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Treating Print in a Hybrid Library Environment


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Lecture presented by Elvira B. Lapuz at the ABAP Forum held on 9 July 2013 at SM Mega Trade Hall, SM Megamall, Mandaluyong City

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Treating Print in a Hybrid Library Environment

  1. 1. Issues, Dilemmas and Directions 1
  2. 2. 1. gain a better understanding of the current trends in collection development and management of print resources; 2. become aware of the key issues, problems, and challenges in acquiring and managing print resources; and 3. recognize the strategies of developing hybrid library collections 2 Objectives
  3. 3. “Libraries are changing. Funding limits and customer demands are transforming staffing levels, service models, access to resources, and services to the public. Administrators and taxpayers are seeking more efficient ways of delivering services to achieve greater returns on financial investments”. -- Michael E. Casey and Laura C. Savastinuk -- Library Journal, 2006 33 Introduction
  4. 4. ∗“fast paced, driven by rapid changes in information technology, profuse with new digital resources, budget constraints, changes in teaching practices and learner policies and priorities” (Horava, 2009). 4 Libraries of today
  5. 5. ∗ Demonstrating value and its significant place in the organization ∗ Defining library services ∗ Reconfiguring library spaces ∗ Preparing for the future 5 The library’s mission
  6. 6. ∗ Resources and services that contribute to students success ∗ Evidences to measure success, impact and value ∗ Redefining and understanding the meaning of “library use” and communicating the ways in which library resources and services contribute to the institutions’ outcomes 6 Demonstrating value
  7. 7. ∗ Direction and rescue users from information overload ∗ Link – user community to library catalogs, databases, e-book collections, select internet resources, e-course reserves, tutorials and to forums for communication and interaction ∗ Access to networked resources and services– anytime, anywhere! 7 The library that provides…
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. ∗ The tasks, functions, and responsibilities now understood to be the portfolio of collection development librarians include selection of materials in all formats, collection policies, collection maintenance (selection for weeding and storage, preservation, and serials cancellations), budget and finance, assessment of needs of users and potential users, liaison and outreach activities related to the collection and its users, collection use studies, collection assessment and evaluation, and planning for cooperation and resource sharing 9 Collection development (Johnson, 2008)
  10. 10. ∗ Electronic information access system that offers the user a coherent view of an organized, selected, and managed body of information – (Lynch,1995) ∗ Organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities – (Digital Library Federation, 1998) 10 Digital libraries
  11. 11. ∗ mix of traditional print material, as well as electronic based material ∗ Evolved when electronic resources became more easily available for libraries to acquire for public use ∗ With staff trained in electronic media as well as the traditional print forms 11 Hybrid Libraries
  12. 12. ∗ Physical browsing/ “touch and feel” a real book ∗ Getting immediate help from a “real” person ∗ an ideal place to study ∗ Provides a communal space for learning ∗ Getting more detailed information from traditional sources (e.g. books) ∗ Access to archival and older sources of information 12 Perceived advantages of traditional libraries
  13. 13. ∗ Sum total of library materials : ∗ Books ∗ Manuscripts ∗ serials ∗ government publications, ∗ thesis and dissertations ∗ patents, standards and specifications ∗ CD-ROMS ∗ Electronic resources “e”13 “library collection”
  14. 14. ∗ Retention of retrospective copies of print greater than fifteen years of age may not be necessary in most libraries ∗ preference to maintain print copies of titles may be motivated by reasons outside of actual usage or patrons needs ∗ Consideration of remote or off site storage 14 trends in collection development and management of print resources
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. The ubiquity and proliferation of electronic resources in libraries has created a significant impact on the use of traditional and print resources r 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. ∗ Clearly, there is a tremendous economic and user- driven push to access the library's collections electronically ∗ The Library is no longer just a repository for print collections and a quiet place to study, but a center for learning, communication, and interaction. ∗ The shift from maintaining large and costly print collection towards the concept of access (instead of ownership) 18 Print vs. Digital
  19. 19. ∗ Access (remote, 24/7, quick and wider) ∗ Availability – no worries about a source being loaned out ∗ Multiple use for single sources ∗ Search capability ∗ LINKS to additional information 19 Perceived advantages of digital libraries
  20. 20. ∗Selection criteria ∗Maintenance ∗Access to the collection ∗Collection development policies 20 Collection Development Basics
  21. 21. ∗Subject matter ∗Construction quality ∗Potential use ∗Relation to the collection ∗Bibliographic considerations ∗Cost 21 SELECTION CRITERIA IN GENERAL
  22. 22. Some questions to ask to help in the evaluation of works of fiction: ∗ Is it true to life? ∗ Has it vitality and consistency in character depiction? ∗ Is the plot original? ∗ Is dramatic interest sustained? ∗ Does it stimulate? 22 Selection of Fiction
  23. 23. Non-Fiction 23 ∗ Authority ∗ Currency ∗ Scope ∗ Interest ∗ Organization ∗ Format ∗ Special Features ∗ Cost ∗ Accuracy ∗ Impartiality
  24. 24. A publication in any medium, defined in AACR2 2002 as issued over time with no predetermined conclusion, including bibliographic resources issued successively in discrete parts and integrating resources into which updates are incorporated without remaining discrete. Examples include serials (periodicals, newspapers, etc.), monographic series, and updating loose leaf services, online databases, and websites. (Reitz, Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science) 24 Continuing resources
  25. 25. “A publication issued in successive parts, usually in regular intervals, and as rule, intended to be continued indefinitely, include periodicals, annuals (reports, yearbooks, etc.) and memoirs, proceedings, and transactions of societies.” (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science) 25 SERIALS
  26. 26. “a periodical publication especially dealing with matters of current interest- often used for official or semi-official publications of special groups” 26 Journal
  27. 27. a periodical that usually contains a miscellaneous collection of articles, stories, poems, and pictures and is directed at the general reading public 27 Magazine
  28. 28. Selection Criteria for Serials 28 ∗ Purpose, scope and audience ∗ Accuracy ∗ Local interest ∗ Format issues ∗ Indexing cost ∗ Demand ∗ Availability
  29. 29. ∗supplementary materials that can provide up-to-date information ∗evaluated as other printed materials are and most of the selection criteria for books are equally applicable 29 Pamphlets
  30. 30. ∗ a generic term for both microfilms and microfiche ∗ a format not liked much by so many people ∗ the format that libraries resort to ∗ a good format for materials that are seldom used ∗ also good alternative format for rare and archival materials. 30 Microform
  31. 31. Microfilm 31
  32. 32. Microfiche 32
  33. 33. ∗Budget allocation ∗Durability ∗Audio Visual quality ∗Ease of repair ∗Type of equipment required ∗AV technology that is long-lasting 33 Multi-Media Main Points for Consideration
  34. 34. ∗Filmstrips ∗Slides ∗Transparencies ∗Flat pictures (include paintings, posters, postcards, photographs and other pictorial materials) 34 STILL PICTURES
  35. 35. ∗ Films - Comes in variety of sizes: the 7, Super 8, 16mm and 35 mm; the 70mm is the format used in theatrical releases and is also the format collected by film archives ∗ Video recordings -Videos are extremely popular with library patrons. 35 MOVING PICTURES
  36. 36. ∗include maps, photographs and globes ∗Problems: little bibliographic control and making decisions as to whether circulate OR be used only within the premises of the library 36 Graphic Materials
  37. 37. ∗ Cassettes, DVDs, CDs ∗ Books on tape or “talking books” ∗ Points to consider: - How will your audio collection support your library's goals - Will your audio collection focus on all or only certain genres? - Will you collect complete works or abridged versions? Does abridging the work affect the story? - How well does the reader project his/her voice? - How durable is the product? - What is the overall quality of the recording?37 Audio Recordings
  38. 38. ∗Printed Music ∗Music sheets and scores (full size or miniature) ∗Models, dioramas ∗Games 38 Other Media
  39. 39. obsolete technologyobsolete technology 39
  40. 40. ∗ “who needs print when everything is in the net?” ∗ Need to expand the means of managing collections ∗ Evolving patterns in scholarly communication ∗ Dealing with grey literature ∗ Collection evaluation and performance assessment ∗ Weeding, de-selection and obsolescence 40 Challenges to traditional or print
  41. 41. ∗ Completeness – ALL the pages, images, content, figures, tables, reviews, letters, notes, etc. ∗ Timeliness – should appear online the SAME TIME as the print, if not earlier ∗ Reliability – ensured access, quick server response, stable URL, back-up server 41 Criteria for replacing print with “e”
  42. 42. ∗Site license must include provisions for the permanent library retention of the purchased content during the license period ∗Adherence to the legal provisions for long- term access ∗Sustainable access provisions 42 Criteria for replacing print with “e”
  43. 43. ∗ Shift of information distribution patterns 43 WHY paper? PRINT COPY DISTRIBUTE VIEW
  44. 44. ∗ Constant review of renewals to monitor costs ∗ Monitor circulation metrics to determine actual usage ∗ Consider for discard old or superseded materials, particularly those that are easily accessible and available from other libraries ∗ Always keep a detailed budget report to assist in the conduct of reviews ∗ Recommend cost-effective alternatives that should help in determining what materials to keep and maintain 44 Considerations in maintaining print
  45. 45. Source: management-strategy#.Udl8rTs3CGs 45
  46. 46. ∗ When books are the primary sources ∗ When there is an immediate need for help from a librarian ∗ When there is a need to browse a collection ∗ When there is a need for a quiet space ∗ When online is too exorbitant and totally unaffordable ∗ When reading something for the sheer pleasure of it. 46 When is “traditional” or print is more preferable?
  47. 47. ∗ Users desire a hybrid information environment in which online information does not necessarily replace or make obsolete information in print but adds new access opportunities ∗ Print and digital have their unique advantages and limitations ∗ Each plays a different role and serves the needs of users in different ways 47 Print and Digital
  48. 48. Code of Ethics for Librarians 48
  49. 49. Republic of the Philippines PROFESSIONAL REGULATION COMMISSION Manila BOARD FOR LIBRARIANS Resolution No. _06_ Series of 2006 CODE OF ETHICS FOR LIBRARIANS 49
  50. 50. ∗ WHEREAS, Sec. 8 (h), Article II of R.A. No. 9246, known as the “Philippine Librarianship Act of 2003,” and Sec. 8 (h), Rule II of Res. No. 05, Series of 2004, known as the “IRR of the Philippine Librarianship Act of 2003”, empower the Board to adopt and prescribe a Code of Ethics for Librarians; 50 Code of Ethics
  51. 51. Librarians, mindful of their role in the development of knowledge and culture and the enrichment of people’s lives, seek the highest standards of ethical behavior in their relations with their schools, their clients/employers, the librarianship profession and colleagues, agencies and associations and the public. 51 Preamble
  52. 52. 1. Librarians with the State, Society and Public 2. Librarians with Librarianship Profession 3. Librarians with the Suppliers, Publishers, Dealers, etc. 4. Librarians with the Clients and/or other Users of their Professional Services 52 Relations…
  53. 53. 1. Librarians shall choose suppliers and publishers exclusively on the basis of the quality of goods, costs, and services. 2. Librarians shall refuse all personal gratuities. 3. Librarians shall never enter into business transactions prejudicial to the library, but unwisely favorable to their own interest. 53 Librarians with the Suppliers, Publishers, Dealers, etc.
  54. 54. ∗ Developed by the ALCTS (Association for Library Collections and Technical Services) ∗ Acquisitions Section Ethics Task Force; endorsed by the ALCTS Acquisitions Section and adopted by the ALCTS Board of Directors, Midwinter Meeting, February 7, 1994. 54 Statement on Principles and Standards of Acquisitions Practice
  55. 55. ∗ gives first consideration to the objectives and policies of his or her institution; ∗ strives to obtain the maximum ultimate value of each dollar of expenditure; ∗ grants all competing vendors equal consideration insofar as the established policies of his or her library permit, and regards each transaction on its own merits; 55 In all acquisitions transactions, a librarian:
  56. 56. ∗subscribes to and works for honesty, truth, and fairness in buying and selling, and denounces all forms and manifestations of bribery; ∗declines personal gifts and gratuities; ∗uses only by consent original ideas and designs devised by one vendor for competitive purchasing purposes;56 In all acquisitions transactions, a librarian:
  57. 57. ∗ accords a prompt and courteous reception insofar as conditions permit to all who call on legitimate business missions; ∗ fosters and promotes fair, ethical, and legal trade practices; ∗ avoids sharp practice; ∗ strives consistently for knowledge of the publishing and bookselling industry; 57 In all acquisitions transactions, a librarian:
  58. 58. ∗ strives consistently for knowledge of the publishing and bookselling industry; ∗ strives to establish practical and efficient methods for the conduct of his/her office; ∗ counsels and assists fellow acquisitions librarians in the performance of their duties, whenever occasion permits. 58 In all acquisitions transactions, a librarian:
  59. 59. ∗ A Registered Librarian who is found guilty for violation of any provision in this Code by the Board after his/her investigation shall be subject to a disciplinary action of either revocation of his/her Certificate of Registration or suspension thereof which the Board shall impose thereto after his/her due investigation. 59 Disciplinary action
  60. 60. Ultimately, ethics is a personal choice 60
  61. 61. 61 References: Ameen, K., & Haider, S. J. (2007). Evolving paradigm and challenges of collection management (CM) in university libraries of pakistan. Collection Building, 26(2), 54-58. Atkinson, R. (2006). Six Key Challenges for the Future of Collection Development. Library Resources & Technical Services, 50(4), 244-251. Bullis, D. R., & Smith, L. (2011). Looking Back, Moving Forward in the Digital Age: A Review of the Collection Management and Development Literature, 2004-8. Library Resources & Technical Services, 55(4), 205-220. Casey, M. E., & Savastinuk, L. C. (2006). LIBRARY 2.0. (Cover story).Library Journal, 131(14), 40-42. Horava, Tony. Challenges and Possibilities for Collection Management in a Digital Age. Library Resources & Technical Services54.3 (Jul 2010): 142-152. Johnson, Peggy (2004). Fundamentals of Collection Development & Management. Chicago: ALA Liu, Z., & Stork, D. C. (2000). IS PAPERLESS REALLY MORE?. Communications Of The ACM, 43(11), 94-97. Malpas, C. (2011). Cloud-sourcing research collections: managing print in the Mass-digitized library environment. Dublin, Ohio : OCLC Research. Montgomery, C., & Sparks, J. L. (2000). THE TRANSITION TO AN ELECTRONIC JOURNAL COLLECTION: MANAGING THE ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES. Serials Review, 26(3), 4. Wu, M. M. (2005). Why Print and Electronic Resources Are Essential to the Academic Law Library. Law Library Journal, 97(2), 233-256.
  62. 62. 62