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Social-Emotional Development in Preschool

Hatch Early Learning
Hatch Early Learning
Hatch Early LearningeMarketing Specialist at Hatch Early Learning

"Plays Nice with Others" - New research on how social-emotional development and preschool teachers support school readiness.

Social-Emotional Development in Preschool

1 of 54
“Plays Nice with Others”: How Educators Can Best
Support Social Emotional Learning in Young Children
Katherine (Kate) Zinsser, PhD
Assistant Professor
University of Illinois, Chicago
April 25, 2013
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Today’s Speaker
Early Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #HatchExperts| Copyright 2012 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Kate Zinsser
Assistant Professor
University of Illinois,
Chicago
Katherine M. Zinsser, Ph.D.
University of Illinois, Chicago
Objectives
 Review the latest research on the development of
social and emotional competence in young children
 Discuss how SEL is related to school readiness and
early school success
 Describe the role that teachers play in children’s
acquisition of SEL skills
4
Young children are hard at work
 3 and 4 year olds are
mastering:
 Early literacy skills
 Gross & fine motor skills
 Early mathematics
 AND
Social-Emotional Skills
Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning
(2012)
5

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Social-Emotional Development in Preschool

  • 1. “Plays Nice with Others”: How Educators Can Best Support Social Emotional Learning in Young Children Katherine (Kate) Zinsser, PhD Assistant Professor University of Illinois, Chicago April 25, 2013
  • 2. Follow Today’s Event Early Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #HatchExperts| Copyright 2012 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved. @HatchEarlyChild #HatchExperts Questions | Comments | Feedback
  • 3. Today’s Speaker Early Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #HatchExperts| Copyright 2012 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kate Zinsser Assistant Professor University of Illinois, Chicago
  • 4. Katherine M. Zinsser, Ph.D. University of Illinois, Chicago
  • 5. Objectives  Review the latest research on the development of social and emotional competence in young children  Discuss how SEL is related to school readiness and early school success  Describe the role that teachers play in children’s acquisition of SEL skills 4
  • 6. Young children are hard at work  3 and 4 year olds are mastering:  Early literacy skills  Gross & fine motor skills  Early mathematics  AND Social-Emotional Skills Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (2012) 5
  • 7. • Emotional Expression • Emotional Understanding / Knowledge • Emotion Regulation • Social Problem Solving & Peer Skills 6
  • 8.  Basic Emotions  Happy, sad, angry, afraid, etc.  “Social” Emotions  Having a sense of self and others  guilt, empathy, etc  Blends Emotional expression “You broke my truck--I am not your friend.” Sad + guilty + mad 7
  • 9. Emotional understanding / knowledge  Expressions  Situations  Causes  Using emotion language 8
  • 10. Emotion regulation  Defining regulation  Down Regulation  Minimize the expression or experience of emotions  Up Regulation  Increase expression or experience of an emotions  Relation of social success 9
  • 11. Social problem solving & peer skills  Empathy & perspective taking  Maintaining friendships  Communication of needs and wants  Reacting positively to conflict  (Choosing prosocial responses over aggressive ones)  Making choices based on known social norms, safety, and feelings of others. 10
  • 12. With SEL, it all works together 11 Denham, S.A., Bassett, H.H., Zinsser, K., Wyatt, T.M. (under review). How Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) Predicts Their School Readiness: Developing Theory-Promoting, Competency-Based Assessments. Manuscript submitted for publication to Infant and Child Development. SEL Skills Skills for Handling Challenging Situations in the Classroom Emotion Understanding Problem Solving Skills Classroom Adjustment Academic Readiness What a Kindergarten Teacher May See Less Aggression and Negativity Pro-social and Regulated Behavior Preschool Classroom Adjustment What a Preschool Teacher May See
  • 13. SEL is critical for social and academic success  Children without age appropriate emotional/social skills:  Participate less in class  Less accepted by classmates/teachers  Get fewer instructions/positive feedback from teachers  Like school less and less  Social-emotional competence predicts academic success in 1st grade, even after controlling intelligence / family background 12
  • 14. This pattern persists into later elementary years, too  Aggressive/antisocial children are more likely to:  Perform poorly on academic tasks  Be held back in later grades  Drop out later on  Continue antisocial behavior  It is necessary to pinpoint social-emotional strengths and weaknesses early to ensure long-term well-being and academic success (Raver & Knitzer, 2002) 13
  • 15. To what extent do you agree with the following statement: Parents expect teachers to teach children social- emotional skills A) Strongly Agree B) Agree C) Neither Agree nor Disagree D) Disagree E) Strongly Disagree 14
  • 16. Center Who’s teaching SEL? Child Parent Peers TeacherChild Child Child Child Child  Traditionally the realm of parents  More time with teachers, less with parents  Teachers are increasingly being held accountable for SEL  How do we work together to help children? 15
  • 17. Four ways early childhood education teachers can impact children’s SEL 16
  • 18. How do we help? Teacher Emotional Competence Classroom Emotional Climate Modeling & Reacting to Emotions Social Emotional Learning SEL Instruction Social Emotional Teaching 17
  • 19. SEL instruction  Teaching SEL through interactions  Labeling, Coaching, Scaffolding, etc.  Direct instruction through SEL Curriculum  Evidence-based, implemented with fidelity 18
  • 20. SEL instruction – Through Interactions  Explicit Instruction  Modeling of Skills  Discussion of Relevant Situations  Opportunities for Practice with Recognition  Feedback and Reflection 19
  • 21. Incredible Years Teacher Training Carolyn Webster-Stratton 20  Teacher attention, encouragement, praise  Motivating children with incentives  Preventing behavior problems  Decreasing inappropriate behaviors  Building positive relations with students, problem solving SEL instruction – Interactions Training
  • 22. The Preschool PATHSTM Curriculum Domitrovich, Greenberg, Kusche & Cortes (2005)  Friendship skills  Emotion knowledge 21  Intentional self-control  Social problem-solving SEL instruction - Curriculum
  • 23.  High Quality Implementation is Essential  How well a program adopts and utilizes a packaged curriculum or training program will significantly impact its effectiveness.  Previous research has show that oftentimes improper implementation results in variation in children’s outcomes (Derzon, Sale, Springer & Brounstein, 2005; Durlak & Weissberg, 2005; Durlak & Dupree, 2008) 22 SEL instruction – Evidence Based Curriculum and Training
  • 24. It is important to chose a program that will meet your needs and that you can carry out effectively and with high fidelity. Check out http://casel.org/guide to access the Guide SEL instruction – Evidence Based Curriculum and Training
  • 25.  Modeling emotional expression and regulation  Display positive and negative emotions appropriately  Utilize the same regulation techniques you want children to use (e.g., go to the “turtle corner”)  Reacting and responding to children’s emotions  Encourage expression by responding positively and/or validating  Help children cope with their emotions either by focusing on the problem or the emotion  Avoid minimizing/punishing/dismissing children’s emotions ChildTeacher 24 Modeling & Reacting to Emotions (Bailey, Denham, & Curby, 2013; Denham, Bassett, Bailey, Zinsser, Wantanabe, & Fettig, 2013)
  • 26. Modeling emotional expression and regulation 25 Teacher Positive Affective Balance  Child Positive Affective Balance Children in classrooms with more positive teachers express more positive emotions Teacher Tenderness  Child Positive Affective Balance & Child Tenderness Children in classrooms with teachers who display tenderness express more positive emotions. Teachers who are tender are socializing children to be tender with others.
  • 27. Reacting and responding to children’s emotions 26 Teacher Positive Reactions  Child Positive Reactions Children in classrooms with teachers who react positively to emotional expression will also react more positively Teacher Emotionally Attentive Reactions  Child Positive Reactions Teachers who focus on and validate children’s emotions have children react more positively to others’ emotions. Teacher Dismissive Reactions  Child Negative Reactions Teachers who minimize, ignore, or punish emotional expressions have children who react less positively to others’ emotions.
  • 29.  Higher levels of emotional support by teachers is associated with better child outcomes academically and socially  This can partially be explained by the close attachment-like relationships that children form with early teachers  Children in classrooms with more supportive teachers display more adaptive classroom behaviors and better academic outcomes (Rimm-Kaufman, Curby, Grimm, Nathanson, & Brock, 2009; Graziano, et al., 2007) 28 Classroom Emotional Climate
  • 30. EMOTIONAL SUPPORT Positive Climate Negative Climate Teacher Sensitivity Regard for Student Perspectives CLASSROOM ORGANIZATION Behavior Management Productivity Instructional Learning Formats INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORT Concept Development Quality of Feedback Language Modeling Positive Climate: Relationships Positive Affect Positive Communication Respect 29 Classroom Emotional Climate – THE CLASS
  • 31. Teacher Emotional Competence  A teacher’s own emotional competence is a building block of Social-Emotional Teaching  Classrooms are emotional places! 30 Picturesque Occasional Reality Under-acknowledged Teacher Emotions … Not just for children, but teachers too!
  • 32.  In order to teach about SEL, teachers have to be emotionally competent too  Express and identify emotions accurately  Be aware of and sensitive to others’ emotions  Manage their own emotions 31 Teacher Emotional Competence
  • 33.  Knowledge  “if a teacher doesn't have the language [skills] that you need to talk to children, [she’s] not being a competent teacher”  Expression  A good teacher is “one that is willing to show and use the full spectrum of emotions”  Regulation  Teachers need to be “able to control [her] own emotions and to model that for the children” Teachers know emotional competence is important 32 Teacher Emotional Competence
  • 34. -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Low (-1 SD) Average High (+1 SD) ChildAggression Mean Emotional Support Inconsistent Teachers Consistent Teachers  More stressed teachers have students who are:  less regulated  less productive  less positive and  less prosocial  More stressed teachers are less consistent in their emotional support (CLASS)  Inconsistency in emotional supportiveness negatively impacts children’s SEL, even if teachers are on average very supportive 33 But knowledge alone is not sufficient Teacher Emotional Competence
  • 35. 34
  • 36. To what extent do you agree with the following statement: Teachers should always look happy and smiley in their classroom, no matter how they really feel. A) Strongly Agree B) Agree C) Neither Agree nor Disagree D) Disagree E) Strongly Disagree 35
  • 37. The combined effects of SET  Research has shown that parents who value emotions:  Engage in more positive socialization practices, invest more time in children’s emotional experiences, and encourage children’s expression of emotions  Have children who are more emotionally competent  Theoretically the same should hold true for teachers too; those who value and believe in emotions should  Create more positive classroom environments  Engage more fully in SEL curriculum activities  Be more emotionally competent themselves 36
  • 38. Method: Pair a popular assessment of classroom quality (CLASS) and teachers’ discussions during focus groups. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CLASSEmotionalSupport Less Supportive Average More Supportive (Zinsser, Shewark, Denham, & Curby, 2013; Zinsser, Denham & Shewark, 2013) 37 How do SET practices combine to impact SEL in the classroom?
  • 39. How do teachers’ beliefs relate to their classroom practices? Value of SEL Use of SEL Strategies Teacher Role in SEL More Emotionally Supportive View SEL as integral and articulate complex understanding of children’s emotions. - Go beyond SEL curriculum and purposefully integrated lessons into non SEL learning opportunities. Emphasize their continual engagement in socialization and view SEL as a collaboration between parents and teachers. Less Emotionally Supportive Are able to list several SEL skills, but not elaborate on them. Rely heavily on curriculum to structure their SEL interactions with students. Feel more accountable for children's emotion socialization. Did expect much from parents.
  • 40. “Practice What You Preach” Overtly use the regulation strategies they want the students to use. “‘Do I need turtle right now? I'm getting a little upset and frustrated. I'm going to take a break.’ I have to be willing to do that, otherwise it's just a bunch of talk.” The “Teacher Façade” “No matter how you're feeling, once you come into the classroom you have to put your face on.” “You need to always have a smile.” More Emotionally Supportive Teachers Less Emotionally Supportive Teachers Teachers’ Beliefs about their own emotions 39
  • 41. What the research says about SET:  Teachers successfully use a variety of SEL curriculum to improve children’s SEL, but that’s not the only way.  Modeling of and reacting to emotions socializes children’s emotions through daily interactions.  The classroom emotional climate impacts children and teachers alike. Teachers who feel stressed in the classroom struggle to maintain consistent/predictable climates.  Teachers’ own emotional competence, including their understanding of and valuing of emotions is related to their classroom practices, including integrating SEL curriculum, parent engagement and expression and regulation of emotions. 40
  • 42. What teachers can do in the classroom:  Express mostly positive emotions, as well as limited but purposeful expression of negative emotions  Model appropriate expressions and normalize the experience of some emotions (“adults get frustrated too”)  Model use of regulation strategies teachers want to see  Explain the consequences of emotions and behavior  What can realistically be expected to happen after you express emotions?  “Just because you say you’re sorry doesn’t mean Johnny has to want to play with you” 41
  • 43. What teachers can do in the classroom:  Reflect on your beliefs about emotions  Do you believe you’re a social-emotional teacher? Why/Why not?  Are your classroom practices maximizing children’s SEL?  Are you a good model of SEL for your students?  Reflect on your SET practices  Take into account family and environmental influences on individual SEL differences (e.g., siblings and sharing)  Empathize with children’s perspectives during interactions (proximity and height)  Adjust pacing of activities to children’s needs 42
  • 44. What teachers can do outside of the classroom:  Take care of yourself  Be mindful of your experiences of stress both at work and at home and be proactive  Take time for self-care (exercise, laughter, healthy diet, etc.)  Consider changing classroom organization to reduce the situations that cause stress (e.g., transitions) 43
  • 45. Administrators can reflect too:  Do you encourage teachers to teach social-emotional skills?  Do they know why?  How do you support teachers’ social-emotional teaching?  Adequate resources?  High fidelity implementation of curriculum and training?  Do they know that you value emotions?  What do you do to support teachers’ emotions?  Is your center a positive, emotionally supportive place to work? 44
  • 46. Additional Resources  Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL.org)  Zinsser, K., Bailey, C., Curby, T.W., Denham, S.A., Bassett, H.H., & Morris, C. (2013). Exploring the predictable classroom: Preschool teacher stress, emotional supportiveness, and students’ social-emotional behavior in private and Head Start classrooms. National Head Start Association Dialog, 16(2).  Baily, C., Zinsser, K., Curby, T.W., Denham, S.A. Bassett, H.H. (2013). Consistently emotionally supportive preschool teachers and children’s social- emotional learning in the classroom: implications for center directors and teachers. National Head Start Association Dialog, 16(2).  Denham, S.A., Bassett, H.H., Zinsser, K., Wyatt, T.M. (under review). How Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) Predicts Their School Readiness: Developing Theory-Promoting, Competency-Based Assessments.  Zinsser, K., Shewark, E., Denham, S.A., & Curby, T.W. (in revision). A mixed- method examination of preschool teacher beliefs about emotion socialization and relations observed emotional support. Manuscript in revision at Infant and Child Development. 45
  • 47. For more information, join the Social Emotional Teacher & Learning Lab mailing list: Click here
  • 48. Questions Early Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #HatchExperts| Copyright 2012 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kate Zinsser Assistant Professor University of Illinois, Chicago
  • 49. Early Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #hatchinars | Copyright 2011 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved. Interactive Technology & Learning Activities Brought to you by The Early Learning Experts
  • 50. Early Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #HatchExperts| Copyright 2012 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved. Research-Based Software Creates Breakthrough Moments!
  • 51. Early Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #HatchExperts| Copyright 2012 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.hatchearlylearning.com/WePlaySmart
  • 52. Early Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #HatchExperts| Copyright 2012 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.hatchearlychildhood.com/demowebinars Technology Demo Webinars
  • 53. Early Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #hatchinars | Copyright 2011 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved. Empowering Young Minds Through Signs Dawn Braa, M.A., Dakota County Technical College Early Childhood & Youth Development Instructor May 16th , 2013 www.hatchearlylearning.com/webinars

Editor's Notes

  1. Some Ground Rules:When I teach college students I remind them that they have control over how much they get out of my classes. I can stand up here and talk at you, but w/o any information from you all, I cannot adapt my content to meet your needs and answer your questions.I can also grade them on their participation in class. I do not have that power here, but would like to encourage you all to engage in this workshop. Ask questions, challenge me. You’re the ones in the classrooms with the children every day.
  2. Perspective taking and empathize with othersestablish and maintain healthy and rewarding relationships with diverse individuals and groups. This includes communicating clearly, listening actively, cooperating, resisting inappropriate social pressure, negotiating conflict constructively, and seeking and offering help when needed.make constructive and respectful choices about personal behavior and social interactions based on consideration of ethical standards, safety concerns, social norms, the realistic evaluation of consequences of various actions, and the well-being of self and others.
  3. Some Ground Rules:When I teach college students I remind them that they have control over how much they get out of my classes. I can stand up here and talk at you, but w/o any information from you all, I cannot adapt my content to meet your needs and answer your questions.I can also grade them on their participation in class. I do not have that power here, but would like to encourage you all to engage in this workshop. Ask questions, challenge me. You’re the ones in the classrooms with the children every day.
  4. Children develop SEL skills through interactions. And their social partners include not only their parents and peers, but also their teachers. As you will see throughout these webinars, teacher’s interactions with children do a great deal to impact children’s SEL.For teachers, these interactions are complicated by the fact that they are not only interacting with one or two children, often times they’re interacting with 10 or 20 of them. Regardless of who a child is interacting with, their emotional development will be additionally influenced their social partner’s own emotional competence. ParentsPeersTeachersCentersAt the center-level, the Head Start Performance Standards guide how SEL is supported. But translating that into the substance of individual teacher-child interactions is sometimes unclear.
  5. So we’ve not talked about what SEL is and there is a general consensus that teachers are somehow at least partially responsible for it. But I want to break that down a bit more. In turn, I will describe 4 ways that teachers can promote children’s SEL. You’ll notice that each of these bubbles is overlapping with each other a little bit. This is to represent that all of these social emotional teaching components are somewhat related. It’s hard to engage in one without simultaneously doing another, but let’s go through them one a time before we talk about how they work together.
  6. In a different approach, the Incredible Years program has been shown to be an effective training program for teachers. So instead of teaching children directly about the labels for emotions, programs like IY reshape the interactions between teachers and students. One of the primary goals of the intervention is to prevent escalating cycles of dysregulated behavior in children by enhancing teachers’ use of clear rules and routines, rewards for positive behavior, and redirection of negative behavior. In an evaluation of the program, Webster-Stratton and colleagues provided intervention teachers in Head Start classrooms with six monthly, 1-day workshops that used videotape vignettes and group discussion for training. Post-intervention observations indicated that compared to control teachers, intervention teachers used more praise and effective discipline techniques and fewer harsh and critical techniques. CSRP includes professional development training in behavior management based on the Incredible Years Teacher Training Program, stress-reduction workshops, and classroom-based mental health consultation regarding student behavior. One of the primary goals of the intervention is to prevent escalating cycles of dysregulated behavior in children by enhancing teachers’ use of clear rules and routines, rewards for positive behavior, and redirection of negative behavior. 5 training sessions each 6 hours. Teachers paired with MH consultant (master’s degree in Social Work) who were coaches to teachers supporting teachers as they applied the techniques and providing standardized, child-focused mental health consultation. The mental health consultants also conducted stress-reduction workshops for teachers that were designed to reduce burnout. RCT in 18 HS sites 94 teachers Higher levels of positive climate, teacher sensitivity, and behavior management in intervention classrooms Positive effects on child outcomes - fewer internalizing and externalizing behavior problems according to both independent observers and teacher ratings (Raver et al., 2009). Children who received the CSRP intervention also scored significantly better on pre-academic and self-regulatory skills by the end of preschool compared to children in the control group. Specifically, intervention participants outperformed control participants on vocabulary, letter naming, early math skills, and measures of executive functioning and attention / impulsivity.
  7. Randomized trial in Journal or Primary Prevention 248 children in 20 classrooms:10 classrooms used PATHS10 comparison Head Start classroomsEffects of Receiving PATHSTeachers reported higher levels of social-emotional competence & lower levels of social withdrawalParents reported higher levels of social-emotional competenceChildren were better at identifying emotions, showed less anger bias Head Start REDI – used preschool PATHS356 4-year-old children across two cohorts (46% Male, 25% African-American, 17% Hispanic); 22 = I and 22 = C88 teachers in 44 classroomsOne year implementation of interventionPre (October), post (May) and follow-up assessments (K & 1st grade)Children in REDI classrooms scored higher on:Emotion recognition & understandingCompetent solutions to social problemsTeacher ratings of social-emotional competenceObserver ratings of social-emotional competenceChildren in REDI classrooms scored lower on:Aggressive solutions to challenging social problemsTeacher ratings of aggressionParent ratings of ADHD behaviors and aggression
  8. Refer them to website for access to Guidewww.casel.org
  9. Sympathetic parents help children cope effectively with their emotions when they are distressed. Accordingly, these children are less likely to become overaroused. Negative, overbearing parental reactions to children’s distress exacerbate child negativity, exemplifying punitive socialization of emotion
  10. Research also shows that when classrooms were characterized by interactions that provided more effective Emotional Support, children’s social competence increased more over the course of the Pre-K year.
  11. Just as children come to school each day with their own emotions, experiences, and backgrounds, teachers are also differ in their successful navigation of their own social and emotional lives. Some adults are more socially and emotionally skilled then others and these differences in competence have meaningful impacts on teachers’ effective SET. Teachers who are more knowledgeable about emotions will be better equipped to expand on lessons in SEL curriculum programs or may more easily empathize with a child’s complex emotional experienceTeachers who are successful at regulating their emotions may respond to challenging interactions with students in more emotionally effective ways than others. For example, a teacher may regulate their own frustration during a child’s temper-tantrum and instead choose to validate her expression and help her problem solve saying, “I see that you’re very upset because you can’t play in the block area right now, is there somewhere else you would like to play?” Similarly, teachers who are better able to manage their emotions and generally stay on an even keel in the classroom are creating a consistent emotional environment. Children learn what to expect from their teacher and can anticipate how she will respond to their emotional expressions. Teachers who experience intense negative emotions (such as stress or depression) at work are more likely to frequently express negative emotions and to react punitively to children’s expression of emotions (Ersay, 2007; Feldman et al., 1999). These expressions in the classroom serve as models for children and such modeling has been linked to lower levels of emotion regulation and increased aggressive behaviors in children (Ramsden & Hubbard, 2002).
  12. Important to note that none of these groups would actually fall into the LOW category on the CLASS, just less supportive, actually around the average for the measure across the country.
  13. More supportive teachers advocated for deliberately and overtly regulating certain emotions in front of children through the use of specific curriculum-based strategies. Less supportive teachers favored exhaustive regulation, reducing emotions across the board and adopting the Façade of a happy, positive teacher while in the classroom. There was some evidence of teachers also acknowledging that what emotions they regulate, and in which direction, directly influences the environment of their classrooms and their children’s experiences.
  14. Teachers from both the more and less supportive groups discussed expressing mostly positive emotions as well as limited, but purposeful expression of negative emotions in some instances. Their intentional expression of emotions not only modeled for students how to appropriately express emotions, but also served to normalize the experience of some emotions for children and demonstrate for them what can realistically be expected to happen after you express emotions.
  15. Teachers from both the more and less supportive groups discussed expressing mostly positive emotions as well as limited, but purposeful expression of negative emotions in some instances. Their intentional expression of emotions not only modeled for students how to appropriately express emotions, but also served to normalize the experience of some emotions for children and demonstrate for them what can realistically be expected to happen after you express emotions.