Word Forms- It can be hard for ELLs to learn to understand / use different word forms because word endings are not so straighfoward.- Examples: To change a noun into an adjective, ... 1) beauty + ful, 2) danger + ous 3) hero + ic 4) rain + y ...- Ideally, an ELL’s first learning goal regarding word forms would be to be able to recognize the part of speech of a word by recognizing its suffix.- Second, they should learn to produce the correct form of a word by adding the correct suffix.
Word FormsTypical ELL Errors- Members of the book club automatically receive preferentially prices.- Siberia has a substantial number of nature resources.- Second language readers’ very limited vocabulary knowledge hinders their ability to make fully use of context clues as well.- Politics debates are part of the democratic process.- Olympic clocks must be very accuracy to be useful.
Word Forms- Suffixes can be used to create four of the eight parts of speech:1) verbs2) adjectives3) adverbs4) nouns Adjective Verb Adverb Noun final finalize finally finalization
Word Forms – Verb Endings Ending Meaning Example-ate to cause, to become, to motivate, supply with oxygenate-en to make something have darken, lighten a certain quality- ify to cause or make into identify, solidify, something unify-ize to become generalize, finalize- Spelling Changes1) vowel dropped: clear + -ify = clarify2) vowel added: different + -ate = differentiate
Word Forms – Adjective Endings Ending Meaning Example-able, having a particular qualityconfortable,-ible reversible-al of or related to something musical, occasional- an, relating to someone or American,-ian something from a place; vegetarian relating to someone who has a certain knowledge or belief-ant, having the quality of defiant,-ent persistent-ary belonging to planetary
Word Forms – Adjective Endings Ending Meaning Example-ate having, containing, or having compassionate to do with something-ative, having the quality of talkative,-itive primitive-ed past participle confused-en past participle stolen, written-en made of wooden-ese of a country Chinese-ful full of beautiful-ic of or relating to a periodic particular thing
Word Forms – Adjective EndingsEnding Meaning Example-ing present participle confusing-ish having qualities of, or tending to be childish-ive having a particular quality expensive-less without something useless-like similar to childlike-ly having qualities of manly-ory relating to obligatory-ous, having qualities of dangerous,-ious delicious-proof protected from waterproof-y having the character/form of curly, funny
Word Forms – Adverb Endings Ending Meaning Example-ly in a particular way or at times easily, occasionally- Not all words that end in –ly are adverbs. early adjective Gary is in his early twenties. adverb Carlos has to wake up early. daily adjective Our library subscribes to four daily newspapers. adverb Kumiko exercises daily. oily adjective Irma doesn’t like oily foods. lonely adjective Ronald was a very lonely child. friendly adjective She is such a friendly person.
Word Forms – Noun Endings Ending Meaning Example-al the act of doing somethingrehersal, denial-ence, action or process; qualityconfidence,-ance, performance,-cy lunacy-ent, someone or something that president,-ant does something resident-er, -or, someone or something that teacher, elevator,-ar, -r does something registrar, writer-hood having a quality or state brotherhood, childhood-ity, -ty having a quality equality, specialty
Word Forms – Noun Endings Ending Meaning Example-tion, act or result of doing attention,-ion something impression-ism a belief or set of ideas capitalism-ist a person who performs a typist, capitalist specific action; a person with certain beliefs-ment a result of doing something; development, a place of action department-ness state or condition happiness-ure an act or process failure, pressure-ship a state or quality; an art or friendship, skill sportsmanship
Word Forms- The lack of consistency for the use of word endings in English to indicate the part of speech of a word can be a problem for ELLs.- This difficulty is bigger because sometimes the same word spelling is used for a different number of parts of speech. Adjective Verb Adverb Nounphotographic photograph photographically photographPhotographicalEnglish ----- ----- English
Word Forms- Also, some words do not follow the pattern of suffixes, making it even more difficult for ELLs to grasp them. Noun Verb Adjective Adverbsadness to sadden a sad story sadlydecision to decide a decisive ending decisivelydecidinga talk to talk a talk show talkativelytalking a talkative person a talking dogan explanation to explain an explanatory note ----a struggle to struggle a struggling actor ----
Word Forms Noun Verb Adjective Adverba city ---- a city problem citywidea nation ---- a national problem nationallywood ---- wooden woodenlywoodennesslove to love a love story lovinglylovability a loving cat lovably a loved story loveable- Comparing the groups following the nouns city and nation, what are the similarities and differences?- What can we say about it? What can we conclude?
Word FormsPortuguese InterferenceIn Portuguese, the suffix commonly used to change adjectives intoadverbs is –mente. ELLs sometimes confuse this suffix with the Englishsuffix indicating nouns –ment.Brazilian ELLs tend to generalize the rule used to form adverbs.Word Forms – Lesson PlanObjective - Students will be able to understand howsome adjectives are formed in English. They will also beable to use the forms studied in talking about friends.
Word Forms – Lesson Plan - Students will first read the text “A Creative Friendship” and answer some comprehension questions. - Comprehension Questions: 1) How old were Picasso and Matisse when they met? 2) How did they influence the work of each other? 3) Why was theri friendship special? - Then, students will read the text again to find adjectives in the text that end in -ous. - Answers: 1) ambitious, famous, jealous - Then, students will match the three adjectives with their definitions. - Task: 1) unhappy because someone... 2) someone a lot of people know about... 3) determined to do well...
Word Forms – Lesson Plan - Students will now use the suffix –ous to make adjectives from a number of words given. - Words: 1) religion 2) humour 3) mystery - Then, students will describe a friendship that is important to them, trying to use the adjectives ending in -ous. - Questions: 1) How long have you been friends? 2) How did you meet? 3) How would you describe your friends? (Use adjectives ending in –ous.) 4) Have your ever had disagreements? 5) What is the nices thing your friend has ever done to you?