Effective lesson delivery 2011


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  • Make charts with one header on each (Explicit, Modeled, Guided, and Independent.) Underneath the header write on each chart what does it look like or sound like? Hang up charts in different spots of the room. Arrange participants in groups. Have each group visit each chart to record their responses. You will use these charts later in the workshop for another group activity. Example of chart: Explicit What does it look like or sound like?      
  • Riding a bike Technology Arts-scrapbooking, painting, clay, jewelry Sports Academics
  • Well-designed and delivered reading instruction in the hands of a knowledgeable teacher offers students cognitive support in a manner that increases the probability of successful learning outcomes. High-quality instructional presentation allows more students access to the curriculum content. (Kame’enui & Simmons, 1990)
  • These critical elements are important when considering how to intensify instruction for at-risk students. Even though for purposes of training, we will discuss each of these elements separately, they are not used in isolation. Rather, they are woven together and constitute essential aspects of instructional delivery. We will discuss and watch examples of each one individually on the following slides. Jerry Seinfeld http://cooperativelearning.nuvvo.com/lesson/9592-seinfeld-teaches-history
  • Please take out and look over the handout. This handout addresses the “hows” of effective instruction. When planning lessons, it is important to have include all the following. Have teachers reflect and highlight the areas that they feel they are effective implementing when planning and delivering a lesson.
  • DO NOT GIVE THE PARTCIPANTS THIS HANDOUT UNTIL SLIDE 22 It is important to remind teachers that this model is done in whole and small group instruction in every content area.
  • Establishing purpose does not simply mean posting the standard on the wall. Students need to be involved with the process, to talk about the purpose and understand the goal of instruction. Students need to have clear expectations of purpose, and activities that are linked with the purpose. It is the critical goal component of the focus lesson. Three Methods often used are closely related, they serve different purposes
  • Explicit instruction involves direct explanation . This means that the words and actions of the teacher are clear, unambiguous, direct, and visible. This makes it clear what the students are to do and learn. Nothing is left to guess work. The teacher’s language is concise, specific, and related to the objective. The purpose of explicit instruction is to convey the content clearly so that students can learn the content, free of extraneous distractors. Teacher directives are highly specific and concise to ensure implementation accuracy. There are two ways we may consider instruction to be explicit: The actual instruction the teacher will provide to students. The detail of information provided to the teacher in order to implement the lesson with accuracy. (in reading programs) In this way, the teacher is not left to guess what instruction should look like. Lesson format reflects frequent student/teacher interactions Another characteristic of explicit instruction is a conspicuous instructional approach that includes a high level of teacher/student interaction.
  • Systematic instruction establishes what will be taught and the order of instruction. In other words, it identifies the knowledge and skills a student must have in order to learn to read. Systematic instruction is carefully planned and thought out. Carefully planned, systematic instruction sets up a prescribed order of skill introduction . Examples of this would include a specific order to the introduction of sounds, letters, phonic elements such as digraphs, blends, prefixes and suffixes, and story difficulty. Cumulatively built lessons start with simpler information and lead to more complex information. The lessons build on previously taught information.
  • Modeling is directly related to explicitness. Modeling is also referred to as thinking aloud, or a think-aloud. There needs to be a balance between teacher modeling in large in group instruction and guided practice in a small group setting. Modeling is more than reading directions and assigning worksheets. It involves giving the students a window into the mind of a proficient reader. It is used to introduce new skills, strategies, and concepts, or to clarify how to think about a particular skill or strategy. It helps the student to understand what to do. Modeling can be used at any time during a lesson, but typically it is seen at the beginning of an instructional routine when first teaching a new skill, strategy or concept. Modeling is a type of scaffold. In order to use it successfully, it is important to know where a student’s thinking processes need extra support.
  • Note to Presenter: Carnine, D. W., Silbert, J., Kame’enui, E. L. , Tarver, S. G. (2004). Direct Instruction Reading. Ch 4-Delivery of Instruction, p 31. Pacing refers to the rate at which instructional components skills are introduced and the frequency of student response. The pace of instructional delivery will depend upon the teacher’s initial preparedness. Pacing also refers to presenting material in a manner that accelerates learning – using data to determine the “pace” of the scope and sequence Pacing was seen earlier in the combination video, but let’s look at another example. We will also see a teacher speaking on the topic of pacing. We are going to see some examples of teacher modeling.
  • Teacher has carried the load of knowing the responsibility for knowing, leading learners through modeling, and demonstrating the metacognitive awareness that one needs. Preplanning questions is key!
  • The benefit of guided practice is that it gives the teacher the window into the student’s mind as the student practices the strategies with the necessary support. Click on clip art-it is hyperlinked to a video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LKfrg6oIjh0&feature=related Ferris Bueller’s Day Off History Teacher
  • Comic: When a teacher poses a question and one student answers…this is what could happen. Accountable Talk fosters high levels of engagement in creative and critical thinking among all students. It involves both thinking and speaking. Accountable Talk involves students to stay on topic and focused and thinking deeply about what is going to be discussed. Over time after teacher modeling through using the Gradual Release Model and patience, students will be able to listen carefully to each other, extend thinking has been shared by a partner, ask for clarification, politely question the speaker, and agree or disagree with the speaker with appropriate responses.
  • HOTS- Higher Order Thinking Skills
  • Presenter will model one of these suggestions with whole group. Examples: Thumbs up/Thumbs down/Thumb middle on how you are feeling about effective instruction On a white board, write the definition and an example of Guided Practice
  • Have samples of these hanging in the workshop room.
  • Have participants look at the bullet points to see where in the gradual release model would the students learn how to implement each bullet.
  • Model a couple of these structures using the collaborative structures posters with whole group.
  • Refer to Summarizer handouts.
  • Could be writing to prompts as well. Independent learning centers.
  • Have participants think-pair-share the answers to these questions
  • Group Activity: Have each group pick a one chart from the carousel activity. It is important the they mark out any incorrect responses on the chart and add more ideas that they have learned throughout the workshop.
  • Have participants use handout to fill out.
  • Effective lesson delivery 2011

    1. 1. Dawn Bingham, West Florida Curriculum Coordinator Wendy Molina, Kissimmee Charter School, Sunshine Region, FL Stephania Sherman, North Florida Education Specialists
    2. 2. <ul><li>Each group will have 3 minutes to record responses on each chart. </li></ul><ul><li>When time is called, groups will rotate to the next station in clockwise order. </li></ul><ul><li>Continue until each group responds to every chart. </li></ul>
    3. 4. Steps to make an origami whale <ul><li>Fold two opposite side over so that they meet at the fold. </li></ul><ul><li>Fold the tip over to just meet the other folds. </li></ul><ul><li>Fold the piece in half along the central axis. </li></ul><ul><li>Fold the tail up. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a short cut or tear through the end of the fold in the tail. Fold the edges of the tail outwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw eyes, fins, and any other patterns you like, and enjoy your whale. </li></ul>
    4. 6. Whale
    5. 7. Jumping Frog
    6. 8. Swan
    7. 9. <ul><li>What were you feeling during each lesson? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the supports you during the lesson? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the challenges? </li></ul>
    8. 10. <ul><li>Pick one of the following activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about how you learned the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Share with a partner your experience with how you learned. </li></ul><ul><li>List similarities with your learning process. </li></ul>
    9. 11. TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson “ I do it” Independent “ You do it alone” Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    10. 12. <ul><li>I show you how I fold origami. </li></ul><ul><li>Now you fold origami. </li></ul>
    11. 13. <ul><li>I show you how I swim. </li></ul><ul><li>Now you swim . </li></ul>
    12. 14. TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY (none) STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Independent “ You do it alone” Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    13. 15. <ul><li>You do it alone-“sink or swim” </li></ul>
    14. 16. <ul><li>You jump in alone or “sink or swim” </li></ul>
    15. 17. TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson Guided Instruction “ I do it” “ We do it” Independent “ You do it alone” Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    16. 18. <ul><ul><li>I show you how Ito fold origami. </li></ul></ul>I give you cues, prompts and questions. You practice independently.
    17. 19. You practice independently. I show you how I swim. I give you cues, prompts and questions.
    18. 20. TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson Guided Instruction “ I do it” “ We do it” “ You do it together” Collaborative Independent “ You do it alone” A Model for Success for All Students Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    19. 23. <ul><li>Instructional delivery increases the probability of success because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>content is more accessible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>content is remembered over time. </li></ul></ul>Kame’enui & Simmons (1990)
    20. 24. <ul><li>Goals and Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparedness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explicit </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrective Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Pacing </li></ul>
    21. 25. HO1_Effective Instruction Chart Characteristic Guiding Questions Well Met Somewhat Met Not Met Goals and Objectives Are the purpose and outcomes of instruction clearly evident in the lesson plans? Does the student understand the purpose for learning the skills and strategies taught?    Explicit Are directions clear, straightforward, unequivocal, without vagueness, need for implication, or ambiguity?    Systematic Are skills introduced in a specific and logical order, easier to more complex? Do the lesson activities support the sequence of instruction? Is there frequent and cumulative review?    Scaffolding Is there explicit use of prompts, cues, examples and encouragements to support the student? Are skills broken down into manageable steps when necessary?    Corrective Feedback Does the teacher provide students with corrective instruction offered during instruction and practice as necessary?    Modeling Are the skills and strategies included in instruction clearly demonstrated for the student?    Guided Practice Do students have sufficient opportunities to practice new skills and strategies with teacher present to provide support?    Pacing Is the teacher familiar enough with the lesson to present it in an engaging manner? Does the pace allow for frequent student response? Does the pace maximize instructional time, leaving no down-time?    Instructional Routine Are the instructional formats consistent from lesson to lesson?   
    22. 26. Cyclical Process Explicit Instruction Guided Practice with Collaborative Structures Independent Practice Modeled Instruction
    23. 27. Increase Instructional Consistency
    24. 28. <ul><li>Teacher must clearly establish a purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Three methods used most often in focus lessons are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognitive awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think-alouds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5-20 minutes </li></ul>
    25. 29. <ul><li>Explicit instruction involves direct explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher directives are specific and concise to ensure implementation accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson format reflects frequent student/teacher interactions </li></ul>
    26. 30. <ul><li>“ Hook” students’ attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Make connections to previous learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Offer a precise explanation of what will be learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce/review important vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to posted essential question. </li></ul>
    27. 31. <ul><ul><li>is carefully planned and organized; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>includes a prescribed order of skill introduction; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offers lessons that build cumulatively with frequent review of previously taught skills </li></ul></ul>
    28. 32. <ul><li>Modeling makes thinking processes visible </li></ul><ul><li>for students </li></ul><ul><li>Language used in modeling should be clear, concise and explicit </li></ul>
    29. 33. <ul><li>Select examples aligned with guided practice, independent practice, and assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate how to complete examples step by step. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbalize thinking, such as (teacher think-a-louds)… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forming mental pictures, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connecting information to prior knowledge, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creating analogies, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clarifying confusing points, and/or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>making/revising predictions. </li></ul></ul>
    30. 34. <ul><li>The instructional pace should be brisk </li></ul><ul><li>and lively </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent teacher/student interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Pacing is data-driven to create a scope and sequence that accelerates learning </li></ul>
    31. 35. Guided Instruction
    32. 36. <ul><li>Where the cognitive load begins to shift from teacher to student. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic use of cues, prompts, & questions </li></ul><ul><li>Begin planning differentiated instruction based on the needs of the students </li></ul>
    33. 37. <ul><li>Select examples aligned with independent practice and assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Start guided practice with teacher-led question and answer practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask higher order questions requiring explanation with “Student Accountable Talk” or “Student </li></ul><ul><li>Think-a-Louds” to justify thinking and explain logic. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate Collaborative Structures for additional practice with peer support. </li></ul><ul><li>Create anchor/strategy charts. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct Checks for Understanding throughout the lesson. </li></ul>
    34. 39. <ul><li>Ask higher order questions requiring explanation with “Student Accountable Talk” or “Student Think-a-Louds” to justify thinking and explain logic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask “Why” and “Why Not” questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use HOTS question stems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaffold questions to reach higher order thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow students’ extended time to prepare responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen in on partnerships and share out their discussions to the group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require use of content specific vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference vocabulary acquisition tools (interactive word wall, lesson vocabulary on whiteboard, foldables, skill process posters, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
    35. 40. <ul><li>Conduct Checks for Understanding throughout </li></ul><ul><li>the lesson. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thumbs Up/Down/Middle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White Board Responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response Cards-Yes/No Cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Accountable Talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journal Responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cornell Notes Summaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board Races </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exit Tickets </li></ul></ul>
    36. 41. <ul><li>Activating Prior Knowledge Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic Organizers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming and Categorizing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipation Guide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Word Splash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know - Want to Know – Learned (KWL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corners </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 43. What does it take to make a task engaging and interactive?
    38. 44. <ul><li>Enough background knowledge to have something to say. </li></ul><ul><li>Language support to know how to say it. </li></ul><ul><li>A topic of interest. </li></ul><ul><li>An authentic reason to interact. </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations of and accountability for the interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>An established community of learners that encourage and support each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of the task. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the norms of interaction. </li></ul>
    39. 45. Students work together to solve problems, discover information, and complete projects Students use the “language of the lesson”
    40. 46. <ul><li>It is not : </li></ul><ul><li>Ability grouping </li></ul><ul><li>For introducing new information or new skills </li></ul>
    41. 47. <ul><li>Students are… </li></ul><ul><li>consolidating their understanding </li></ul><ul><li>negotiating understanding with peers </li></ul><ul><li>engaging in inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>applying knowledge to novel and real </li></ul><ul><li> life situations </li></ul>
    42. 48. <ul><li>Incorporate Collaborative Structures for </li></ul><ul><li>additional practice with peer support. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think-Pair-Share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pairs Check </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partner and small-group discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocal Teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partner Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jigsaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountable Talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic organizers or Thinking Maps </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 49. <ul><li>Summarizing New Knowledge Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carousel Brainstorming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3-2-1 Response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dear Teacher </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Draw A Picture or Diagram </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ticket Out the Door (Exit Card) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think…Pair…Share </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It’s Okay to Pass Summary Notes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muddiest Point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Final Countdown </li></ul></ul></ul>Handout
    44. 50. Independent Learning: Not Just “ Do It Yourself” School
    45. 51. Traditional homework occurs too soon in the instructional cycle.
    46. 52. <ul><li>Provides students with opportunities to apply what they have learned through focus lessons, guided instruction, and collaborative learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Should help students become increasingly self-directed and engaged. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a pile of worksheets or packets </li></ul><ul><li>If homework, concept needs to be previously taught and learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Should follow modeling, guided practice, and collaborative work with peers (Fisher & Frey, 2008) </li></ul>
    47. 53. <ul><li>Focus Lessons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The teacher establishes the purpose of the lesson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The teacher uses “I” statements to model thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questioning is used to scaffold instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The lesson builds on metacognitive awareness, especially indicators of success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus lessons move to guided instruction, not immediately to independent learning. </li></ul></ul>
    48. 54. <ul><li>Guided Instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small-group arrangements are evident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible and fluid grouping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The teacher plays an active role in guided instruction, not just circulating and assisting individual students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogue occurs between students and teachers as they begin to apply a strategy or skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher uses cues and prompts to scaffold understanding when a student makes an error and does not immediately tell the student the correct answer </li></ul></ul>
    49. 55. <ul><li>Collaborative Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small-group arrangements are evident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups are flexible and fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The teacher has modeled concepts that students need to complete collaborative tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students have received guided instruction of the concepts needed to complete the collaborative tasks </li></ul></ul>
    50. 56. <ul><li>Independent Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students have received focused lessons, guided instruction, and collaborative learning experiences related to the concepts needed to complete the independent task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent tasks extend beyond practice to application and extension of new knowledge </li></ul></ul>
    51. 57. <ul><li>Explicit Instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will I focus my students on what they need to learn? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modeled Instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will I show my students exactly what they are expected to do during guided practice and eventually during independent work? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guided Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will I provide my students with opportunities to collaboratively work in pairs, trios, and/or quads to practice what they were taught during the modeled portion of the lesson? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Independent Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will I help my students independently apply what they have learned during modeled and guided practice? </li></ul></ul>
    52. 58. <ul><li>Go around the room and give reasons for each of the questions. </li></ul>
    53. 59. <ul><li>In your group, pick one chart from the carousel activity. </li></ul><ul><li>In your group, read over The Gradual Release Model Lesson Plan handout and the carousel activity chart . </li></ul><ul><li>Use the handout as a reference to help highlight, add, or correct any responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Share chart with the group. </li></ul>Handout
    54. 60. Write the three most important things you learned. Write two strategies you are going to implement in your classroom. Write one question that you are still have about Gradual Release. Handout