a project in the past or right now. What is one thing you are taking away from this class that could help with your next project? Image: Gantt chart by Dbsheajr. CC-BY-SA 3.0 Bonus prize: what is this chart called? 72
  73. 73. Dive In! Good luck on your next project! 73