Learning is influenced by social interactions,
interpersonal relations, and communication
Learning can be enhanced when the learner
has an opportunity to interact and to
collaborate with others on instructional tasks.
Learning settings that allow social interactions,
and respect for diversity encourage flexible
thinking and social competence.
In interactive and collaborative instructional
contexts, individuals have an opportunity for
perspective taking and replective thinking that
may lead to higher levels of cognitive, social
and moral development, as well as self-esteem.
Quality personal relationships that provide
stability, trust, and caring can increase the
learner’s sense of belonging, self-respect and
self-acceptance, and provide a positive climate
Family influences, positive interpersonal
support and instruction in self-motivation
strategies can offset factors that interfere with
optimal learning such as negative beliefs about
competence in a particular subject, high levels
of test anxiety, negative sex role expectations,
and undue pressure to perform well
Positive learning climates can also help to
establish the context for healthier levels of
thinking, feeling, and behaving. Such contexts
help learners feel safe to share ideas, actively
participate in the learning process, and create
a learning community.
Culture is a broad and encompassing
concept. Often, we equate culture with
race or ethnic identity but that is not
always the case.
Culture refers to characteristics of the
individual/society or of some subgroups
with the society…(it) includes values,
beliefs, notions about acceptable and
unacceptable behavior and other socially
constructed ideas that members of the
culture are taught are “true”
It is also defined as the shared products of a
human group of society. Although culture is
shared, it must be learned by each new
generation, through the process of social
The sociology of culture shows that our way
of thinking and categorizing, our hopes and
fears, our likes and dislikes and our beliefs and
habits are social creations, strongly influenced
by the time and place in which we live. Even
so, culture does not dictate thoughts and
behavior- it leaves room for action.
Each culture is different because it is
adapted to meet a specific set of
conditions both physical and social
factors help shape a particular
culture…In short, culture governs how we
think and feel. It shapes our beliefs
about what it important in life and our
interpretations of what events mean.
As our world continues to change,
students interact with others with quite
different backgrounds from their own,
especially in the classroom.
The manner in which they respond to
others who seem different can have an
impact on their success in school, work
and harmonious relationship with others.
If they take time and make the effort to
understand these differences, they may
develop better relationships and succeed
- was born in Russia in 1896.
- His work began when he was study-ying
learning and development to im-prove
his own teaching.
- he was a Russian psychologist who
lived during Russian revolution.
Vygotsky’s work was largely unkown to
the West until it was published in 1962.
In his lifetime, he wrote on language,
thought, psychology of art, learning and
development, and educating students with
Vygotsky’s ideas about language, culture,
and cognitive development have become major
influences in psychology and education today.
Social Development Theory argues that
social interaction precedes development,
consciousness and cognition are the end
product of socialization and social behavior.
Three Major Themes of
Social Development Theory
More Knowledgeable other (MKO)
The Zone of Proximal Development
Social interaction plays a fundamental role in
the process of cognitive development. In
contrast to Jean Peaget’s understanding of child
development. (in which development necessarily
precede learning) Vygotsky felt social learning
He states “ Every function in the child cultural
development appears twice: first ----
On the social level and later, on the individual
level, first between people (interpsychological)
And then inside the child ( intrapsychological)
2. The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)
Refers to anyone who has a better
understanding or a higher ability than the
learner, with respect to a particular task,
process, or concept.
The MKO normally thought of as being teacher,
coach or older adult, but the MKO could also
be peers, a younger, or even a computers.
3. The Zone of Proximal Development
(ZPD)- is the distance between a
student’s ability to perform a task under
adult guidance and or/peer
collaboration and the students ability
solving the problem independently.
According to Vygotsky, learning
occurred in this zone.
should involve the judicious assistance
given by the adult or peer so that the child
can move from the zone of actual to the zone
of proximal development.
As a learner become more proficient, able
to complete tasks on their own that they could
not initially do without assistance. The
guidance can be withdrawn this is called
scaffold and fade- away technique.
when done appropriately can make a
learner confident an eventually he can
accomplish the task without any need for
R Zone of Pro-
N ximal Develop
I ment (ZPD)
Opens the door for learners to acquire
knowledge that others already have.
Learners can use language to know
and understand the world and solve
It helps the learner regulate and reflect on his
Children talk to themselves.
For Vygotsky, this “talking-to-onself” is an
indication of the thinking that goes on the mind
of the child. This will eventually lead to private
A form of self –talk that guides the
child’s thinking and action.
Vygotsky believed in the essential role of
activities in learning. Children learn best
through hands-on activities than when
listening passively. Learning by doing is
even made more fruitful when children
interact with knowledgeable adults and
Many schools have traditionally held a
transmissionist or instructionist model, in which
a teacher or lecturer “ transmits” information to
students. In contrast Vygotsky’s theory
promotes learning context in which students
play an active role in learning. Meaning role
of teacher and students are therefore shifted, as
a teacher should collaborate with his or her
students in order to facilitate meaning
construction in students. Learning therefore
become a reciprocal experience for the students
“ Train up a child the way he should go,
and when he is old he will not depart
Proverbs 22: 6
Veronica L. Asuncion