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Rococo architectural style with few examples

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  1. 1. Submitted by : -Mitali Gondaliya 01 -Darshan Bavadiya 04 -Urmila Dhameliya 09 -Nikhilesh Dhaduk 10 -Vatsal Gadhiya 11 -Dipti Patel 28 -Darshan Savsaiya 34 -Ridham Vekariya 39 Rococo Late Baroque
  2. 2. Intro to Rococo… Rococo •The word is seen as a combination of the French rocaille (stone) and coquilles (shell), due to reliance on these objects as decorative motifs. •The term may also be a combination of the Italian word "barocco" (an irregularly shaped pearl, possibly the source of the word "baroque") and the French "rocaille" (a popular form of garden or interior ornamentation using shells and pebbles) . •Rococo styles are found throughout France, Germany, Austria, Eastern Europe, and Russia.
  3. 3. History… •an 18th-century artistic movement and style, affecting many aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music, and theatre. •It developed in Paris as a reaction against the grandeur, symmetry, and strict regulations of the Baroque, especially of the Palace of Versailles. •This style of architecture was popular between 1720-1789, elaborate version of Baroque, also referred to as Late Baroque. Rococo rooms were decorated as a total package including furniture, artwork, mirrors and tapestries that enhance the architecture. •The style is most associated with the aristocrats of the time. First growing quickly in France, this style is both graceful and artistically elegant and more concerned with indulgence and appreciating life. This lighter and graceful style was favored by Kings Louis XV and Louis XVI. Rococo architecture was completely in harmony with the lavishness of Louis XV’s rule and is seen as a prelude to the French revolution.
  4. 4. Rococo Characteristics… •Elaborate curves and scrolls •Intricate patterns •Delicate details •Complex, asymmetrical shapes •Light, pastel colors •Stressed asymmetry •Had less emphasis on religion •Was very decorative and used shell & plants like curves •Colors were pale and considered more “classy” •Included walls that were flat, smooth and rectangular in shape •Walls had carvings and gold gilding over door frames •Besides intricate designs & detail, it also brought many improvements to architecture; sanitation was improved, chimneys were made more efficient and rooms were better organized to offer more privacy.
  5. 5. Architects… •Since it was seen as a “French Style”, Rococo architecture was never really adopted in Great Britain. •Popular architects of the time include: oFrancesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli who was an Italian born architect that lived most of his life in Russia with his father, who was also a famous Italian sculptor. Most notable works are the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg and Catherine Palace. oPhilip de Lange was born in France but was a leading architect in Denmark and the Netherlands. oMatthaus Daniel Poppelmann was a German born architect who helped rebuild Dresden after a massive fire in 1685. His most famous work is Dresden Castle. oAsam Brothers were sculptors, stuccoists, painters, and architects, who working together, became one of the most influential ambassadors of the Rococo style. Probably their most famous work is Church of St. John Nepomuk, also known as, Asamkirche, which is located in Munich. oDominikus and Johann Zimmermann are Bavarian architects, painters and stuccoists whose famous works include the Weiskirche and Steinhausen Church.
  6. 6. Architecture… •St. Johann Nepomuk, better known as the Asam Church is a church in Munich, southern Germany, built from 1733 to 1746 by the brothers Egid Quirin Asam and Cosmas Damian Asam as their private church. •Due to resistance of the citizens, the brothers were forced to make the church accessible to the public. The church is considered to be one of the most important buildings of the southern German Late Baroque.
  7. 7. Architecture… •The Baroque façade swings slightly convex outward. •It was built in a confined space, the property is just 22 by 8 m. •The 2 builders who were able to unite in the 2-story space architecture, painting and sculpture in harmony. Especially the indirect lighting in the choir area is very well done: hidden behind the cornice window the Trinity figures are illuminated effective from behind.
  8. 8. Architecture… •The interior is divided vertically into 3 sections. •The lowermost portion of the benches for the church visitors is kept relatively dark and in the design symbolizes the suffering of the world. The second section, located above, is kept white and blue, and reserved for the emperor. The uppermost portion of the indirect and hidden illuminated ceiling painting is dedicated to God and eternity. •The ceiling fresco "Life of Saint Nepomuk" is considered one of the masterpieces by Asam. The high altar of the Church is framed by four spiral columns. These four columns are used as a reference to the four-Bernini columns over the grave of St. Peter in St. Peter's in Rome. •At the top is God, the Saviour. Below the tabernacle, a relic of John of Nepomuk is kept. Two angels, sculpted by Ignaz Günther, flank the gallery altar and were added at a later date.
  9. 9. The Ceiling
  10. 10. Architecture… •One of the last great Rococo buildings to be designed in Europe, the palace was conceived as a summer retreat. • in 1794, it became the official residence of the Portuguese prince, John VI, and his family and remained so until the Royal Family fled to the Portuguese colony of Brazil in 1807 following the French invasion of Portugal. •Work on the palace began in 1747 under the architect Mateus Vicente de Oliveira. Despite being far smaller, the palace is often referred to as the Portuguese Versailles. From 1826, the palace slowly fell from favour with the Portuguese sovereigns. In 1908, it became the property of the state. •One wing of the palace, the Pavilion of Dona Maria, built between 1785 and 1792 by the architect Manuel Caetano de Sousa, is now a guest house allocated to foreign heads of state visiting Portugal.
  11. 11. The "Ceremonial Façade" of the corps de logis designed by Oliveira
  12. 12. Architecture… •From the beginning of the 18th century many foreign artists and architects were employed in Portugal to satisfy the needs of the newly enriched aristocracy; they brought with them classical ideas of architecture which derived from the Renaissance. •In its design, Queluz is a revolt against the earlier, heavier, Italian- influenced Baroque which preceded the Rococo style throughout Europe. •Work began in 1747 and continued rapidly until 1755, when it was interrupted by the Great Earthquake of 1755. The earthquake proved to be a catalyst, because the urban rebuilding process stimulated the development of the arts in Portugal. •The subsequent architecture of Queluz was influenced by new ideas and concepts. When work recommenced in 1758, the design was adapted for fear of another earthquake. Thus the later works take the form of more structurally stable than a single high block.
  13. 13. 1. Entrance plaza 2. Entrance Façade 3. Court (corps de logis) 4. Ceremonial Façade 5. Triton fountain in the Hanging Garden 6. Ogee Pediment 7. Avenue 8. South façade of the Robillon Wing 9. Robillon Wing 10. Colonnade 11. Robillon entrance steps 12. Chapel 13. North Wing 14. Topiary 15. Road Layout of the palace
  14. 14. Architecture… •The public façade of the palace faces directly onto a town square and takes the form of two low, symmetrical, quadrant wings which flank the forward-reaching wings of a small central corps de logis, thus forming a semi-circular cour d'honneur (see key 1). •The southern of the two quadrant wings is terminated by the onion-domed chapel, while the northern wing contained the kitchens and servants' quarters (see keys 2, 1 and 13). •The only decoration comes from the simple classical pediments above the windows. •This façade, that most readily seen from the town, presents a decorous and impassive public face with one of the most architecturally severe elevations of the palace
  15. 15. Robillon's entrance is reached by flights Triton Fountain Chapel & its dome The entrance square
  16. 16. Architecture… Exterior •Oliveira designed the "Ceremonial Façade" of the "corps de logis", the rectangular block which forms the nucleus of the palace, and some of the interior courtyards. •Jean Robillon, designed the gardens & the Rococo interiors. •The "Ceremonial Façade" is the best-known view of the palace. With classical proportions, it is externally decorated by delicately carved ornaments over the windows. This façade with its single-storey flanking wings forms a three-sided courtyard containing the "Hanging Garden"—so called because like the Hanging Gardens of Babylon it is on a raised terrace. •The 2nd major part of the palace is the great western wing, known as the Robillon wing or Robillon Pavilion, which illustrates better than any other the excesses of Baroque and Rococo architecture. •Completed in 1779, it has a doric colonnade which runs the entire length of its western and southern façades, the roof of which provides a balustraded balcony accessible from the floor above.
  17. 17. Architecture… Exterior •the eastern side appears as a single-storey building, with only the upper floor visible above the ground in the "Hanging Garden". •The balustrade on the roof of the Robillon wing is broken by heavy segmental pediments adorned with reclining statuary figures; the balustrade itself is also adorned with statuary and heavy armorial trophies. •The Robillon wing contains an entrance to the palace reached by flights of ingeniously designed graduated steps. Their design creates an illusion of a longer and higher perspective, centred on a corner of a terrace. The steps are adorned with elaborate statuary. The bays of the façade are stuccoed rose-pink, contrasting with the motifs and pilasters in natural stone.
  18. 18. The south front of the Robillon wing. The Baroque extravagance is emphasized by being placed above the simpler doric colonnade (key 8)
  19. 19. Architecture… Interior •French artisans were employed to decorate the rooms, many of which are small, their walls and ceilings painted to depict historical scenes. •Polished red bricks were frequently used for the floors, for a rustic appearance as well as coolness in hot weather. •A predominant feature of the interiors is the azulejos: polychrome glazed tiles, often in a chinoiserie style with tones of blues and yellows contrasting with muted reds. •Materials for use on the interior included stone imported from Genoa and woods from Brazil, Denmark and Sweden, while coloured marbles were imported from Italy. Many of the palace's rooms were severely damaged by fire in 1934, and much was lost.
  20. 20. Interior Pictures
  21. 21. Azulejos
  22. 22. Ground floor Plan
  23. 23. Architecture… The State Apartments The Sala das Mangas •The Sala das Mangas (the only room in the state apartments to fully survive the 1934 fire) is a long gallery lined with tiled wall panels. The gallery leads to the enfilade of state rooms. The formal rooms of the palace consist of three large halls: The Hall of Ambassadors, The Music Room and the Ball Room. Other smaller rooms include the Gun Room (where hunting parties would assemble), which is a frescoed painted with trees and foliage by Pillement. •The Music Room which follows the is decorated with gilded and painted wood and was redesigned in 1768. The ceiling inset with painted cartouches is notable for the intricate ribbed scheme of its design, similar to that of the vestibule at Caserta. •The Music Room is decorated in a more neoclassical style than the other state rooms, reflecting its redesign in the period following the Baroque Rococo in the final half of the 18th century. This room was the setting for the large concerts for which the palace was famous. The room still contains the Empire grand piano decorated with gilt appliques. Like many other rooms of the palace, the Music Room is lit by huge crystal chandeliers.
  24. 24. The "Sala de Mangas" decorated with tile panels illustrating the wealth of Portugal's colonies
  25. 25. The Music Room (Portrait of Maria I hangs above the piano)
  26. 26. Architecture… The Ball Room •It was designed by Robillon in 1760. To create this oval room the architect combined five smaller rooms. The ormolu Rococo ornament takes the form of heavy gilding to the walls and ceiling. The walls and doors are mirrored and the painted and gilded, coffered ceiling is supported by golden caryatids. The Hall of Ambassadors •Sometimes called the throne room or the Hall of Mirrors, was designed by Robillon in 1757 and is one of the largest reception rooms in the palace. This long low room has a ceiling painted which depicts the Portuguese royal family attending a concert. •The room is extremely wide and light, spanning the full width of the palace, with tall windows on both sides. Between each window is a semi-circular gilt console table above which are pier glasses adorned with crystal sconces. The throne dais, set in an apse, is flanked by gilded and mirrored columns, and the floor is a checkered board pattern of black and white marble tiles.
  27. 27. The Ballroom
  28. 28. The Hall of Ambassadors
  29. 29. Architecture… The Chapel •During the occupancy of the palace by Dom Pedro and Maria I, the chapel was central to the daily routine of their court. It was the first part of the palace to be completed. •Religion was one of Dom Pedro's favourite interests. During the reign of his wife he attended to matters spiritual. The couple attended mass several times a day. •Its large onion dome is dark and cavernous and decorated with carved wood, the detailing highlighted in red, green, blue and pink, by the Portuguese sculptor Silvestre Faria Lobo. •The upper level has galleries for the use of royal personages who would sit apart from the congregation. One of these galleries contains a small Rococo pipe organ. A feature of the chapel is the ornate portable font, its marble basin resting in an elaborate Rococo frame surmounted by a carved wood cover.
  30. 30. The vault above the altar inside the palace chapel. The altar of the palace chapel
  31. 31. Architecture… The Private Apartments •The private rooms of the palace are far smaller and more intimate than the formal state rooms and contain many royal memento which belonged to the rooms' former occupants. Amongst the more remarkable rooms in this suite are the Sala das Merendas, the Queen's Boudoir and the King's Bedroom. The Sala das Merendas •This was the royal family's private dining room. The decoration continues the theme used in some of the more formal and public rooms, with tiled panels. These panels, were produced by João Valentim and José Conrado Rosa.
  32. 32. The Sala das Merendas
  33. 33. Architecture… The Queen’s Boudoir •This was one of the private rooms used by Maria I. It is designed in the form of a bower, with a trellis pattern on the ceiling which is reflected in the design of the marquetry floor, giving the impression of being in a pergola rather than an interior. • The walls are heavily mirrored by José Conrado Rosa. Next to the boudoir is the Queen's bedroom; it was light and airy room. The King’s Bedroom •has been described as one of the most fantastic rooms in the palace. •Although square, it gives the illusion of being completely circular, with a domed ceiling supported by columns of mirrored glass. Between the columns are cartouches depicting scenes from the tales of Don Quixote. •The room contains a large bust of the King.
  34. 34. The King’s bedroom
  35. 35. The Queen's Boudoir. The trellis design in the marquetry floor matches the pergola design painted on the ceiling above
  36. 36. Architecture… The Palace Gardens •Queluz is famed for the glory of its gardens, which include a large topiary parterre laid out in the manner of Le Nôtre at the rear of the palace.
  37. 37. •Including the canals in the garden, are the work of the Dutch gardener Gerald van der Kolk, who assisted Robillon from 1760. •Formal terraces and walkways are given extra interest by statuary and fountains. •The dominant feature of the principal parterre is the "Portico dos Cavalinhos", a garden temple flanked by two statues depicting Fames, and two sphinxes surreally dressed in 18th-century costume, combining the formal and the fantastic. •This theme continues elsewhere in the gardens where such motifs as the rape of the Sabines and the death of Abel alternate with statuary of donkeys dressed in human clothing. Deeper in the gardens is a grotto complete with a cascade. Later to be a popular feature in Portuguese gardens, the Queluz cascade was the first artificial waterfall to be constructed near Lisbon. Architecture…
  38. 38. One of the two sphinxes surreally dressed in 18th-century costume
  39. 39. Rape of Sabines
  40. 40. Architecture… The Palace Gardens •An avenue of huge magnolias forms the approach to the classical Robillon wing of the palace, while from the wing a double staircase leads to the canal. •More than 100m long, the walls of the canal are decorated with tiled panels depicting seascapes and associated scenes. This is the largest of a series of canals in the gardens bordered with chinoiserie-style azulejo tiles. It is fed by a stream. •The gardens also contain a fountain with tritons and dolphins which has been attributed to Bernini. There are further fountains and statuary in the lower gardens, set within tall hedges of yew and cypress, and magnolia and mulberry trees. •Chinoiserie in a broader scope refers to a mixture of Eastern and Western stylistic elements for both the decoration and shape. •The style held particular favour during the Rococo period and the court of Louis XV, with which its fanciful, ornate imagery is associated.
  41. 41. Azulejos tiles line the walls of a canal in the gardens. These tiles depict Rococo. fountain with tritons and dolphins
  42. 42. Fountain in the gardens of Queluz National Palace