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Syntax

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Syntax

  1. 1. THIS MAY GET COMPLICATED
  2. 2. The Sentence Patterns of Language By Lanz Manipor
  3. 3. Before you get confused… <ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mental representation of a speaker’s linguistical competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what a speaker knows about the language, including its phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and lexicon </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Before you get confused… <ul><li>Syntax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the rules of sentence formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the component of the mental grammar that represents speakers’ knowledge of the structure of phrases and sentence </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Syntax <ul><li>σύν syn , &quot;together&quot;, and τάξις táxis , &quot;an ordering“ </li></ul><ul><li>arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>refer directly to the rules and principles that govern the sentence structure of any individual language </li></ul><ul><li>structure (word order) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Chief swore president the Justice the in new
  7. 7. Chief swore president the Justice the in new <ul><li>Sequence is made up of meaningful words </li></ul>
  8. 8. Chief swore president the Justice the in new <ul><li>Sequence is made up of meaningful words </li></ul><ul><li>DOES IT MAKE SENSE? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Chief swore president the Justice the in new <ul><li>Every sentence is a sequence of words </li></ul><ul><li>But not every sequence of words is a sentence </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Sequence of words that conform to the rules of syntax are said to be … </li></ul>
  11. 11. well formed <ul><li>Sequence of words that conform to the rules of syntax are said to be … </li></ul>
  12. 12. well formed GRAMMATICAL <ul><li>Sequence of words that conform to the rules of syntax are said to be … </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Those that violate the syntactic rules are therefore … </li></ul>
  14. 14. ill formed <ul><li>Those that violate the syntactic rules are therefore … </li></ul>
  15. 15. ill formed UNGRAMMATICAL <ul><li>Those that violate the syntactic rules are therefore … </li></ul>
  16. 16. well formed GRAMMATICAL <ul><li>Sequence of words that conform to the rules of syntax are said to be … </li></ul>
  17. 17. ill formed UNGRAMMATICAL <ul><li>Those that violate the syntactic rules are therefore … </li></ul>
  18. 18. What Grammaticality is Based On <ul><li>Determined by rules shared by the speakers of a language </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul>
  19. 19. What Grammaticality is Based On <ul><li>Determined by rules shared by the speakers of a language </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Jack and Jill ran the hill up. </li></ul>
  20. 20. What Grammaticality is Based On <ul><li>I am proud to be my mother </li></ul>
  21. 21. What Grammaticality is Based On <ul><li>Vicente believes to be a gentleman </li></ul>
  22. 22. What Grammaticality is Based On <ul><li>Joana ate the baby </li></ul>
  23. 23. What Grammaticality is Not Based On <ul><li>Not based on what is taught in school but on the rules constructed unconsciously as children </li></ul><ul><li>Children acquire most of the syntactic rules of their language even before learning to read. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not depend on having heard the sentence before. </li></ul>
  24. 24. What Grammaticality is Not Based On <ul><li>Not based on what is taught in school but on the rules constructed unconsciously as children </li></ul><ul><li>Children acquire most of the syntactic rules of their language even before learning to read. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not depend on having heard the sentence before. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Enormous crickets in pink socks danced at the prom. </li></ul>
  25. 25. What Grammaticality is Not Based On <ul><li>Does not depend on the truth of the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>If it did, lying would be impossible. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul>
  26. 26. What Grammaticality is Not Based On <ul><li>Does not depend on the truth of the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>If it did, lying would be impossible. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>I look like Piolo Pascual. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Syntactic Rules Accounts for: <ul><li>Grammaticality of the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Word order </li></ul><ul><li>Structural ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical relations </li></ul><ul><li>Whether different structures have different meanings </li></ul><ul><li>The creative aspect of language </li></ul>
  28. 28. What else do you know about syntax? <ul><li>Ambiguity (Double Meaning) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. synthetic buffalo hides </li></ul><ul><li>synthetic (buffalo hides) </li></ul><ul><li>(synthetic buffalo) hides </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical Relations and how they are understood </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Mary hired Bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Bill hired Mary. </li></ul><ul><li>Bill was hired by Mary. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sentence Structure <ul><li>The TREE DIAGRAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Root (entire sentence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves (individual words) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical structure (groupings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constituent structures </li></ul></ul>the child found the puppy the child found the puppy the child found the puppy the puppy
  30. 30. Sentence Structure <ul><li>Constituent Structure (every sentence has one or more) </li></ul>Synthetic buffalo hides synthetic buffalo hides buffalo synthetic Synthetic buffalo hides synthetic buffalo hides buffalo hides
  31. 31. Syntactic Categories <ul><li>A family of expressions that can substitute for one another without loss of grammaticality </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. The child found the puppy. </li></ul><ul><li>Your neighbor found the puppy. </li></ul><ul><li>This yellow cat found the puppy. </li></ul><ul><li>He found the puppy. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Syntactic Categories <ul><li>Noun Phrase (NP) – subject or object in the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Verb Phrase (VP) – verb by NP or PP </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence (S) </li></ul><ul><li>Determiner (Det) </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective (Adj) </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb (Adv) </li></ul><ul><li>Noun (N) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Syntactic Categories <ul><li>Pronoun (Pro) </li></ul><ul><li>Preposition (P) </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositional Phrase (PP) </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary Verb (Aux) –have, be, will, must, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Verb (V) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Phrase Structure Trees <ul><li>A tree diagram with syntactic category information provided (syntactic labels) </li></ul><ul><li>Constituent structure tree </li></ul>
  35. 35. Phrase Structure Tree the child found the puppy S the child NP found the puppy VP the Det child N found V the puppy NP the Det puppy N
  36. 36. Sentence Structure <ul><li>The TREE DIAGRAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Root (entire sentence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves (individual words) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical structure (groupings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constituent structures </li></ul></ul>the child found the puppy the child found the puppy the child found the puppy the puppy
  37. 37. Phrase Structure Tree the child found the puppy S the child NP found the puppy VP the Det child N found V the puppy NP the Det puppy N
  38. 38. Phrase Structure Tree the puppy found child the S NP VP Det N V NP Det N
  39. 39. Phrase Structure Tree the puppy found child the Lexical Categories -lowest categories in the tree. Syntactic Categories Node S NP VP Det N V NP Det N
  40. 40. Phrase Structure Tree the puppy found child the Lexical Categories -lowest categories in the tree. Syntactic Categories Node “ ALL” is important S NP VP Det N V NP Det N
  41. 41. More Phrase Structure Trees S NP VP Det NP N PP the boy V saw P NP Det N the man Det N with the telescope Three different structural positions representing three grammatical relations.
  42. 42. More Phrase Structure Trees S NP VP Det NP N PP the boy V saw P NP Det N the man Det N with the telescope Reveal ambiguities
  43. 43. More Phrase Structure Trees S NP VP Det NP N the boy V saw P NP Det N the man Det N with the telescope NP Reveal ambiguities
  44. 44. The Infinitude of Language <ul><li>There is no longest sentence in any language </li></ul><ul><li>Speakers can lengthen any sentence by various means </li></ul><ul><li>Adding adjectives, clauses, etc. </li></ul>
  45. 45. The Infinitude of Language <ul><li>Example: House that Jack built (nursery rhyme) </li></ul><ul><li>This is the farmer sowing the corn, </li></ul><ul><li>that kept the clock that crowed in the morn, </li></ul><ul><li>that waked the priest all shaven and shorn, </li></ul><ul><li>that married the man all tattered and torn, </li></ul><ul><li>that kissed the maiden all forlorn, </li></ul><ul><li>that milked the cow with the crumpled horn, </li></ul><ul><li>that tossed the dog, that worried the cat, </li></ul><ul><li>that killed the rat, that ate the malt, </li></ul><ul><li>that lay in the house that Jack built. </li></ul>
  46. 46. The Infinitude of Language P P P NP Det N the girl with the feather on the ribbon on the brim Limitless aspect of language Is reflected in phrase structure Trees. NP Det N PP NP Det N PP NP Det N PP
  47. 47. The Infinitude of Language P P P NP Det N the girl with the feather on the ribbon on the brim But as the structures grow longer They become more increasingly Difficult to produce and understand. -due to short term memory limitations -muscular fatigue* -breathlessness, etc.* NP Det N PP NP Det N PP NP Det N PP
  48. 48. Phrase Structure Rule <ul><li>S  NP VP </li></ul><ul><li>NP  (Det) (Adj) N (PP) </li></ul><ul><li>NP  that S </li></ul><ul><li>NP  Pro </li></ul><ul><li>VP  V (NP) (PP) (Adv) </li></ul><ul><li>PP  P NP </li></ul>
  49. 49. Phrase Structure Rule <ul><li>1. S  NP VP </li></ul><ul><li>the boy found the ball </li></ul><ul><li>2. NP  (Det) (Adj) N (PP) </li></ul><ul><li>the beautiful girl on the piano </li></ul>
  50. 50. Phrase Structure Rule <ul><li>3. NP  that S </li></ul>NP that S I love Jenny
  51. 51. Phrase Structure Rule S NP NP NP VP NP the suitor knows “ Embedded” NP that S I love Jenny
  52. 52. Phrase Structure Rule <ul><li>4. NP  Pro </li></ul><ul><li>I, You, We </li></ul><ul><li>5. VP  V (NP) (PP) (Adv) </li></ul><ul><li>blew the boat into the water suddenly </li></ul>
  53. 53. Phrase Structure Rule <ul><li>6. PP  P NP </li></ul><ul><li>of the people </li></ul><ul><li>for the people </li></ul><ul><li>by the people </li></ul>
  54. 54. Rules in other language <ul><li>Sweden </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NP  N Det </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mann en </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PP  NP P </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tokyo kara </li></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Any question?
  56. 56. S NP VP Pro V Pro I thank you

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