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Dna vaccines for fish diseases ppt 2016

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The present PPT discusses following important points:
Aquaculture for affordable animal protein
Hurdles in intensive farming
Vaccinology in Aquaculture industry
DNA vaccines (current status & future prospects)

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Dna vaccines for fish diseases ppt 2016

  1. 1. DNA Vaccines for Fish Diseases Hakim Mudasir Maqsood Ph.D. (Animal Biotechnology) Div. of Biotechnology, FVSc and AH SKUAST-K
  2. 2. Outline o Aquaculture for affordable animal protein o Hurdles in intensive farming o Vaccinology in Aquaculture industry o DNA vaccines (current status & future prospects)
  3. 3. Overview of Aquaculture production • Global fish production = 158 million tonnes* • Global Aquaculture production (food fish) = 70.5 mt* • Per capita consumption 9.9Kg in 1960s 19.2kg in 2015* • India (total culture production is 4.2 mt) = 0.4 mt (mariculture); 3.8 mt (inland aquaculture)** • J & K = 20.03K tonnes (Trout 262 tonnes) *** Seed: carp = 440 lac; trout = 90 lac *** *SOWFA, FAO, 2015 **FAO Year Book, 2012 ***State Fisheries Department, 2016
  4. 4. World aquaculture production continues to grow
  5. 5. Global fish utilization and supply Growth 3.2% 1.6%
  6. 6. Conti… • ~ 870 million people were chronically undernourished in 2010-12 (FAO, 2014) • In order to produce more we have to shift from Extensive to industrial scale INTENSIVE FARMING. • But with Intensification comes problems!!! Fish: affordable source of animal protein • 16.7% of global population intake of animal protein • 6.5% of all protein consumed • 150g of fish = 60% daily protein requirement FAO, 2015
  7. 7. Problem in Intensive Culture: Diseases • Intensive culture = More animals per Unit area • Increase in Horizontal Transfer of diseases • Disease outbreaks affects:  production,  trade and  economy
  8. 8. • Annual losses in 16 Asian countries >USD 3 billion. (OIE, 2012) • World’s shrimp industry suffered losses of ~US$10 billion since 1990 due to WSSV and IMV • Vietnam alone reports loss of US$1 billion per year on average. • Chilean salmon farming industry suffered from Infectious Salmon Anaemia in 2007 350-400 K tonnes of fish, US$2 billion of revenue and 30,000 jobs. • Cost of IHNV disease in 2001 to 2003 ~ CAD $200 million Addressing fish disease issues is a necessary condition for securing new private investment in aquaculture.
  9. 9. OIE listed disease, 2016 (Fish) • Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis disease • Infection with Aphanomyces invadans (EUS) • Infection with Gyrodactylus salaris • Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISA) • Infection with Salmonid Alphavirus • Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis (IHN) • Koi Herpesvirus Disease • Spring Viraemia of Carp (SVC) • Red sea bream Iridoviral Disease • Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS)
  10. 10. Profitable Aqua Farming Minimal use of Antibiotics More Fish Less Disease Use of Antibiotics, Chemotherapy Immunoprophylaxis Sustainable Aquaculture Disease prevention and control are crucial to maintain a sustainable aquaculture Vaccinology in Aquaculture Industry
  11. 11. Vaccinology in Aquaculture Industry • First report of disease prevention in carp using vaccine is by Sniezko et al.,1938 = A. punctata • Duff (1942) = A. salmonicida (Trout) • First commercial vaccine against ERM, 1976 • First commercial vaccine against SVC, 1982 • First report of DNA vaccination against IHNV.* • In 2005, Apex-IHN® (Novartis Animal Health) the first DNA vaccine ever to be cleared for marketing.* * Anderson et al., 1996 *Canadian Food inspection Agency
  12. 12. During the 1980s, salmon farming in Norway experienced huge losses due to bacterial diseases (mostly Vibrio spp.) and a total crash in the industry was only prevented by the use of vast amounts of antibiotics Case Study: Grave et al., 1990, 2003
  13. 13. The use of vaccine resulted an immediate and permanent reduction in the use of antibiotics, concurrent with a three fold increase in fish production Conti…Case Study: Grave et al., 1990, 2003
  14. 14. Types of Fish Vaccine Formulation! • Bacterins • Live attenuated vaccines • Multivalent vaccines • rDNA vaccines Administration
  15. 15. Brudeseth et al., 2013 Green = vaccination is commonly used Yellow = vaccination is used but not fully implemented Red = fish vaccination is under development Current status of fish vaccines
  16. 16. Brudeseth et al., 2013 Major producers of licensed fish vaccines
  17. 17. Major bacterial fish diseases in relation to vaccine availability Bacterial disease/pathogen Major fish species affected Primary region(s)/country (s) Vibriosis (Listonella anguillarum and V. spp.) Salmonids/Cod/Halibut/Sea bass/bream Amberjack/yellowtail Globally Coldwater vibriosis (V. salmonicida) Salmonids Northern Europe, Furunculosis (A. salmonicida) Salmonids Northern Europe, Canada/USA ERM/Yersiniosis (Yersinia rukeri) Salmonids (FW) Europe, Chile, Canada/USA BGD (Flavobacterium branchiophilum) Salmonids and Carp Europe, Chile, Canada/USA Rainbow trout fry syndrome (F. psychrophilum) Salmoinds Europe, Chile, Canada/USA BKD (R. salmoninarum) Salmoinds Europe, Chile, Canada/USA, Japan Streptococciosis (S. iniae) Tilapia Asia
  18. 18. Major viral fish diseases in relation to vaccine availability Viral disease/pathogen Major fish species affected Primary region(s)/country(s) IPN/IPNV Salmonids Globally Pancreases disease /PDV Salmonids UK, Ireland, Norway Infectious salmon anemia/ISAV Salmonids Canada/USA (East), Norway, UK IHN/IHNV Salmonids Canada/USA (West) VHS/VHSV Rainbow trout, brown trout, Japanese flounder Europe and USA Channel cat fish virus CCV Channel cat fish USA SVC Carp species Europe Grass carp hemorrhagic disease / GCHDV Grass carp China
  19. 19. DNA Vaccination • DNA vaccination is defined as the intentional transfer of genetic material (DNA/RNA) to somatic cells for the purposes of influencing the immune system.* • For DNA vaccination, a short-term expression is sufficient for evoking an immune response. • It is different from Gene therapy! *The Norwegian Biotechnology Advisory Board
  20. 20. DNA vaccine in Fish! Promoter = pCMV or pIRF1A in case of IHNV
  21. 21. Distribution of pDNA in Fish Jensen et al., 2008
  22. 22. Tonheim and Dalmo, 2008 Immune response against DNA vaccine Exogenous PathwayEndogenous Pathway
  23. 23. Endogenous Exogenous Antigen (Viral for example) entry in host cells
  24. 24. DNA Vaccine against IHNV Plasmid DNA CMV promoter-enhancer, bovine growth hormone polyA signal, Kanamycin viral G protein gene
  25. 25. Factors influencing transfection and gene expression • pDNA vector design (super coiled DNA, choice of promoter, polyA signals) • pDNA concentration • Dosage (ng) • Age and size of fish • Water temperature • Route of administration
  26. 26. Structure (A)Mechanism of action (B)of suicidal DNA vaccine for IHNV Alanso et al., 2014 Suicidal DNA vaccines: Improved safety Gene construct Action
  27. 27. Overview of studies performed with DNA vaccines encoding viral or bacterial antigens in fish
  28. 28. Tonheim and Dalmo, 2014 Conti…
  29. 29. Advantages of DNA vaccines demonstrated in Fish • Activation of both humoral and cellular immunity • Intrinsic immunostimulatory property due to CpG motifs • Multivalent vaccination possible by simply mixing of DNA vaccines • More effective when given at the early life stage • Effective cross-protection • Temperature-independent protection (Poikilothermic) • Inexpensive and easy to produce • Stable as dry powder or in solution (no storage problems) Lorenzen and LaPatra, 2010
  30. 30. Disadvantages/current concerns • Difficulty/cost of delivery is high! • Development of myosists (myocytes becoming targets of CTLs) • A relatively high antigenic mass needed in most fish vaccines compared with similar vaccines used in higher vertebrates. • Environmental release of pDNA!!! • Regulatory Issues* Antibiotic resistance genes may then spread to various bacterial populations in intestine of fish or soil and water. *Norwegian Gene Technology Act
  31. 31. 1. Leakage of DNA from administration site 2. By consumption of pDNA residues in the meat of vaccinated animals 3. By spills or waste of DNA vaccine from production process 4. pDNA may find its way to intestine where bacteria may be taken up and released with faeces
  32. 32. Future prospects of DNA vaccinology in Aquaculture Industry • Out of 35000 fish species known, 600 species are cultured as food fishes and this number will increase • More number of Species specific DNA vaccines need to be developed • Better understanding of fish immune system will help to design more efficient DNA vaccines • Use of multiple epitopes in a single vaccine
  33. 33. Future prospects of DNA vaccinology in Aquaculture Industry Conti… • Immunoprophylaxis against fish parasites at industrial scale needs attention. • Need for new strategies for mass vaccination of small fish • Recombinant live feed!!! Environmental safety concerns currently hinder the development and use of DNA vaccines in fish.
  34. 34. @ Mudasir

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