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METHODS OF
PHILOSOPHIZING
1. PHENOMENOLOGY
2. EXISTENTIALISM
3. POSTMODERNISM
4. ANALYTIC TRADITION
5. LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING
6. FALLACIES
PHENOMENOLOGY
• Is the scientific study of the essential structures of consciousness.
• The word “phenomenology” comes from the Greek word “phainomenon” meaning
appearance and “logos” meaning study.
EDMUND HUSSERL
• He founded phenomenology, which is essentially a philosophical method.
• Father of phenomenology.
EXISTENTIALISM: FREEDOM
• It is not primarily a philosophical method, neither is it exactly a set of doctrines but
more of an outlook or attitude supported by diverse doctrines centered on certain
common themes.
• Talks about freedom.
JEAN-PAUL SARTRE
• Emphasizes the importance of free individual choice, regardless of the power of the
people to influence and coerce our desire, beliefs, and decisions.
WHAT IS FREEDOM?
• FREEDOM
THE POWER OR RIGHT TO ACT, SPEAK, OR
THINK AS ONE WANTS WITHOUT
HINDRANCE OR RESTRAINT.
POSTMODERNISM:
• Postmodernism is not a philosophy.
• It is a truism
• Has come into vogue as the name for a rather diffuse family of ideas and trends that
in significant respect rejects, challenges, or aim to supersede “ modernity”; the
convictions, aspirations, and pretensions of modern Western thought and culture
since the Enlightenment.
ANALYTIC TRADITION
• Is the conviction that to some significant degree, philosophical problems puzzles,
errors are rooted in language and careful attention to its working.
“Analysis”
• Refers to a method; owing a great deal to the pioneers, Bertrand Russell , G.E.
Moore, Wittgenstein, and JL Austin.
LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING
LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING
• Serves as paths to freedom from half-truth and deceptions.
LOGIC
• Is centered in the analysis and construction of arguments.
CRITICAL THINKING
• Distinguishing facts and opinions or personal feelings.
FALLACIES
• Is a defect in an argument other than its having false premises.
COMMITTED ERRORS IN REASONING
APPEAL TO PITY
• A specific kind of appeal to emotion in which someone tries to win support for an
argument or idea by exploiting his or her opponent’s feeling of pity or guilt.
APPEAL TO IGNORANCE
• Whatever has not been proved false must be true, and vice versa.
COMMITTED ERRORS IN REASONING
EQUIVOCATION
• A logical chain of reasoning of a term or a word several times, but giving the
particular word a different meaning each time.
EX. HUMAN BEING HAVE HANDS; THE CLOCK HAS HANDS.
COMPOSITION
• This infers something is true of the whole from the fact that it is true of some part of
the whole.
COMMITTED ERRORS IN REASONING
DIVISION
• One reasons logically that something true of a thing must also be true of all some of
its parts.
AGAINST THE PERSON
• This fallacy attempts to link the validity of premise to a characteristic or belief of the
person advocating the premise.
COMMITTED ERRORS IN REASONING
APPEAL TO FORCE
• An argument where force, coercion, or the threat of force, is given as a justification
for conclusion.
APPEAL TO THE PEOPLE
• An argument that appeals or exploits people’s vanities, desire for esteem, anchoring
on popularity.
COMMITTED ERRORS IN REASONING
FALSE CAUSE
• Since that event followed this one, that must have been caused by this one.
• It is also referred to as coincidental correlation, or correlation not causation
HASTY GENERALIZATION
• One commits errors if one reaches an inductive generalization based on
insufficient evidence.
• The fallacy is commonly based on a broad conclusion upon the statistics of a
survey of a small that fails to sufficiently represent the whole population.
COMMITTED ERRORS IN REASONING
BEGGING THE QUESTION
• This is a type of fallacy in which the proposition to be proven is assumed
implicitly or explicitly in the premise.

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Methods of philosophizing.pptx

  • 2. 1. PHENOMENOLOGY 2. EXISTENTIALISM 3. POSTMODERNISM 4. ANALYTIC TRADITION 5. LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING 6. FALLACIES
  • 3. PHENOMENOLOGY • Is the scientific study of the essential structures of consciousness. • The word “phenomenology” comes from the Greek word “phainomenon” meaning appearance and “logos” meaning study.
  • 4. EDMUND HUSSERL • He founded phenomenology, which is essentially a philosophical method. • Father of phenomenology.
  • 5. EXISTENTIALISM: FREEDOM • It is not primarily a philosophical method, neither is it exactly a set of doctrines but more of an outlook or attitude supported by diverse doctrines centered on certain common themes. • Talks about freedom.
  • 6. JEAN-PAUL SARTRE • Emphasizes the importance of free individual choice, regardless of the power of the people to influence and coerce our desire, beliefs, and decisions.
  • 8. • FREEDOM THE POWER OR RIGHT TO ACT, SPEAK, OR THINK AS ONE WANTS WITHOUT HINDRANCE OR RESTRAINT.
  • 9. POSTMODERNISM: • Postmodernism is not a philosophy. • It is a truism • Has come into vogue as the name for a rather diffuse family of ideas and trends that in significant respect rejects, challenges, or aim to supersede “ modernity”; the convictions, aspirations, and pretensions of modern Western thought and culture since the Enlightenment.
  • 10. ANALYTIC TRADITION • Is the conviction that to some significant degree, philosophical problems puzzles, errors are rooted in language and careful attention to its working. “Analysis” • Refers to a method; owing a great deal to the pioneers, Bertrand Russell , G.E. Moore, Wittgenstein, and JL Austin.
  • 11. LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING • Serves as paths to freedom from half-truth and deceptions. LOGIC • Is centered in the analysis and construction of arguments. CRITICAL THINKING • Distinguishing facts and opinions or personal feelings.
  • 12. FALLACIES • Is a defect in an argument other than its having false premises.
  • 13. COMMITTED ERRORS IN REASONING APPEAL TO PITY • A specific kind of appeal to emotion in which someone tries to win support for an argument or idea by exploiting his or her opponent’s feeling of pity or guilt. APPEAL TO IGNORANCE • Whatever has not been proved false must be true, and vice versa.
  • 14. COMMITTED ERRORS IN REASONING EQUIVOCATION • A logical chain of reasoning of a term or a word several times, but giving the particular word a different meaning each time. EX. HUMAN BEING HAVE HANDS; THE CLOCK HAS HANDS. COMPOSITION • This infers something is true of the whole from the fact that it is true of some part of the whole.
  • 15. COMMITTED ERRORS IN REASONING DIVISION • One reasons logically that something true of a thing must also be true of all some of its parts. AGAINST THE PERSON • This fallacy attempts to link the validity of premise to a characteristic or belief of the person advocating the premise.
  • 16. COMMITTED ERRORS IN REASONING APPEAL TO FORCE • An argument where force, coercion, or the threat of force, is given as a justification for conclusion. APPEAL TO THE PEOPLE • An argument that appeals or exploits people’s vanities, desire for esteem, anchoring on popularity.
  • 17. COMMITTED ERRORS IN REASONING FALSE CAUSE • Since that event followed this one, that must have been caused by this one. • It is also referred to as coincidental correlation, or correlation not causation HASTY GENERALIZATION • One commits errors if one reaches an inductive generalization based on insufficient evidence. • The fallacy is commonly based on a broad conclusion upon the statistics of a survey of a small that fails to sufficiently represent the whole population.
  • 18. COMMITTED ERRORS IN REASONING BEGGING THE QUESTION • This is a type of fallacy in which the proposition to be proven is assumed implicitly or explicitly in the premise.