ADE605 Theory & Approaches in Art Education HUMANISTIC Syamsul Nor Azlan Mohamad Faculty Of Education Universiti Teknologi MARA
Humanistic Theory The focus of the humanistic perspective is on the self. Emphasizing personal responsibility and innate tendencies toward personal growth Issues dealing with self-esteem, self-fulfillment, and needs are paramount. Two major theorists associated with this view are Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
Abraham Maslow: the study of self-actualized people Maslow feels that individuals have certain needs that must be met in an hierarchical fashion, from the lowest to highest. These include basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs (self-esteem), and ultimately self- actualization
The needs must be achieved in order. For instance, one would be unable to fulfill their safety needs if their physiological needs have not been met.Maslow’s theory of motivation suggests that human operate on a hierarchy of needs which influence behaviour.
Needs hierarcy is only part of Maslow’s theory of personality. Maslow has devoted much attention to the study of people who, in his terms, are psychologically healthy. These are individuals who have attained high levels of self-actualization – a state in which they have reached their fullest true potential.
What are self-acutalized people like? accept themselve for what they are recognize their shortcomings and strengths less likely to conform than most of us well aware of the rules imposed by society, but feel greater freedom to ignore them than most persons
retain their childhood wonder and amazement with the world for them, life continues to be an exciting adventure rather than a boring routine sometimes have peak experiences – instances in which they have powerful feelings of unity with the universe and feel tremendous waves of power and wonder
Maslow studied healthy, creative, productive people’s lives rather than those plagued by mental illness Examples of self-acutalized people : Thomas Jefferson, Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, George Washington Carver
Maslow noticed that all high-achieving people share characteristics such as openness, self-acceptance, and love for others.
Carl Rogers (1902 – 1987) agreed with what Maslow believed, but added that for a person to “grow”, they need an environment that provides them with: i. Genuinness (openness and self-disclosure) ii. Acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard) iii. Empathy (being listened to and understood)
Self and ideal self Gaps between our self-concept and our experience: A cause of maladjustment in Rogers ’s Theory According to Rogers, the larger the gap between an individual’s self-concept and reality, the poorer this person’s psychological adjustment
The aspect of your being that is founded in the actualizing tendency, follows organismic valuing, needs and receives positive regard and self-regard, Rogers calls it real self. It is the “you” that, of all goes well, you will become.
But in our society, we are forced to live with conditions of worth that are out of step with organismic valuing, and receive only conditional positive regard and self-regard, we develop instead an ideal self. By ideal, Rogers is suggesting something not real, something that is always out of our reach, the standard that we can’t meet.
This gap between the real self and ideal self, the “I am” and the “I should” is called incongruity. The more incongruity, the more suffering. In fact, incongruity is essentially what Rogers means by neurosis.
Defenses When there is incongruity between your image of yourself and your immediate experience of yourself (real self and ideal self), you are in a threatening situation Feel anxiety, and avoid the situation by using defenses.
Conditions for healthy growth Fully-functioning person possesses the following qualities: 1. Openeness to experience opposite of defensiveness accurate perception of one’s experiences in the world, including one’s feelings
2. Existential living This is living in the here-and-now; getting in touch with reality Should not live in the past or future – past is gone and future isn’t anything at all Should recognize the past and future for what they are: memories and dreams, which we are experiencing here in the present
3. Organismic trusting We should allow ourselves to be guided by the organismic valuing process Trust your real self Organismic trusting assumes you are in contact with the actualizing tendency
4. Experiential freedom We feel free when choices are available to us Fully-functioning person acknowledges that feeling of freedom, and takes responsibility for his choices
5. Creativity If you feel free and responsible, you will act accordingly, and participate in the world Feel obliged to contribute to the actualization of others This can be through creativity in the arts or sciences, through social concern and parental love, or simply by doing one’s best at one’s job
6. Therapy Rogers’s approach to treatment for healthy change or healthy growth -- Client-Centered Therapy because it sees the individual, rather than the therapist or the treatment process as the center of effective change. Nowadays, most people just call it Rogerian therapy.
• Rogers felt that a therapist must have three qualities in order to be effective. They must be:• Congruence or Genuine: completely open with their feelings, honesty with the client
Accepting or respect: acceptance, showing an unconditional positive regard towards the clientEmpathetic: non-judgemental in their disclosure of feelings; the ability to fee what the client feels
• Humanistic Principles of Learning Humanistic theories of learning tend to be highly value-driven and hence more like prescriptions (about what ought to happen) rather than descriptions (of what does happen).
• Human beings have natural potentiality and desire for learning• Learners need to be empowered and to have control over the learning process• The teacher becomes a facilitator - one who created the environment for engagement.