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LIBRARIANS AS PRACTITIONER-RESEARCHERS: ADVANCING SCHOLARSHIP BY BUILDING A CULTURE OF RESEARCH / LIBRARIANS AS DIGITAL CURATORS: LEADING THE WAY TOWARDS CYBERSCHOLARSHIP

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Dr. Allan B. De Guzman
University of Santo Tomas

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LIBRARIANS AS PRACTITIONER-RESEARCHERS: ADVANCING SCHOLARSHIP BY BUILDING A CULTURE OF RESEARCH / LIBRARIANS AS DIGITAL CURATORS: LEADING THE WAY TOWARDS CYBERSCHOLARSHIP

  1. 1. Allan B. de Guzman, Ph.D. 2011 Metrobank Foundation Outstanding Teacher 2014 Australian Awards Fellow abdeguzman@mnl.ust.edu.ph as a way of life mbracing research ein Library and Information Science
  2. 2. To be a LIBRARIAN is not a joke
  3. 3. To be a LIBRARIAN is not a joke
  4. 4. Project Management Skills THE 21ST CENTURY LIBRARIAN Ability to question and evaluate library services Farkas, M. (2006)
  5. 5. Ability to evaluate the needs of all stakeholders THE 21ST CENTURY LIBRARIAN Ability to translate traditional library services into the online medium Farkas, M. (2006)
  6. 6. Critical of technologies and ability to compare technologies THE 21ST CENTURY LIBRARIAN Farkas, M. (2006)
  7. 7. Ability to sell ideas and library services THE 21ST CENTURY LIBRARIAN Farkas, M. (2006)
  8. 8. THE TRIAD OF MODERN LIBRARIANSHIP Research PracticeTheory
  9. 9. CULTURE AGENTS STRUCTURE Research Activities Building Blocks of Research Activities
  10. 10. Thomas Aquinas Research Complex Research as a shared culture
  11. 11. ISOMIMETIC MORPHISM (Dimaggio & Powell, 1993) In order for newer colleges/universities to be able to compete with the older universities with well-established research administration they have to rely on the experiences of the older universities to guide their own developments.
  12. 12. How many of our Philippine librarians have MA/MS and PhD degrees?
  13. 13. How many of our Philippine librarians are into research?
  14. 14. How many of our Filipino librarians who have acquired advanced degrees can be be considered as “sleeping giants?
  15. 15. Some Perspectives on Research Culture Development ageism elitism sexism
  16. 16. According to Fox (2001) Women’s lower productivity relative to men’s is critical to study not only because of the size and persistence of the gap but also because other forms of gender inequality are perpetuated by it.
  17. 17. Nota Bene: The larger gender difference in productivity documented by Cole and Zuckerman (1984) has not disappeared in recent years (Fox, 2005; Long 1992; Long, Allison, and McGinnis, 1993; Prpic, 2002; Xie & Shauman, 1998)
  18. 18. Thomas Aquinas Research Complex The essence of Research Culture Accumulate Accumulate Accumulate
  19. 19. BRUNO LATOUR’S SCIENCE IN ACTIONBRUNO LATOUR’S SCIENCE in ACTION
  20. 20. The cycle starts with sending out an explorer, in his ship fully loaded with equipment, bearing a mission of drawing a complete map of the remote land. LATOUR’S CYCLE OF ACCUMULATION
  21. 21. The explorer arrives in a remote land, meets with native people, draws a map on notebooks and sketchbooks, leaves the remote land, and finally returns to the metropolitan center with a map in his hand. LATOUR’S CYCLE OF ACCUMULATION
  22. 22. The next explorer is sent out, this time not only with ships and equipment but also with maps drawn from the previous expedition. LATOUR’S CYCLE OF ACCUMULATION
  23. 23. He comes back with another, arguably better, map. A new map is added to the existing piles of maps LATOUR’S CYCLE OF ACCUMULATION
  24. 24. Latour argues. It doesn’t’ have to be people that are sent to draw maps or to “bring the lands back” to the center, and an expedition is not the only type of the cycles of accumulation. LATOUR’S CYCLE OF ACCUMULATION
  25. 25. “Ready- made science” “Science in the making” BRUNO LATOUR’s DIFFERENTIATION (1987)
  26. 26. Generating New Ideas Generating New Practices Generating New Products Generating New Business Processes Leading to Innovation Dennis Tsichritzis
  27. 27. Kaori Fuchigami
  28. 28. Tracking Researchers’ Visibility through
  29. 29. the largest bibliographic database containing abstract and citations for academic journal articles
  30. 30. Top 10 Philippines institutions by article output (Source:ThomsonReutersWebofScience) Rank Institution Number of Articles 2011 1 UNIVERSITY PHILIPPINES 192 2 INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE 123 3 University Philippines Los Banos 98 4 De la Salle University 68 5 Asian Development Bank 47 6 University Philippines Diliman 38 7 University Santo Tomas 31 8 Asian Fisheries Development Center 24 9 Ateneo Manila Univ 22 10 University San Carlos 19
  31. 31. Research is viewed by Filipino librarians as a mandate and not as a global activity. Reality Check
  32. 32. DE GUZMAN SHIFTING VIEWS OF RA AS A MANDATE AS A GLOBAL ACTIVITY AS AN INNOVATION TOOL
  33. 33. A good number of theses are produced by your school every year Reality Check
  34. 34. Not all papers done by the students are advised by researching faculty. Reality Check
  35. 35. Some theses are completed but poorly or ill- advised. Reality Check
  36. 36. Commitment to the Your being a Librarian Life of the Mind
  37. 37. Know-All Attitude Peter’s Principle
  38. 38. The About-to-Retire Attitude
  39. 39. It’s not EASY to embrace a research CULTURE
  40. 40. Allan B. de Guzman, Ph.D. 2011 Metrobank Foundation Outstanding Teacher 2014 Australian Awards Fellow abdeguzman@mnl.ust.edu.ph as a way of life mbracing research ein Library and Information Science
  41. 41. Allan B. de Guzman, Ph.D. 2011 Metrobank Foundation Outstanding Teacher 2014 Australian Awards Fellow abdeguzman@mnl.ust.edu.ph cholarshipLibrarians as Digital Curators
  42. 42. DOES YOUR SCHOOL HAVE A
  43. 43. DOES YOUR LIBRARY HAVE
  44. 44. power powerful library
  45. 45. Energy under normal conditions cannot be created or destroyed, simply transformed from one type of energy to another
  46. 46. look smell
  47. 47. dasein to behere & there to be to be to be here & there
  48. 48. +
  49. 49. Eddie Romero’s Ganito Kami Noon, Paano Kayo Ngayon (What We Now We Then)
  50. 50. Librarianship
  51. 51. is an Librarianship
  52. 52. “One cannot bathe in the same river twice.” Heraclitus
  53. 53. “For years the librarian was the portal to information; now the computer is the portal. Librarians need to find ways to help people discriminate between the sources of information and find the best ways to search.” ”
  54. 54. As librarians Are you old or aging?
  55. 55. Complacent about the changes in the environment Satisfied with the status quo
  56. 56. Open to become fossils in the museum
  57. 57. Look around. Look within. Look beyond.
  58. 58. THE BASIC TECHNICAL COMPETENCIES FOR TODAY’S LIBRARIANS Ability to embrace change. Farkas, M. (2006) 1
  59. 59. THE BASIC TECHNICAL COMPETENCIES FOR TODAY’S LIBRARIANS Comfort in the online medium Farkas, M. (2006) 2
  60. 60. THE BASIC TECHNICAL COMPETENCIES FOR TODAY’S LIBRARIANS Ability to troubleshoot new technologies Farkas, M. (2006) 3
  61. 61. THE BASIC TECHNICAL COMPETENCIES FOR TODAY’S LIBRARIANS Ability to easily learn new technologies Farkas, M. (2006) 4
  62. 62. THE BASIC TECHNICAL COMPETENCIES FOR TODAY’S LIBRARIANS Ability to keep up with new technology and librarianship Farkas, M. (2006) 5
  63. 63. “our great universities are losing their library buying power, and none of these historical sources of revenue can keep up with the increases in cost.”
  64. 64. Buying Power of Libraries (1980-2010)
  65. 65. “Libraries clearly will not scale into the 21st century using the current model. We must develop new paradigm that meets the economic parameters of our institutions, and yet still supports the traditional values of libraries and scholarship”
  66. 66. Great Contributors to library costs: Acquisition Cost Personnel Cost Space Cost 3
  67. 67. “A commonly discussed solution to these problems is to move to an electronic model where information access—rather than ownership—is the defining characteristics of a quality library. ”
  68. 68. 4th Rizal Library International Conference on Library Spaces: Building Effective and Sustainable Physical and Virtual Libraries 25th to 26th October 2010 Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines 2010
  69. 69. Transforming our Libraries, Ourselves 2014
  70. 70. Transforming our Libraries, Ourselves
  71. 71. Transforming our Libraries, Ourselves
  72. 72. Transforming our Libraries, Ourselves
  73. 73. Transformation Transformation Transformation Transformation The Language of Today’s Library
  74. 74. Libraries are at a critical point due to dramatic and rapid technological advances and the incredible increase of digital information– either born digital or created via mass digitization (Kim, Warga, & Moen 2012)
  75. 75. Digital libraries and digital repositories are the focus of many libraries, especially academic and research libraries (Kim, Warga & Moen, 2012)
  76. 76. cholarship IS A FORM OF INNOVATION
  77. 77. Lt.innovare= to change innovation
  78. 78. The original (3×3×3) Rubik's Cube has eight corners and twelve edges.
  79. 79. There are 8! (40,320) ways to arrange the corner cubes. There are 12!/2 (239,500,800) ways to arrange the edges
  80. 80. Eleven edges can be flipped independently, with the flip of the twelfth depending on the preceding ones, giving 211 (2,048) possibilities.
  81. 81. Sustaining Innovation Disruptive Innovation INNOVATION TYPOLOGIES
  82. 82. Sustaining Innovations Are innovations that are sufficiently congruent with existing systems that they have little impact on either the structure or culture of the library
  83. 83. Disruptive Innovations Are innovations that require dramatic alterations in both the structure and the culture of the library Involve alteration of roles, rules and relationship
  84. 84. WHAT DO SCHOLARS DO? Conceptualise a worthy idea Design a protocol to achieve the purpose of a scholarly endeavor Gather the needed data to support the argument
  85. 85. WHAT DO SCHOLARS DO? Analyse and interpret the gathered data Develop sound conclusions Communicate the results of the scholarly work
  86. 86. QUESTION How many have experienced writing a thesis or dissertation in the past?
  87. 87. QUESTION Would you consider your thesis/disseration a scholarly piece of work?
  88. 88. QUESTION At the time you were writing your thesis/dissertation with whom did you communicate the progress of your work?
  89. 89. QUESTION Did you find it very helpful talking to and consulting with people when developing your paper?
  90. 90. QUESTION Have you ever tried sharing your thesis in more open but still targeted environment like conferences and seminars?
  91. 91. QUESTION Have you ever tried posting your paper drafts in your personal websites, preprint servers and working paper repositories (ArXiv, SSRN, Cogprints and RePEc)?
  92. 92. QUESTION Have you ever tried submitting your work for scholarly publication in a reputable journal in the discipline while posting simultaneously an unpublished version of the article or pre-publication work?
  93. 93. QUESTION Have you ever tried having your work included in a monograph published by a prestigious press?
  94. 94. DataSharingContinuum (Rice,2007)
  95. 95. (Borgman et al 2008) Network MediatedSymbol Mediated Communication Mediated Culturally Mediated Cyberinfrastructure Mediated
  96. 96. QUESTION If universities are places of scholars and for scholars, how is/should communication of scholarship done and facilitated?
  97. 97. QUESTION If university libraries are repository of scholarly communication, what technological advances mediate communication between and among scholars?
  98. 98. QUESTION How do libraries as repositories of information make the sharing of scholarship dynamic?
  99. 99. QUESTION To what extent has the Web 2.0 facilitated the scholarly communication of your work?
  100. 100. is the term given to describe a second generation of the World Wide Web that is focused on the ability for people to collaborate and share information online.
  101. 101. A group of new Web- based information tools and services—such as social networking sites— that are easy to adopt and use and that enable their users to be producers and publishers rather than just consumers of information (O’Reilly, 2005; Anderson, 2007)
  102. 102. WEB 2.0 brings the promise of enabling researchers to create, annotate, review, re-use and represent information in new ways, and of promoting innovations in scholarly communication practices— e.g. publishing ‘work in progress’ and openly sharing research resources—that will help to realize the e- Research vision of improved productivity and reduced ‘time to discovery’ (Arms & Larsen 2007; Hannay 2009; Hey et al. 2009).
  103. 103. AFFORDANCES OF NEW DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES Locate and access scholarly resources Collaborate with other scholars (Acord, & Harley, 2012)
  104. 104. THE PROMISING AREA OF NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGIES Share and disseminate one’s own scholarship Farkas, M. (2006)
  105. 105. CYBERSHCHOLARSHIP DEFINED Is the marriage between high performance computing and digital libraries that can bring together vast quantities of material (Arms, W., 2008)
  106. 106. QUESTION Why should we embrace cybersholarship? We are living in a data-driven science
  107. 107. CYBERSHCHOLARSHIP In the cyberage, collections of digital content and the software to interpret them have become the foundation of discovery. (Richardson, 2008)
  108. 108. CYBERSHCHOLARSHIP When content becomes infrastructure, there is value in investment to support it. (Richardson, 2008)
  109. 109. CYBERSHCHOLARSHIP The preservation and organization of information for new forms of scholarship enable others to discover unexpected and novel associations without having to replicate the primary data (Richardson, 2008)
  110. 110. SOME FUTURE TRENDS In future, text/data needs to be in formats that support machine processing (e.g. XML or Xtensible Markup Language rather than PDF (Richardson, 2008)
  111. 111. THE PROBLEM IN CYBERSCHOLARSHIP The apathy of the academic, scientific and information communities coupled with the indifference or even active hostility and greed of many publishers renders literature-data-driven science still inaccessible (Richardson, 2008)
  112. 112. EXAMPLE OF CYBERSCHOLARSHIP AT THE MACRO LEVEL The National Virtual Observatory Its goal is to bring together previously disjoint sets of astronomical data, in particular digital sky surveys that have made observations at various wavelengths. Important astronomical results that are not observable in a single dataset can be revealed by combined analysis of data from these different surveys.
  113. 113. ENTREZ Entrez provides a unified view of biomedical information from a wide variety of sources including the PubMed citations and abstracts, the Medical Subject Headings, full text of journal articles and books, databases such as the protein sequence database and Genbank, and computer programs such as the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) for comparing gene and protein sequences. EXAMPLE OF CYBERSCHOLARSHIP AT THE MACRO LEVEL
  114. 114. QUESTION At the institutional level, what emerging role should librarians play in a digital library environment?
  115. 115. The as curator digital
  116. 116. Data Librarian Data Scientist Data Manager eScience Professional curator digital
  117. 117. Lt. = curare curator “take care”
  118. 118. DIGITAL CURATION Involves maintaining, preserving and adding value to digital research data throughout its life cycle. (Digital Curation Centre, n.d.)
  119. 119. IN THE CONTEXT OF ACADEMIC LIBRARIES THE THREE MAIN POTENTIAL ROLES 1. Increasing data awareness among researchers 2. Providing archiving and preservation services for data within the institution through institutional repositories (Swan & Brown, 2008)
  120. 120. IN THE CONTEXT OF ACADEMIC LIBRARIES THE THREE MAIN POTENTIAL ROLES 3. Developing a new professional practice in the form of data librarianship (Swan & Brown, 2008)
  121. 121. THE CURRENT ISSUE A report published by the Association of Research Libraries indicated gaps in academic libraries in terms of appropriately trained information professionals able to act on opportunities for supporting cyberscholarship. (Soehner, Steeves & Ward, 2010)
  122. 122. Are the Filipino Librarians for curation? digital ready
  123. 123. THE FINDINGS Of the 110 job advertisements collected, 85% (93 out of 110) required or preferred an ALA- accredited Master’s degree as an educational qualification for the job (Cragin et al, 2009)
  124. 124. THE FINDINGS 17 or 23% require computer programming experience
  125. 125. AREAS OF SKILLS AND KNOWLEGE
  126. 126. WORKING IN AN IT INTENSIVE ENVIRONMENT Knoweldge of multiple operating systems and web architectures including Unix/LINUX, Windows, and LAMP; programing and scripting (JAVA, PHP, Perl); web development skills (HTML, CSS), relational databases (Oracle, MySQL) data analysis tools (Nvivo, Stata, SAS, SPSS) specifications (SQL, XML, XSLT, DRF, OWL (Cragin et al, 2009)
  127. 127. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATION Familiarity with and knowledge of various metadata standards, such as MARC, Dublin Core, METS, MODS, and PREMIS. Knowledge of commonly used repository platforms (Dspace, Eprints and Fedora (Cragin et al, 2009)
  128. 128. THE CHALLENGE Some recent articles assert the need to educate and train library staff if libraries are to succeed in the areas of digital curation and data management. (Ogburn, 2010; Heidorn, 2011)
  129. 129. A four-course competency-based masters level curriculum for digital curation and data management
  130. 130. Robert Gordon University
  131. 131. Johns Hopkins University
  132. 132. King’s College London
  133. 133. initiatives curation digital Some
  134. 134. An institutional repository (IR) collects, preserves, and disseminates in digital form, the intellectual output of an institution.
  135. 135. To provide a seamless database of worldwide content, searchable by all. PURPOSE
  136. 136. THE REPOSITORY ENVIRONMENT IN AUSTRALIA University research increasingly involves the use, generation, manipulation, sharing and analysis of digital resources. New paradigms of ICT-enabled research have become mainstream in all disciplines
  137. 137. SOME TRENDS
  138. 138. SOME TRENDS The tendency of scholars to sign away all their rights when an article or other content format is published, and the pressure to make research publicly available
  139. 139. THE AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LEARNED SCIENCES (ACLS, 2006) Recommends that all content be freely available under open access, even if no plan has been put forward for addressing the IP issues surrounding many formats.
  140. 140. JOINT NSF/JISC REPORT (2007) Projects which use public funds to generate data, etc, have a responsibility to make that information available to other researchers.
  141. 141. THE AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH CUNCIL AND THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (2008) “Any publications arising from a research project will be deposited in an appropriate subject and or institutional repository wherever such a repository is available to the researcher.
  142. 142. Publications
  143. 143. For publications by this staff member, visit QUT ePrints
  144. 144. Request a copy
  145. 145. Statistics Overview
  146. 146. provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. From one place, you can search across many disciplines and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions, from academic publishers, professional societies, online repositories, universities and other web sites. Google Scholar helps you find relevant work across the world of scholarly research
  147. 147. “Yet consistently the literature points to the basic failure to date to embed the institutional repository in the intellectual life of the scholar/researcher.” The ISSUE
  148. 148. “If self-archiving, i.e. relying on academics to either deposit their own works themselves or allocate the task to someone else such as a research assistant, serves as the basis for populating the repository, then this concept/workflow has failed to fulfill initial expectations.”
  149. 149. “The majority of the academic staff felt that they did not have the time to self-deposit, and were particularly unwilling to do this where they had already provided publication details to a departmental administrator.”
  150. 150. “At Curtin University of Technology, an integrator system has been designed and implemented to share data between an institutional eprint repository and a University publications management system..”
  151. 151. GRIFFITH RESEARCH ONLINE
  152. 152. GRIFFITH RESEARCH ONLINE CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS Harvest content published by Griffith authors and then ask authors for relevant files
  153. 153. GRIFFITH RESEARCH ONLINE CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS Allocate one staff member to contact publishers’ permission as well keep abreast of which publishers now allow publisher PDF version
  154. 154. GRIFFITH RESEARCH ONLINE CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS Upload files on behalf of the Griffith authors Undertake all copyright checking
  155. 155. GRIFFITH RESEARCH ONLINE CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS Provide easy access to a range of statistics relating to each publication by a given author
  156. 156. GRIFFITH RESEARCH ONLINE CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS Demonstrate how searching in Google returns an entry in GRO
  157. 157. GRIFFITH RESEARCH ONLINE CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS Utilize both marketing and support strategies which are tailored to meet the needs of different “cultures” or disciplines
  158. 158. GRIFFITH RESEARCH ONLINE CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS Harvest content published by Griffith authors and then ask authors for relevant files
  159. 159. ASEAN 2015 • human resources development and capacity building • recognition of professional qualifications • consultation on economic and financial polices • trade financing • infrastructure and communications connectivity • electronic transactions through e-ASEAN • industrial integration to promote regional sourcing • enhancing private sector involvement for the building of AEC Infrastructure and communications connectivity
  160. 160. Scientific Institutional Repositories
  161. 161. CU Intellectual Repository
  162. 162. SOME SITUATIONER The Philippine school system is said to one of the largest in the world. 2nd Sem de Guzman, A. B. (2003. The dynamics of educational reforms in the Philippine basic and higher education sectors. Asia Pacific Education Review 4(1), 39-505, 133-147 (Springer, The Netherlands)
  163. 163. SOME SITUATIONER The Philippine higher education system is perhaps one of the most unique systems in the world. 2nd Sem de Guzman, A. B. (2013). Quality versus access in expanding higher education. University World News issue No 284.
  164. 164. Philippine Digital Repositories
  165. 165. SEAFDEC
  166. 166. Don Bosco Research Repository
  167. 167. COMMON REPOSITORY PLATFORMS •Archimede, Laval University Library •DAITSS, Florida Center for Library Automation
  168. 168. COMMON REPOSITORY PLATFORMS •Dienst, Cornell Digital Library Research Group •DSpace, DSpace Foundation DuraSpace
  169. 169. COMMON REPOSITORY PLATFORMS •Enterprise-Wide Digital Repository and Archive, Sun Microsystems •EPrints Free Software •ETD-db, Virginia Tech University Libraries •eXtensible Text Framework (XTF), California Digital Library
  170. 170. COMMON REPOSITORY PLATFORMS •Fedora, Fedora Commons DuraSpace •Greenstone, New Zealand Digital Library Project, University of Wankato •Invenio, CERN Integrated Digital Library System •IRPlus, University of Rochester.
  171. 171. COMMON REPOSITORY PLATFORMS •Keystone Digital Library Suite, Index Data. DLS is no" longer being actively developed." •MOAI. (Can't tell what "MOAI" stands for or who developed it.) •Omeka, Center for History and New Media, George Mason University
  172. 172. COMMON REPOSITORY PLATFORMS •OPUS. Originally from the Stuttgart University Library ("OPUS" stands for "Online Publikationsverbund Universität Stuttgart"), OPUS is now developed by a consortium of German university partners in Berlin, Dresden, Saarbrücken, and Stuttgart.
  173. 173. COMMON REPOSITORY PLATFORMS •Keystone Digital Library Suite, Index Data. DLS is no" longer being actively developed." •MOAI. (Can't tell what "MOAI" stands for or who developed it.) •Omeka, Center for History and New Media, George Mason University
  174. 174. COMMON REPOSITORY PLATFORMS • PubMan. From the eSciDoc project at the Max Planck Society. •WEKO, National Institute of Informatics •PeerLibrary, UC Berkeley
  175. 175. IN CONCLUSION Building content in institutional repositories is integral to supporting the future of scholarly communications and thereby supporting cyberscholarship.
  176. 176. IN CONCLUSION Cyberscholarhip offers a number of promises and challenges to Philippine LIS curriculum and library staff continuing education program.
  177. 177. IN CONCLUSION Given the promises and the challenges of cyberscolarship, the practice of academic and research librarianship in the Philippines remains a great work in progress.
  178. 178. “If you want to build a ship, don’t round up men to get wood, to perform jobs and to divide the work, but teach them the desire for the wide and endless sea.” Antoine de Saint-Exupery Author of the Little Prince
  179. 179. Allan B. de Guzman, Ph.D. 2011 Metrobank Foundation Outstanding Teacher 2014 Australian Awards Fellow abdeguzman@mnl.ust.edu.ph cholarshipLibrarians as Digital Curators

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