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A brief introduction to this learning theory

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  1. 1. HUMANISM
  2. 3. Focus of Humanism <ul><li>Focus placed on the affective dimension of the learning process </li></ul>
  3. 4. View of Learning <ul><li>Cognitive skills must be developed within the context of the learner’s feelings, needs and emotions </li></ul>
  4. 5. View of Learning <ul><li>Education is the development of the whole person not merely the transmission of knowledge and skills </li></ul>
  5. 6. Erik Erikson <ul><li>Identified 8 predetermined stages in human psychological development, each with its particular challenges. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Erikson’s Stages <ul><li>Each stage deals with thoughts, emotions, feelings that must be handled appropriately to facilitate a person’s learning </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Challenges well handled – moves smoothly to the next stage, in a strong position to deal with the challenges there </li></ul>
  8. 9. Dealing with the Challenges <ul><li>Challenges well handled – moves smoothly to the next stage, in a strong position to deal with the challenges there </li></ul>
  9. 10. Dealing with the Challeges <ul><li>Challenges inadequately handled – will constantly reappear throughout the person’s life, hindering his being able to deal appropriately with subsequent stages and their challenges </li></ul>
  10. 11. Competence, Fidelity <ul><li>Challenge (Adolescence) – search for personal identity </li></ul><ul><li>Successfully handled – develops a strong sense of self-identity / self acceptance, less susceptible to peer pressure, has high hopes for the future </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Inadequately handled – role confusion, anti-social behaviour, aimlessness, no fixed goals towards which to aspire </li></ul>
  12. 13. Implications for learning <ul><li>Encourage learners to think for themselves, come to conclusions, to express themselves in constructive ways </li></ul>
  13. 14. Bases of Maslow's theory <ul><li>Human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs </li></ul><ul><li>Certain lower needs need to be satisfied before higher needs can be addressed. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Abraham Maslow <ul><li>Follow the link for an illustration of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and some related factors </li></ul>
  15. 16. Deficiency needs <ul><li>Psychological, biological needs. If these are not satisfied or fulfillment is disrupted the higher order needs cannot be met </li></ul>
  16. 17. Being Needs <ul><li>Personal fulfillment in terms of cognitive and aesthetic development and the realization of one’s full potential </li></ul>
  17. 18. Revised Structure <ul><ul><li>Self actualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetic needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for interpersonal closeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for safety / security / belonging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic biological needs </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Implications for the Classroom <ul><li>Learners may experience difficulties in learning because basic needs are not catered for either at home or at school </li></ul>
  19. 20. Implications <ul><li>Importance of establishing a secure environment where learners feel that they belong, receive / give respect, encouraged to be creative </li></ul>
  20. 21. Implications <ul><li>Should be able to experience a sense of freedom with a counterbalancing sense of responsibility </li></ul>
  21. 22. Implications <ul><li>Activities should be challenging, encourage curiosity, structured to facilitate the development of critical thinking skills, to help learners realize their potential </li></ul>
  22. 23. Application <ul><li>Maintain a low affective filter </li></ul><ul><li>Cater for psychological elements – feelings, emotions. Treat errors tactfully </li></ul>
  23. 24. Application <ul><li>Design purposeful tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage creativity and initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Enable learners to develop as individuals in their own right </li></ul>
  24. 25. Social Interactionism <ul><li>Combination of Cognitive and Humanist perspectives of learning processes </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive, social and emotional development inextricably linked in the learning process </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Focus placed on the importance of the learning context (climate, environment) and the nature of social and communicative interaction in the classroom </li></ul>
  26. 27. Domains of the Learning Environment / Context <ul><li>Physical – physical aspects of the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Social – competitive, cooperative, individualistic </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional – selection of content, materials, methods, teaching and assessment strategies </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Psychological – concerns the creation and maintenance of a positive and warm classroom environment which supports learning and the development of confidence and self-esteem. Learners are willing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to use the language, to learn from mistakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>try out new ways to express meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make mistakes without feqr </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Lev Vygotsky <ul><li>Children are born into a social world and learning occurs through interaction with people </li></ul><ul><li>Supports a communicative approach to language teaching – learning the language through using the language for meaningful communication </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Effective learning results from the interaction between two persons with different levels of knowledge – teacher or more competent peer / learner </li></ul>
  30. 31. SUMMARY <ul><li>Learning is a complex process with cognitive, affective and social dimensions. It is linked with feelings, attitudes and self-concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Learning cannot take place in a vacuum. Physical and psychological conditions must support learning </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Learning is influenced by the context in which it occurs (physical, psychological, social, learning task) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning differs from individual to individual </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is a lifelong process </li></ul>
  32. 33. Forms of Learning <ul><li>A quantitative increase in knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Rote learning, memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of facts and procedures to be retained and / or applied </li></ul><ul><li>Abstraction of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretive process </li></ul>
  33. 34. Factors affecting Learning LEARNING Cognitive Dimension Affective Dimension Piaget, Bloom, Ausubel Learning styles Psychological Factors - emotions, attitudes, motivation Phys and soc aspects of the learning env, C/room culture