Treating Print in a Hybrid Library Environment


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Lecture presented by Elvira B. Lapuz at the ABAP Forum held on 9 July 2013 at SM Mega Trade Hall, SM Megamall, Mandaluyong City

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  • If history has anything to teach us, it is not to fear the future. No other public service profession has been as quick to adapt to technological change. Imagine a Rip Van Winkle librarian falling asleep in 1969 and waking up today. He would be amazed at how much more powerful catalogers and reference librarians are with computer keyboards at their fingertips and awestruck at how quickly a patron in Nome can get a book from almost anywhere. After hunting in vain for the card catalog, he would be completely blown away by the keyword searching capability of the OPAG and scratch his head at DVDs, audio playaways, and videogames, but be warmly reassured by shelves of books and children's librarians wielding puppets and playing with felt boards. Most of all, he would be overwhelmed by the crowd of patrons using the library for a hundred different purposes.
  • But change as a law of nature is very apparent in the present library environment. Rapid technological developments affect almost every activity in the library. This was made more apparent by the discussions and arguments about a “paperless society” as it took a considerable amount of space in a number of publications. Clearly, this is the path taken by many libraries when they began allocating separate funds for developing non-print and electronic collections. Sandler, in 2009 shared this perspective about libraries:   “ Libraries are not about books, they were, are, and will be about facilitating, communication across space and time. Books have been a way to do that historically, but today there are other, often better, ways to accomplish this. Libraries need to become facile at supporting all sorts of media, and they must continue to embrace the new, or face the consequences of losing relevance to the mainstream culture.”   Overtime, libraries have evolved in the context of their institutional roles, financial resources and format inclusions. In terms of collection, Gorman in 2010 gave a discerning summary on the evolving nature of library collection:   “ The definition of a library collection has expanded over the last 25 years to comprise at least four levels: locally owned physical documents, physical documents owned by other libraries but available through ILL; purchased or subscribed to electronic documents and “free” electronic documents.”   These levels present several major developments in the library, i.e. establishment of resource-sharing networks, interlibrary systems, union catalogs, the exponential rise on the use of digital and online materials for education and scholarship and the growing popularity of open access.
  • A digital library can link e-learners to library catalogues, licensed journal databases, electronic book collections, selected internet resources, electronic course reserves, and tutorials, and to forums for communication and interaction with others. Digital library permits e-learners to access library and networked resources and services anytime and anywhere that an Internet connection and computing equipment are available. support the range of goals that are already alive in the classroom, rather than simply modify information. How can digital libraries and their use open up an e-learner’s inquiries, rather than bring them to closure? How might they enhance an e-learner’s critical thinking, rather than dulling it? How might they assist in teaching e-learners search processes, rather than mystifying or suppressing this instruction? Without asking the real value of using digital libraries or any educational technologies, educators risk failing to see their transformative potentials, and at worst, they risk importing a contrary set of values that are embedded in such systems from their histories in other locations. For digital libraries, such an implicit value could be summarized as “complete information access leads to better education”, just as it may lead to better academic research and work. However, the many educators and librarians who have stacked unused textbooks and shrink-wrapped software packets in the corners of their rooms know that access is only a beginning. E-learners’ use of different technologies, whether they are traditional materials or digital resources available via the internet, will be informed by and in turn will help construct the kinds of values that retain significance in education. As long as the educator and the assignment follow the status quo, any related source of information is likely to be a smart choice by e-learners according to their assessment of what to do for Digital libraries and e-learning
  • In the e-learning environment, digital libraries are considered as a federation of library services and collections that function together to create a digital learning community. The range of supported materials includes curricula and courseware materials, lectures, lesson plans, computer programs, modelling and simulation, intelligent tutoring systems, access to remote scientific instruments, project based learning, tools, results of educational research, scientific research reported both formally in journals or informally in websites, raw data for student activities, and multimedia image banks.
  • Hybrid libraries are mixes of traditional print material such as books and magazines, as well as electronic based material such as downloadable audio books, electronic journals, e-books, etc. Hybrid libraries are the new norm in most public and academic libraries. [ citation needed ] It seems that the term "hybrid library" was first coined in 1998 by Chris Rusbridge in an article for D-Lib Magazine . [1] Hybrid libraries evolved in the 1990s when electronic resources became more easily available for libraries to acquire for public use. [ citation needed ] Initially these electronic resources were typically access to material distributed on media such as CD-ROM or searches of specialised databases. OCLC helped push libraries towards acquiring digital resources by providing a centralized technology resource for participating libraries. Now, with the widespread availability of digital content, it includes Internet resources and documents which are online, such as eprints. Hybrid libraries are the new norm for many archivists as well. Digitization has changed the way archivists have gone about preserving historical items. Archivists are now using digital technology to preserve items that were once only preserved by things like microfiche. Archivists now use things like digital imaging which make it possible for researchers to see historical items online. The emergence of the hybrid library has put a new emphasis on copyright issues for many libraries. The complicated and changing copyright laws in both the United States and the European Union have made it a challenge for many libraries to make sure their patrons are using the digital items lawfully. Hybrid libraries need staff that are trained in helping patrons navigate the vast amount of information available in the digital age. Librarians working in hybrid libraries have training in electronic media as well as the traditional print forms.
  • Current practices present diverse viewpoints in describing advantages and disadvantages, accessibility and ease of doing search, budget issues, intellectual property rights and copyright, selection criteria, archiving and preservation and electronic resource management (ERM).
  • Fundamentals of Collection Development and Management authored by Peggy Johnson and published in 2009 and Collection Development Issues in the Online Environment, edited by Di Su of the City University of New York and published in 2007 provided thorough discussions on how to manage and survive the dilemma that is electronic resource. These are just two of the vast number of publications dealing mostly with the management issues of having electronic resources in the library. Digital resource and the Internet contributed a vast amount of sources for research and are being made available in electronic format. The co-existence of both print and electronic still characterizes many libraries. Continuing subscription to either formats provide the lifeline to sustain scholarly communication and research. Paperless library remains a topic for debate and dealing with electronic materials is a persistent issue among all types of libraries.
  • General criteria to consider when you are involved in making selection decisions include: Subject matter What subjects do you need to collect in to build up your collection? How suitable is the subject, style, and reading level of an item for your user community? How accurate is the information? Construction quality Is the item well made and durable? For books and periodicals, does the item have good print quality? Is the paper of appropriate quality? For audio-visuals, will the item stand up to multiple use? Potential use What will the demand for the material be? What level of use justifies its acquisition? How relevant is the item to the community? Relation to the collection How will the item strengthen the library's collection? (Will it fill a gap, complement something that's already there, or provide an alternative opinion to what is already covered?) Are the materials available elsewhere in the community? Is there fair coverage of opposing viewpoints? Bibliographic considerations What is the reputation of the publisher? Is the type of publication and the format appropriate for your library? What is the reputation and/or significance of the author? What do the book reviews say about the item? Cost All libraries have limited budgets and have to make very careful decisions about how to allocate these funds during the selection process. One approach to the selection process is to rank the materials desired for selection. More expensive items that are ranked highly might still be purchased, but then the library would probably be unable to purchase as many items. These decisions can be difficult to make, but prioritizing patron needs is always a good way to start.
  • Purpose, Scope and Audience. What is the purpose of the periodical, what does the periodical actually include, and who is the intended audience? This can be determined by examining the table of contents, the range of writers, authors, and editors, and the vocabulary used in the articles. Accuracy. How accurate is the material in the periodical? It should be factually correct and relatively objective. This can be determined by evaluating the writers, the publisher, and the subject matter. For more technical periodicals, an expert opinion is a good idea. Local Interest. Does the title have some interest to the local community? Format Issues. What is the quality of the printing and the paper? Are illustrations of good quality? Do there seem to be more ads than text? Indexing. Is the title indexed in a service to which the library subscribes? Cost. How much does the subscription cost? Will back issues be needed? If so, how much will it cost to bind them or obtain them on microform? Demand. Will a title be used enough to justify subscription? Availability. Is the title readily available through interlibrary loan or from a library with which you have a resource sharing agreement?
  • a generic term that includes microfilms and microfiche a format not liked much by so many people because of the perception that it is very difficult to use the format that libraries resort to so that they can save storage space a good format for materials that are seldom used also good alternative format for rare and archival materials.
  • 16 mm or 35 mm film to motion picture standard is used, usually unperforated. Roll microfilm is stored on open reels or put into cassettes. The standard length for using roll film is 30.48 m (100 ft). One roll of 35 mm film may carry 600 images of large engineering drawings or 800 images of broadsheet newspaper pages. 16 mm film may carry 2,400 images of letter sized images as a single stream of micro images along the film set so that lines of text are parallel to the sides of the film or 10,000 small documents, perhaps cheques or betting slips, with both sides of the originals set side by side on the film.
  • The amount of your budget that is allocated for audiovisual materials The durability of the item The visual and audio quality of the item The ease of repairing the item if it is damaged and the procedures for handling damage caused by patrons. The ease of repairing the item when it is damaged Type of equipment required The likelihood that the audiovisual technology is long-lasting
  • Still pictures Filmstrips usually 16mm or 35mm; a series of single-frame still photographs on a strip of film a somewhat dated format more commonly still in existence in some children’s section of public libraries come in either sound or silent format Slides photographic slides typical of the family collection of 35mm slides mountings can be of paper, plastic, metal or glass most commonly found in special libraries with scientific, medical and art museum work collections Transparencies overhead transparencies: text or diagrams on cellophane sheets that are projected with a magnified light designed to aid in the presentation of graphic materials to small and medium-sized groups publishers often include these based on or using illustrations from their books Flat pictures include paintings, posters, postcards, photographs and other pictorial materials school libraries often include pictures from magazines and other sources museums and college libraries often have extensive collection of posters usually housed in special collections little bibliographic control scanning technologies provides control and order
  • Points to consider: Scale Type of projection The information represented The amount of detail and its accuracy The use of color and symbols Use and placement of nomenclature
  • Audio-recordings have been a very important commodity for library collections throughout most of this century and include musical productions, books on tape, and language learning, as well as lectures, instructions, and inspirational messages. They are distributed in various formats, although the most common today are cassette tapes and compact discs (CDs). While not yet widespread in many libraries, VCD and DVD technology is starting to become more prevalent and maybe important for audiovisual collections in the future. Some of the most popular audio materials in libraries are spoken books-on-tape or "talking books." These may also be available in CD format. Also useful are language learning cassette tapes. If your community includes many bilingual or multi-lingual people, you may consider acquiring language cassette tapes that facilitate language learning in English, Spanish, and other languages of local interest.
  • Printed Music Music sheets and scores (full size or miniature) Problem of sourcing and bibliographic control Models, realias and dioramas Cost and storage are some of the limiting factors in including these formats in the collection Some questions to consider: Are objects less than life size reproduced in an appropriate scale? Is the scale sufficient to illustrate the necessary details? When horizontal and vertical scales must be different, is the distortion so great as to create a false impression? Are the colors accurate? Are the objects durable enough to withstand the type of handling they will receive? Games Some public libraries would include games and toys to attract new users, children especially Games used for simulated teaching
  • Digital libraries offer a wide range of new access opportunities that are absent in the traditional environment. However, the desire for physical browsing, the need for immediate help from a “real person” and the desire for communal space for learning-make a case for the importance of the traditional service environment.
  • Treating Print in a Hybrid Library Environment

    1. 1. Issues, Dilemmas and Directions 1
    2. 2. 1. gain a better understanding of the current trends in collection development and management of print resources; 2. become aware of the key issues, problems, and challenges in acquiring and managing print resources; and 3. recognize the strategies of developing hybrid library collections 2 Objectives
    3. 3. “Libraries are changing. Funding limits and customer demands are transforming staffing levels, service models, access to resources, and services to the public. Administrators and taxpayers are seeking more efficient ways of delivering services to achieve greater returns on financial investments”. -- Michael E. Casey and Laura C. Savastinuk -- Library Journal, 2006 33 Introduction
    4. 4. ∗“fast paced, driven by rapid changes in information technology, profuse with new digital resources, budget constraints, changes in teaching practices and learner policies and priorities” (Horava, 2009). 4 Libraries of today
    5. 5. ∗ Demonstrating value and its significant place in the organization ∗ Defining library services ∗ Reconfiguring library spaces ∗ Preparing for the future 5 The library’s mission
    6. 6. ∗ Resources and services that contribute to students success ∗ Evidences to measure success, impact and value ∗ Redefining and understanding the meaning of “library use” and communicating the ways in which library resources and services contribute to the institutions’ outcomes 6 Demonstrating value
    7. 7. ∗ Direction and rescue users from information overload ∗ Link – user community to library catalogs, databases, e-book collections, select internet resources, e-course reserves, tutorials and to forums for communication and interaction ∗ Access to networked resources and services– anytime, anywhere! 7 The library that provides…
    8. 8. 8
    9. 9. ∗ The tasks, functions, and responsibilities now understood to be the portfolio of collection development librarians include selection of materials in all formats, collection policies, collection maintenance (selection for weeding and storage, preservation, and serials cancellations), budget and finance, assessment of needs of users and potential users, liaison and outreach activities related to the collection and its users, collection use studies, collection assessment and evaluation, and planning for cooperation and resource sharing 9 Collection development (Johnson, 2008)
    10. 10. ∗ Electronic information access system that offers the user a coherent view of an organized, selected, and managed body of information – (Lynch,1995) ∗ Organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities – (Digital Library Federation, 1998) 10 Digital libraries
    11. 11. ∗ mix of traditional print material, as well as electronic based material ∗ Evolved when electronic resources became more easily available for libraries to acquire for public use ∗ With staff trained in electronic media as well as the traditional print forms 11 Hybrid Libraries
    12. 12. ∗ Physical browsing/ “touch and feel” a real book ∗ Getting immediate help from a “real” person ∗ an ideal place to study ∗ Provides a communal space for learning ∗ Getting more detailed information from traditional sources (e.g. books) ∗ Access to archival and older sources of information 12 Perceived advantages of traditional libraries
    13. 13. ∗ Sum total of library materials : ∗ Books ∗ Manuscripts ∗ serials ∗ government publications, ∗ thesis and dissertations ∗ patents, standards and specifications ∗ CD-ROMS ∗ Electronic resources “e”13 “library collection”
    14. 14. ∗ Retention of retrospective copies of print greater than fifteen years of age may not be necessary in most libraries ∗ preference to maintain print copies of titles may be motivated by reasons outside of actual usage or patrons needs ∗ Consideration of remote or off site storage 14 trends in collection development and management of print resources
    15. 15. 15
    16. 16. The ubiquity and proliferation of electronic resources in libraries has created a significant impact on the use of traditional and print resources r 16
    17. 17. 17
    18. 18. ∗ Clearly, there is a tremendous economic and user- driven push to access the library's collections electronically ∗ The Library is no longer just a repository for print collections and a quiet place to study, but a center for learning, communication, and interaction. ∗ The shift from maintaining large and costly print collection towards the concept of access (instead of ownership) 18 Print vs. Digital
    19. 19. ∗ Access (remote, 24/7, quick and wider) ∗ Availability – no worries about a source being loaned out ∗ Multiple use for single sources ∗ Search capability ∗ LINKS to additional information 19 Perceived advantages of digital libraries
    20. 20. ∗Selection criteria ∗Maintenance ∗Access to the collection ∗Collection development policies 20 Collection Development Basics
    21. 21. ∗Subject matter ∗Construction quality ∗Potential use ∗Relation to the collection ∗Bibliographic considerations ∗Cost 21 SELECTION CRITERIA IN GENERAL
    22. 22. Some questions to ask to help in the evaluation of works of fiction: ∗ Is it true to life? ∗ Has it vitality and consistency in character depiction? ∗ Is the plot original? ∗ Is dramatic interest sustained? ∗ Does it stimulate? 22 Selection of Fiction
    23. 23. Non-Fiction 23 ∗ Authority ∗ Currency ∗ Scope ∗ Interest ∗ Organization ∗ Format ∗ Special Features ∗ Cost ∗ Accuracy ∗ Impartiality
    24. 24. A publication in any medium, defined in AACR2 2002 as issued over time with no predetermined conclusion, including bibliographic resources issued successively in discrete parts and integrating resources into which updates are incorporated without remaining discrete. Examples include serials (periodicals, newspapers, etc.), monographic series, and updating loose leaf services, online databases, and websites. (Reitz, Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science) 24 Continuing resources
    25. 25. “A publication issued in successive parts, usually in regular intervals, and as rule, intended to be continued indefinitely, include periodicals, annuals (reports, yearbooks, etc.) and memoirs, proceedings, and transactions of societies.” (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science) 25 SERIALS
    26. 26. “a periodical publication especially dealing with matters of current interest- often used for official or semi-official publications of special groups” 26 Journal
    27. 27. a periodical that usually contains a miscellaneous collection of articles, stories, poems, and pictures and is directed at the general reading public 27 Magazine
    28. 28. Selection Criteria for Serials 28 ∗ Purpose, scope and audience ∗ Accuracy ∗ Local interest ∗ Format issues ∗ Indexing cost ∗ Demand ∗ Availability
    29. 29. ∗supplementary materials that can provide up-to-date information ∗evaluated as other printed materials are and most of the selection criteria for books are equally applicable 29 Pamphlets
    30. 30. ∗ a generic term for both microfilms and microfiche ∗ a format not liked much by so many people ∗ the format that libraries resort to ∗ a good format for materials that are seldom used ∗ also good alternative format for rare and archival materials. 30 Microform
    31. 31. Microfilm 31
    32. 32. Microfiche 32
    33. 33. ∗Budget allocation ∗Durability ∗Audio Visual quality ∗Ease of repair ∗Type of equipment required ∗AV technology that is long-lasting 33 Multi-Media Main Points for Consideration
    34. 34. ∗Filmstrips ∗Slides ∗Transparencies ∗Flat pictures (include paintings, posters, postcards, photographs and other pictorial materials) 34 STILL PICTURES
    35. 35. ∗ Films - Comes in variety of sizes: the 7, Super 8, 16mm and 35 mm; the 70mm is the format used in theatrical releases and is also the format collected by film archives ∗ Video recordings -Videos are extremely popular with library patrons. 35 MOVING PICTURES
    36. 36. ∗include maps, photographs and globes ∗Problems: little bibliographic control and making decisions as to whether circulate OR be used only within the premises of the library 36 Graphic Materials
    37. 37. ∗ Cassettes, DVDs, CDs ∗ Books on tape or “talking books” ∗ Points to consider: - How will your audio collection support your library's goals - Will your audio collection focus on all or only certain genres? - Will you collect complete works or abridged versions? Does abridging the work affect the story? - How well does the reader project his/her voice? - How durable is the product? - What is the overall quality of the recording?37 Audio Recordings
    38. 38. ∗Printed Music ∗Music sheets and scores (full size or miniature) ∗Models, dioramas ∗Games 38 Other Media
    39. 39. obsolete technologyobsolete technology 39
    40. 40. ∗ “who needs print when everything is in the net?” ∗ Need to expand the means of managing collections ∗ Evolving patterns in scholarly communication ∗ Dealing with grey literature ∗ Collection evaluation and performance assessment ∗ Weeding, de-selection and obsolescence 40 Challenges to traditional or print
    41. 41. ∗ Completeness – ALL the pages, images, content, figures, tables, reviews, letters, notes, etc. ∗ Timeliness – should appear online the SAME TIME as the print, if not earlier ∗ Reliability – ensured access, quick server response, stable URL, back-up server 41 Criteria for replacing print with “e”
    42. 42. ∗Site license must include provisions for the permanent library retention of the purchased content during the license period ∗Adherence to the legal provisions for long- term access ∗Sustainable access provisions 42 Criteria for replacing print with “e”
    43. 43. ∗ Shift of information distribution patterns 43 WHY paper? PRINT COPY DISTRIBUTE VIEW
    44. 44. ∗ Constant review of renewals to monitor costs ∗ Monitor circulation metrics to determine actual usage ∗ Consider for discard old or superseded materials, particularly those that are easily accessible and available from other libraries ∗ Always keep a detailed budget report to assist in the conduct of reviews ∗ Recommend cost-effective alternatives that should help in determining what materials to keep and maintain 44 Considerations in maintaining print
    45. 45. Source: management-strategy#.Udl8rTs3CGs 45
    46. 46. ∗ When books are the primary sources ∗ When there is an immediate need for help from a librarian ∗ When there is a need to browse a collection ∗ When there is a need for a quiet space ∗ When online is too exorbitant and totally unaffordable ∗ When reading something for the sheer pleasure of it. 46 When is “traditional” or print is more preferable?
    47. 47. ∗ Users desire a hybrid information environment in which online information does not necessarily replace or make obsolete information in print but adds new access opportunities ∗ Print and digital have their unique advantages and limitations ∗ Each plays a different role and serves the needs of users in different ways 47 Print and Digital
    48. 48. Code of Ethics for Librarians 48
    49. 49. Republic of the Philippines PROFESSIONAL REGULATION COMMISSION Manila BOARD FOR LIBRARIANS Resolution No. _06_ Series of 2006 CODE OF ETHICS FOR LIBRARIANS 49
    50. 50. ∗ WHEREAS, Sec. 8 (h), Article II of R.A. No. 9246, known as the “Philippine Librarianship Act of 2003,” and Sec. 8 (h), Rule II of Res. No. 05, Series of 2004, known as the “IRR of the Philippine Librarianship Act of 2003”, empower the Board to adopt and prescribe a Code of Ethics for Librarians; 50 Code of Ethics
    51. 51. Librarians, mindful of their role in the development of knowledge and culture and the enrichment of people’s lives, seek the highest standards of ethical behavior in their relations with their schools, their clients/employers, the librarianship profession and colleagues, agencies and associations and the public. 51 Preamble
    52. 52. 1. Librarians with the State, Society and Public 2. Librarians with Librarianship Profession 3. Librarians with the Suppliers, Publishers, Dealers, etc. 4. Librarians with the Clients and/or other Users of their Professional Services 52 Relations…
    53. 53. 1. Librarians shall choose suppliers and publishers exclusively on the basis of the quality of goods, costs, and services. 2. Librarians shall refuse all personal gratuities. 3. Librarians shall never enter into business transactions prejudicial to the library, but unwisely favorable to their own interest. 53 Librarians with the Suppliers, Publishers, Dealers, etc.
    54. 54. ∗ Developed by the ALCTS (Association for Library Collections and Technical Services) ∗ Acquisitions Section Ethics Task Force; endorsed by the ALCTS Acquisitions Section and adopted by the ALCTS Board of Directors, Midwinter Meeting, February 7, 1994. 54 Statement on Principles and Standards of Acquisitions Practice
    55. 55. ∗ gives first consideration to the objectives and policies of his or her institution; ∗ strives to obtain the maximum ultimate value of each dollar of expenditure; ∗ grants all competing vendors equal consideration insofar as the established policies of his or her library permit, and regards each transaction on its own merits; 55 In all acquisitions transactions, a librarian:
    56. 56. ∗subscribes to and works for honesty, truth, and fairness in buying and selling, and denounces all forms and manifestations of bribery; ∗declines personal gifts and gratuities; ∗uses only by consent original ideas and designs devised by one vendor for competitive purchasing purposes;56 In all acquisitions transactions, a librarian:
    57. 57. ∗ accords a prompt and courteous reception insofar as conditions permit to all who call on legitimate business missions; ∗ fosters and promotes fair, ethical, and legal trade practices; ∗ avoids sharp practice; ∗ strives consistently for knowledge of the publishing and bookselling industry; 57 In all acquisitions transactions, a librarian:
    58. 58. ∗ strives consistently for knowledge of the publishing and bookselling industry; ∗ strives to establish practical and efficient methods for the conduct of his/her office; ∗ counsels and assists fellow acquisitions librarians in the performance of their duties, whenever occasion permits. 58 In all acquisitions transactions, a librarian:
    59. 59. ∗ A Registered Librarian who is found guilty for violation of any provision in this Code by the Board after his/her investigation shall be subject to a disciplinary action of either revocation of his/her Certificate of Registration or suspension thereof which the Board shall impose thereto after his/her due investigation. 59 Disciplinary action
    60. 60. Ultimately, ethics is a personal choice 60
    61. 61. 61 References: Ameen, K., & Haider, S. J. (2007). Evolving paradigm and challenges of collection management (CM) in university libraries of pakistan. Collection Building, 26(2), 54-58. Atkinson, R. (2006). Six Key Challenges for the Future of Collection Development. Library Resources & Technical Services, 50(4), 244-251. Bullis, D. R., & Smith, L. (2011). Looking Back, Moving Forward in the Digital Age: A Review of the Collection Management and Development Literature, 2004-8. Library Resources & Technical Services, 55(4), 205-220. Casey, M. E., & Savastinuk, L. C. (2006). LIBRARY 2.0. (Cover story).Library Journal, 131(14), 40-42. Horava, Tony. Challenges and Possibilities for Collection Management in a Digital Age. Library Resources & Technical Services54.3 (Jul 2010): 142-152. Johnson, Peggy (2004). Fundamentals of Collection Development & Management. Chicago: ALA Liu, Z., & Stork, D. C. (2000). IS PAPERLESS REALLY MORE?. Communications Of The ACM, 43(11), 94-97. Malpas, C. (2011). Cloud-sourcing research collections: managing print in the Mass-digitized library environment. Dublin, Ohio : OCLC Research. Montgomery, C., & Sparks, J. L. (2000). THE TRANSITION TO AN ELECTRONIC JOURNAL COLLECTION: MANAGING THE ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES. Serials Review, 26(3), 4. Wu, M. M. (2005). Why Print and Electronic Resources Are Essential to the Academic Law Library. Law Library Journal, 97(2), 233-256.
    62. 62. 62