Write Research Questions & Recommendations in 3 Steps v1

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How to write and outline research proposal questions & recommendations for future research

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Write Research Questions & Recommendations in 3 Steps v1

  1. 1. THREE STEPS TO WRITE RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Image courtesy of www.visum.co.uk FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  2. 2. OUTLINE QUESTION RECOMMEND
  3. 3. The Jumps Page 1. Summary of Main Ideas • Action: Questions about the Required Action • Media: Questions about the Proposed Media • Time: Questions about the Timeframe • Other Elements: Additional Questions 2. What You Can Do • STEP 1: Outline the Ideas • STEP 2: Rephrase the Ideas into Questions • STEP 3: Recommendations 3. How to Outline 4. Complete the Outline of Research Questions • Your research might fail: Why Research Questions are Necessary FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  4. 4. Main Ideas • ACTION: Can the target beneficiary implement the proposed action? What intervening variables can prevent this? How can these intervening variables be anticipated and prevented? [Sample Questions] • MEDIA: Can the poster be used by the target beneficiary to achieve the desired results? What intervening variables can prevent this? How can these intervening variables be anticipated and prevented? [Sample Questions] • TIME FACTORS: Can the desired results be achieved within the recommended time frame? What intervening variables can prevent this? How can these intervening variables be anticipated and prevented? [Sample Questions] FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  5. 5. Causes of Research Failure Can alter the end results ... Can change the results ... The results do not... Unplanned effects... Research questions must focus on how the research can fail. A proposal must include ways to eliminate the possibilities of failure. Your most important task Can damage the research...
  6. 6. Questions About the Required Action Describe the specific, measurable action that the target beneficiary must do to meet the need or solve the problem. • Can the target beneficiary implement the proposed action? • What intervening variables can prevent this? • How can these intervening variables be anticipated and prevented? FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  7. 7. Questions About the Proposed Poster Describe the specific languages, number of images, and number of steps (techniques, instructions, or information) in the poster. • Can the target beneficiary use the poster to achieve the desired results? • Can the desired results be achieved by following the X in the poster? • What intervening variables can prevent this? • How can these intervening variables be anticipated and prevented? FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  8. 8. Questions About the Timeframe Describe the general (not specific) steps, the goal of each step, who will do the action, and the time required to complete each step. • Can the target beneficiary use the poster within the proposed timeframe? • Can the desired results be achieved within the proposed timeframe by following the X in the poster? • What intervening variables can prevent this? • How can these intervening variables be anticipated and prevented? FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  9. 9. Other Elements • Imagine challenges, problems or intervening variables that can happen at each step of the proposal. Find a theory that can explain why such challenges can happen. • Think of solutions to meet these challenges. Find a theory that can explain why such an idea might work. • Include the questions in your Research Questions. Hyperlink each in-text citation to a source that details the theory. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  10. 10. What You Can Do • Paraphrase the questions so that they become specific to your proposal. • List the questions in outline form. • Add questions as they occur to you. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  11. 11. HOW TO WRITE THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1: OUTLINE Summarize each idea, and then arrange the ideas in the order that is easiest for your readers to absorb. Image courtesy of (www.greenhousemovement.com) FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  12. 12. Step 1: Outline the Ideas • Required Action – Can the target beneficiary implement the proposed action? – What intervening variables can prevent this? – How can these intervening variables be prevented? • Poster Design and Content – Can the poster be used by the target beneficiary to achieve the desired results? – What intervening variables can prevent this? – How can these intervening variables be anticipated and prevented? • Time Element – Can the desired results be achieved within the proposed time frame? – What intervening variables can prevent this? – How can these intervening variables be anticipated and prevented? FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  13. 13. Summarize the Required Action • Can the target beneficiary implement the proposed action? • What intervening variables can prevent this? • How can these intervening variables be prevented? FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  14. 14. Summarize the Poster • Can the poster be used by the target beneficiary to achieve the desired results? • What intervening variables can prevent this? • How can these intervening variables be anticipated and prevented? FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  15. 15. Summarize the Timeframe • Can the desired results be achieved within the proposed time frame? • What intervening variables can prevent this? • How can these intervening variables be anticipated and prevented? FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  16. 16. HOW TO WRITE THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS 2: QUESTION Rephrase each idea into a question. To minimize criticisms from others, be your own best critic. Image courtesy of (www.greenhousemovement.com) FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  17. 17. Step 2: Rephrase the Ideas into Questions • Required Action the poster? – Can X prevent this? Can X2 solve this challenge? – Can Y prevent this? Can Y2 solve this challenge? – Can young nursing mothers in Uganda decrease by 90% within six months the malaria infection rate in their • Time Element children? – Can nursing mothers who – Can X prevent this? Can use the poster decrease X1 solve this challenge? malaria infection among – Can Y prevent this? Can Uganda children by 90% Y1 solve this challenge? within six months? • Media Effectiveness – Can X prevent this? Can X3 solve this challenge? – Can young nursing mothers in Uganda – Can Y prevent this? Can understand and correctly Y3 solve this challenge? follow the 10 steps on FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  18. 18. Question Your Required Action Required Action • Can young nursing mothers in Uganda decrease by 90% within six months the malaria infection rate in their children? • Can X prevent this? Can X1 solve this challenge? • Can Y prevent this? Can Y1 solve this challenge? FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  19. 19. Question Your Medium’s Effectiveness Media Effectiveness • Can young nursing mothers in Uganda understand and correctly follow the 10 steps on the poster? • Can X prevent this? Can X2 solve this challenge? • Can Y prevent this? Can Y2 solve this challenge? FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  20. 20. Question Your Timeframe Time Element • Can nursing mothers who use the poster decrease malaria infection among Uganda children by 90% within six months? • Can X prevent this? Can X3 solve this challenge? • Can Y prevent this? Can Y3 solve this challenge? FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  21. 21. Step 2: Rephrase Into Research Questions Rephrase your outline of ideas into question form. Where possible, include citations to references that detail or support your ideas. • Question the Required Action [Examples] • Question Media Effectiveness [Examples] • Question the Time Element [Examples] FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  22. 22. HOW TO WRITE THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS 3: RECOMMEND Questions that can be addressed after your proposed timeframe can be expressed as statements (not questions) in your Recommendations Image courtesy of (www.greenhousemovement.com) FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  23. 23. Step 3: Recommendations for Future Research Include factors or elements that can prevent or delay each research activity or goal. If their solutions are beyond your research schedule, state them as recommendations for future research. • Lack of Ability [Examples] – – – – Cannot read some or all parts of the poster due to ... Cannot understand some or all parts of the poster due to ... Cannot adapt the ideas on the poster to local situations due to ... Cannot translate ideas on the poster to local situations due to ... • Lack of technology [Examples] – Cannot produce or create the poster due to ... – Cannot distribute the poster due to ... – Cannot display the poster for maximum community access due to ... • Political or Cultural Factors [Examples] – Harvest, hunting, planting seasons – Elections – Religious festivals • Intervening Variables [Examples] – Poster materials are incompatible with weather conditions – Accidents, deaths, births, burials – Posters are used for other purposes FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  24. 24. Question the Abilities In your proposal, record any factors or elements that can be related to lack of ability of the target beneficiaries to implement the required action. Whenever possible, include links to prove or support your ideas. • The target beneficiaries may be unable to read some or all parts of the poster due to ... (Author, YEAR). For future research, it is recommended that... • The target beneficiaries may be unable to understand some or all parts of the poster due to ... (Author, YEAR). For future research, it is recommended that... • The target beneficiaries may be unable to adapt the ideas from the poster to local situations due to ... (Author, YEAR). For future research, it is recommended that... • The target beneficiaries may be unable to translate ideas from the poster to local situations due to ... (Author, YEAR). For future research, it is recommended that... FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  25. 25. Lack of Technology In your proposal, record any factors or elements that can be related to lack of technology among the target beneficiaries to implement the required action. Whenever possible, include links to prove or support your ideas. • The target beneficiaries may be unable to produce or create the poster due to ... (Author, YEAR). It is recommended that future research analyze ... • The target beneficiaries may be unable to distribute the poster due to ... (Author, YEAR). It is recommended that future research focus on ... • The target beneficiaries may be unable to display the poster for maximum community access due to ... (Author, YEAR). It is recommended that future research examine ... FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  26. 26. Political or Cultural Factors In your proposal, record any factors or elements that can be related to political or cultural among the target beneficiaries to implement the required action. Whenever possible, include links to prove or support your ideas. • The target beneficiaries may be unable to xxx due to necessary harvest, planting, hunting, fishing cycles or seasons, etc. ... (Author, YEAR). Future research can examine ... • The target beneficiaries may be unable to xxx due to necessary election periods, gatherings, work, etc. ... (Author, YEAR). Future research might expand ... • The target beneficiaries may be unable to xxx due to necessary religious festivals, etc.... (Author, YEAR). Future research can include ... FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  27. 27. Other Intervening Variables In your proposal, record any factors or elements that can be related to other intervening variables in the target milieu. Whenever possible, include links to prove or support your ideas. • The target beneficiaries may be unable to xxx due to poster materials that are incompatible with local technology, conditions, weather, etc. ... (Author, YEAR). Future research can include ... • The target beneficiaries may be unable to xxx due to sudden emergencies, accidents, births, deaths etc. that may (can/usually happen) occur during the project implementation period... (Author, YEAR). Future research might include ... FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  28. 28. Step 3: Recommendations for Future Research Include factors or elements that can prevent or delay each research activity or goal. If their solutions are beyond your research schedule, state them as recommendations for future research. • Lack of Ability [Examples] • Lack of Technology [Examples] • Political or Cultural Factors [Examples] • Other Intervening Variables [Examples] FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  29. 29. How to Outline • Cognitive Skills & Cluster Outlines - How To Outline a Paper, Essay or Proposal • Cognitive Skills & Cluster Outlines - How To Outline A Paper, Essay, or Proposal • http://www.slideshare.net/JaimeCabrera3/pre -writing-how-to-write-a-cluster-outline-fromproblem-statement-to-research-paper FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  30. 30. HOW TO COMPLETE THE OUTLINE OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS FIVE THINGS THAT YOU CAN DO Image courtesy of (asonofgod.com FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  31. 31. 5 Things You Can Do 1. Know the parts of a research proposal. Copy and adapt the headings into your outline. 2. Copy the headings from the Project Poster and arrange this into your outline. 3. Add sources as citations and references as you find them. Use the APA format. 4. Hyperlink citations to the reference (not to the online source.) 5. In the reference list, use the short website address (usually ending in com, gov, or edu). This should be hyperlinked to the article, not the homepage. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  32. 32. GOLDEN RULE OF RESEARCH WRITING Adapt or Modify, Cite and Reference • Know the parts of a research proposal. Copy and adapt the headings into your outline. SEARCH KEYWORDS FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  33. 33. Parts of a Research Proposal Copy the headings from the Project Poster and arrange this into your outline. FIND IT HERE Add missing section: Original Input FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
  34. 34. END OF PRESENTATION Send questions and suggestions to mr.jaime.aiu@gmail.com THANK YOU FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED END SHOW
  35. 35. THREE STEPS TO WRITE RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Image courtesy of www.visum.co.uk FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE JUMPS PAGE PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE

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