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Effective lesson2


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Effective lesson2

  1. 1. EFFECTIVE LESSON PLANNING Presented by LaVonne McClain, NBCT, M.Ed. Instructional Coach
  2. 2. GOALS <ul><li>To describe the value of effective planning </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss and utilize various components of effective lesson plans </li></ul>
  3. 3. A teacher who is attempting to teach without inspiring the pupil with a desire to learn is hammering on a cold iron. Horace Mann
  4. 4. EFFECTIVE TEACHERS … <ul><li>Know the content </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the development of the student </li></ul><ul><li>Value the diversity of the students within the class </li></ul><ul><li>Plan strategic lessons using research-based practices </li></ul><ul><li>Use multiple assessments to evaluate progress </li></ul><ul><li>Create a suitable learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt and modify instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Use effective communication </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate with all members of the learning community </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in sustained professional growth experiences </li></ul>
  5. 5. INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING AND STRATEGIES <ul><li>Plans are developed to provide students with meaningful learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Plans connect to related learning opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching is based on instructional strategies that focus on best practice and research </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching is supported by strategies that foster interest and progress </li></ul>
  6. 6. GOOD PLANNING <ul><li>Keeps the teacher and students on track </li></ul><ul><li>Achieves the objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Helps teachers to avoid “unpleasant” surprises </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the roadmap and visuals in a logical sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Provides direction to a substitute </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages reflection, refinement, and improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances student achievement </li></ul>
  7. 7. POOR PLANNING <ul><li>Frustration for the teacher and the student </li></ul><ul><li>Aimless wandering </li></ul><ul><li>Unmet objectives </li></ul><ul><li>No connections to prior learnings </li></ul><ul><li>Disorganization </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of needed materials </li></ul><ul><li>A waste of time </li></ul><ul><li>Poor management </li></ul>
  8. 8. LET’S BEGIN… Activating Strategy - Video <ul><li>The format of a lesson should.. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Go one step at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a picture for every step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a minimal reliance on teacher talk </li></ul></ul>An effective lesson plan is a set of plans for building something – it “constructs” the learning.
  9. 9. Ingredients of a Good Lesson <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Question </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-assessment </li></ul><ul><li>List of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Warm-up and introduction (Activating Strategy) </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Practice (graphic organizers) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul>
  10. 10. The greater the structure of a lesson and the more precise the directions on what is to be accomplished, the higher the achievement rate. Harry Wong, The First Days of Teaching
  11. 11. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>A description of what the student will be able to do at the end of the lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Provides alignment with district and state goals (Uses SCOS/CCSS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use action verbs to describe the expected outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No-no’s: appreciate, enjoy, understand, love, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. “Thin” & “ THICK ” Objectives <ul><li>Avoid vague, unclear tasks, be specific in what you want students to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Thin: Students will research landforms. </li></ul><ul><li>THICK : Students will create representation of a landform of their choice and present statistical data in a manner appropriate for selected audience. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Differentiator </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Curriculum-Framing Questions <ul><li>To target higher-order thinking skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To require comparison, synthesis, interpretation, evaluation, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To ensure student projects are compelling and engaging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To require more than a simple restatement of facts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To focus on important topics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To connect learning to other disciplines and other topics of study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To ask questions that have been asked throughout human history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To address compelling questions </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. How Do Essential Questions Help Teachers? <ul><li>They help teachers focus on important topics in their year-long curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>They raise important questions across content areas (Math, Science, Literature, History, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>They center around major issues, problems, concerns, interests, or themes that also occur in other units. </li></ul><ul><li>They help teachers promote authentic inquiry </li></ul>
  15. 15. How Do Essential Questions Help Students? <ul><li>Essential Questions bring meaning and focus to the study of events and topics throughout a project or course, which otherwise may seem arbitrary or unrelated. </li></ul><ul><li>They engage students’ imagination and connect the subject with their own experiences and ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no one, obvious “right” answer, so students are challenged to explore many possibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>They encourage in-depth discussion and research, and set the stage for further questioning. </li></ul><ul><li>They help students compare, contrast, and make analogies. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Unit Questions <ul><li>Are open-ended questions that tie directly to a project or unit </li></ul><ul><li>Pose a reasonable challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Require higher-order thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Help students construct their own answers and their own meaning from the information they have gathered </li></ul><ul><li>Help answer the Essential Question </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EQ: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why do we need others? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UQ: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which of our community helpers is the most important? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which community helper would you most like to be? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Content Questions <ul><li>Have a narrow set of correct, fact-based answers </li></ul><ul><li>Often relate to definitions, identifications, and general recall of information (example: questions found on a test) </li></ul><ul><li>Help answer the unit questions </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EQ: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do we need others? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UQ: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which of our community helpers is the most important? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which community helper would you most like to be? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CQ: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who are some community helpers? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What do these community helpers do? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Matching Curriculum Framing Questions <ul><li>Essential Questions –broad, open ended </li></ul><ul><li>How can I make a difference? </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Questions – project-specific; aid students in understanding concepts of a project </li></ul><ul><li>What can our school do to help save an endangered species? </li></ul><ul><li>Content Questions – fact-based, lower level Blooms </li></ul><ul><li>What makes a species endangered? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Think-Pair-Share <ul><li>Work with your table. </li></ul><ul><li>Sort the cards according to Essential, Unit or Content question. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the impact of completing this activity. </li></ul>
  20. 20. PRE-ASSESSMENT <ul><li>What are the characteristics of the learners in the class? </li></ul><ul><li>What do the students already know and understand? </li></ul><ul><li>How do my students learn best? </li></ul><ul><li>What modifications in instruction might I need to make? </li></ul>
  21. 21. MATERIALS <ul><li>Plan! Prepare! Have on hand! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Murphy’s Law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Envision your needs. </li></ul><ul><li>List all resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Have enough manipulatives (when needed) for groups or individuals. </li></ul>
  22. 22. WARM-UP AND INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Grabs the attention of the students </li></ul><ul><li>PROVIDES THE INTEREST/ MOTIVATION factor </li></ul><ul><li>Sets the tone for the lesson connected to the objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A saying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A discussion starter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BE CREATIVE </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Engage Students With Questions <ul><li>Questions should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate students to process content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make content relevant to themselves through paraphrasing </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Cognitive Levels of Questioning Bloom’s Taxonomy <ul><li>Remembering </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Applying </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul><ul><li>Creating </li></ul>
  25. 25. PROCEDURES & PRESENTATION <ul><li>Provide a quick review of previous learning </li></ul><ul><li>(Foundation Building) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide modeling of a new skill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A picture is worth a thousand words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I hear, I see………..I do! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide specific activities to assist students in developing the new knowledge and assess to guide lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Use Relevant Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Limit Lecture Time (max. 15 minutes) </li></ul>
  26. 26. LEARNING ACTIVITIES <ul><li>Graphic organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Creative play </li></ul><ul><li>Peer presenting </li></ul><ul><li>Performances </li></ul><ul><li>Role playing </li></ul><ul><li>Debates </li></ul><ul><li>Game making </li></ul><ul><li>Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative groups </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry learning </li></ul><ul><li>Direct instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Instruction </li></ul>
  27. 28. PRACTICE APPLYING WHAT IS LEARNED <ul><li>Provides multiple learning activities </li></ul><ul><li>Supports guided practice (teacher controlled) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a variety of questioning strategies to determine the level of understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journaling, conferencing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encourages Independent practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice may be differentiated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses Graphic Organizers to categorize information </li></ul><ul><li>Allows students to move to ensure active engagement </li></ul>
  28. 29. CLOSURE <ul><li>Lesson Wrap-up: Leave students with an imprint of what the lesson covered. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students summarize the major concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher recaps the main points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher sets the stage for the next phase of learning which may be remediation or extension of activity </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Assessment - Article <ul><li>Assess the learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher made test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-class or homework assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project to apply the learning in real-life situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recitations and summaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of rubrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portfolios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal assessment </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. REFLECTION <ul><li>What went well in the lesson? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems did I experience? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there things I could have done differently? </li></ul><ul><li>How can I build on this lesson to make future lessons successful? </li></ul>
  31. 32. A teacher is one who brings us tools and enables us to use them. Jean Toomer Time to Practice!