Chapter 04.social scientific approaches to persuasion
CHAPTER FOUR:SOCIAL SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES TOPERSUASIONDonnie Kirk, PhDSPCH 3023Midwestern State University
Agenda• Dual Process Theories• Variable-Analytical Approaches to Persuasion• Alternatives to Dual Process Models• Perspectives on Compliance Gaining Traders work on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange
The Elaboration Likelihood Model• Previously mentioned in Chapter One…• Developed by Petty and Cacioppo from Ohio State University• Suggests two primary routes • Central: Thinking using cognitive effort • Peripheral: Influence w/o careful mental attention• Criticized because it suggests that the two routes cannot be used simultaneously
Chaikens’s Heuristic/Systematic Model:The HSM• HSM is similar to the ELM with two routes • Systematic route: a careful and systematic thinking process...similar to the Central Information Processing Route from the ELM. • Heuristic route: use of cognitive shortcuts…similar the peripheral route from the ELM.• HSM differs from the ELM in that the two processes can be simultaneous
Fazio’s Automatic Activation of Attitudes• Although Fazio’s work often appears with the ELM and the HSM, its not a true dual process model in itself.• Fazio suggests that mechanisms are stored in our memories that automatically recall various attitudes without effort—triggers.• We may be able to persuade by activating these attitudes without going back to all that preceded them such…focusing more on the attractive solution than the problem that creates the need for it.
VARIABLE-ANALYTICALAPPROACHESSource Effects, Message Effects,Fear and Drive Reduction, Social JudgmentTheory
Variable-Analytic Approaches to Persuasion • Gained great attention in Yale Persuasion Studies by Hovland and Associates in the 1950’s • Suggests that certain variables increase or decrease the likelihood of persuasion • Many of these variables have a very established history of impact over the past fifty years…several of the most prominent are as follows…source effects and message effects.
Source Credibility • Several ways have been found to make a source more credible, but effectiveness depends on context. • Credibility does have impact on persuasion. • The danger, however, is that the information about credibility often decays in peoples memory , referred to as the sleeper effect (Larson, 2007). • People are more likely to be persuaded if the person doing the persuading is seen as being credible, expert and trustworthy. • It is worth noting that expertise is not the only factor--for example physically attractive communicators are generally more successful than unattractive ones in changing beliefs, as are people who are generally likeable (Changingminds.org).
On Source Credibility…• Affinity scams: BEWARE! • Build on trust and credibility of the group/organization • “Too good to be true” investment scams• Pelz effect • Refers to the phenomena where people like to be associated with those who have power and influence at high levels because it (perceivably) enhances their self esteem and credibility.
Primacy-Recency Effects• Primacy effects are one of the oldest persuasive effects studied.• Although much debate continues, it is clear that information presented first and most recently has particular impact on persuasion.
Message Bias/Two-Sided Arguments• Presenting both sides of the argument has been found to be persuasive if one clearly refutes the arguments of the opposition…
On message sidedness…• Inoculation • A tactic of warning people that others are likely to attempt to persuade them of a position contrary to their current beliefs. • Such warnings have been found to make people more resistant to change.
The Influence of Mood and Affect on BiasedProcessing• The impact of various moods on persuasion has produced a complicated set of findings.• Happy moods often distract from persuasion taking focus away from centrally processed issues—• But there is no significant findings regarding the impact on peripheral process such as developing brand awareness.
On mood and bias and triggers…Today Show InterviewAre You Brainwashed?
Fear and Drive Reduction• Using tactics attempting to instill a sense of fear in people generally leads to the conclusion that it can be an effective tactic if the credibility of the threat is substantial and an effective remedy is available.• The presence of an effective, available remedy is known as efficacy (capacity to produce an effect).• Without a sufficient level of efficacy, persuasive attempts are usually ineffective and sometimes counter productive.
About fear… • Where are fear appeals used/present in our society to reinforce your behavior? • Parents • Peers • Law Enforcement • Church Fear is not the natural state of civilized people--- Aung San Suu Kyi
Social Judgment Theory• We compare other persons, issues, ideas, products, etc. based on our internal “anchors.”• Latitude of acceptance: anchors include a range of positions acceptable to the individual including the most acceptable “choice”• Latitude of rejection: anchors include a range of positions objectionable to the individual including the most objectionable “choice”
ALTERNATIVES TO DUAL-PROCESS MODELS OFPERSUASIONBalance and Cognitive ConsistencyTheories, Accessibility and Activation ofAttitudes.