Audience Para-Professionals Bus Drivers School employees (Librarians, Custodial workers, Cafeteria workers)
Definition There are two different definitions used in the United States today. IDEA ’04 (Federal Government) American Association of Mental Retardation (now referred as AAIDD)
Federal Government Definition Intellectual Disabilities means significant sub average general intellectual functioning, existing with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s education performance.
AAID Definition Intellectual Disabilities are a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18.
Accompanies the AAIDD Def. 1. Limitation in present functioning must be considered within the context of community environments typical of the individuals age peers and culture. 2. Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as differences in communication and in sensory, motor, and behavioral factors. 3. Within and individual, limitations often coexist with strengths.
Accompanies the AAIDD Def. Cont. 4. An important purpose of describing limitations is to develop a profile of needed supports. 5. With appropriate personalized supports over sustained period, the life functioning of the person with mental retardation generally will improve.
Mild/Moderate IQ Range Mild intellectual disabilities: IQ range of 50 to 69 Outcomes: Has learning difficulties, is able to work, can maintain good social relationships and contribute to society Moderate intellectual disabilities: IQ range of 35 to 49 Exhibits marked developmental delays during childhood, has some degree of independence in self- care, possess adequate communication and academic skills, requires varying degrees of support to live and work in the community.
4 Requirements for Eligibility 1. Sub-average general intelligence 2. Adaptive behavior impairment 3. Having occurred during the developmental period Must be aversive to the student’s education.
Sub-Average General Intelligence Sub-Average General Intelligence – Means that individuals must score two standard deviations below the mean of an IQ test. The mean of an IQ test is 100 with a standard deviation of 15. Students cannot be eligible for services on this requirement alone.
Adaptive Behavior Impairment Adaptive Behavior includes the age-appropriate behaviors necessary for people to live independently and to function safely and appropriately in daily life. Examples Include but are not limited to: Personal Hygiene Money management Social skills Personal Responsibility
Poor Motivation Motivation is used to describe what focuses or energizes a student’s attention, emotions, and activity. Due to repeated Academic Failure, students with disabilities become less motivated to complete academic tasks. Their motivation is based on external loci of control.
Locus of Control Internal Locus of Control – Individuals who operate under ILOC see both positive and negative events as results of their own actions External Locus of Control – Individuals who see positive or negative events as controlled primarily by outside forces as fate, chance, or other people. Many students with disabilities that have motivation deficits operate under ELOC.
External Locus of Control Underdeveloped sense of Self-Determination Learned Helplessness Belief that failure will crown the most extraordinary efforts Outer Directedness Relying on situational or external cues for guidance Expectancy of Failure The expectation of lack of success lowers the amount of effort put into tasks, performance of the task is below what might be anticipated from individuals capabilities and the expected failure becomes a reality
What can we do? All motivational strategies should be practiced before any tasks demand. Get them excited! Communicate positive expectations – positively state what you want the student to accomplish. Give them direction. Organization – create ways for the students to keep up with their materials. Class folders or notebooks help keep the student’s work organized.
What can we do? Cont. Create realistic instructional goals – set up your students to succeed before asking them to attempt a challenging task. Provide Immediate Feedback – let your students know when they’re doing a good job or need to try a different strategy. Be specific. Teach students how to deal with failure – let students know it’s okay to fail. Everyone does. The important part is to see what went wrong and try it differently.
Attention Lack of Sustained Attention – the inability to focus on a task long enough to comprehend information Attention Span Lack of Selective Attention – The inability to focus on relevant aspects and discard the irrelevant aspects of a task. Distractibility
Attention Strategies All attention strategies should be practiced before, during and after instruction to maintain student attention. Remove extraneous information – Include only what they need to know. Get to the point. Present Information grouped – Group liked information together. Use examples that are familiar – Activate prior knowledge
Attention Strategies Cont. Stress the importance of paying attention – Explain why it’s important that the students should pay attention Teach Self-monitor skills – teach students how to self- monitor during their task. Create a checklist for the students to fill out. Provide Frequent breaks – Allow set times for students to take breaks from their tasks.
Sociobehavior Characteristics Unable to read social cues – Students have a hard time picking up on non verbal cues Easily taken advantage of – many students will want to please peers and will listen to inappropriate suggestions to do so Not aware of personal space – must be taught personal bubbles
Sociobehavior Characteristics cont. Unaware of inappropriate behavior – must be taught examples and non examples of appropriate behavior Hyperactive – has trouble staying calm during social interactions. Low Self-Esteem – A result due to repeated failures at academics and social relationships
Sociobehavior strategies Strategies should be practiced with students through instruction and role playing, before real life scenarios Use Peer Reinforcement – Use peer buddies, peer tutors, and general ed. students as reinforcements for behaviors that are appropriate or inappropriate. Reinforce appropriate behavior – Reinforce when the student is performing appropriate behavior Model appropriate behavior
Academic Delay in acquiring Reading, Math, and Writing skills Problems with: Decoding Comprehension Fluency Math computations
Academic Strategies Learning Strategies: Mnemonics – for remembering rules Repeated readings - for fluency Paragraph Shrinking, story retell – for comprehension Using Concrete, Semi-Concrete, and Abstract teaching – for Math in that order. Focusing on Concrete the longest Direct Instruction/MLT
Memory Long Term – Just as effective as a student without Intellectual Disabilities Short Term: Lack Selective Attention Delay in learning sets – remembering rules to apply for certain tasks Inefficient or non-existent rehearsal skills Problems with Generalization
Memory Strategies Group Information Teach Mnemonics Acronyms – First letter of each word combines to make a word. Ex. HOMES – Lake Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Eerie, etc. Acrostics – Similar to Acronyms but creates a sentence instead of a word. Every Good Boy Does Fine
Generalization Difficulties in performing learned tasks in different setting with different people Not able to recognize already known skills needed in different settings
Generalization Strategies Make sure that the skill is mastered before having the student generalize it. Make sure the training is as realistic as possible Provide opportunities for practice in different settings Stress meaningful content
The Vicious Cycle of IntellectualDisability Characteristics Due to the sociobehavior characteristics, students feel peer rejection. This causes them to withdraw from others and from engaging in their education. Due to the lack of engagement, the student’s motivation is decreased which leads to little to no effort and poor grades This creates a sense of failure and rejection leading to a vicious cycle
References Mastropieri, M.A, Scruggs, T.E. (2010) The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Smith, D.D, Tyler, N.C. (2010). Introduction to Special Education. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.