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Morphology - the study of word formation

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  1. 1. MORPHOLOGY Valene Hope Cebuco Jeffren Pancho Miguel
  2. 2. What is MORPHOLOGY?System of categories and rules involved in word formation and interpretation.Two basic goals in studying morphology• To isolate the component parts of words• To determine the rules by which words are formed
  3. 3. THE SYNTACTIC CATEGORIES The Eight Parts of Speech• Noun• Pronoun• Verb• Adjectives• Adverb• Prepositions• Conjunctions• Articles
  4. 4. MORPHEME• It is a part of a word that change meanings, make one part of speech into another, and show such grammatical functions as tense and plurality.Example: buyers{buy} + {er} + {s}
  5. 5. BOUND AND F RE EM o r p h e me sBound Morphemes – cannot occur unattached.Free Morphemes – can stand on its own. (root words and function words)Ex. glassesglass – free morpheme-es – bound morpheme
  6. 6. FREE MORPHEMESLexical Category (content words)• Noun• Adverb• Adjectives• Verb These syntactic categories are also called OPEN CLASS WORDS.
  7. 7. Grammatical Category (function)• Pronoun• Conjunction• Preposition• Article These syntactic categories are also called CLOSED CLASS words
  8. 8. BOUND MORPHEMES• Affixes (prefixes, suffixes, infixes, circumfixes) -derivational -inflectionalDERIVATIONALEx. ImpossibleIm- deriv. Possible – root word
  9. 9. INFLECTIONALEight inflectional affixes in English• Plural ( -s, -es)• Possesive (‘s)• Comparative (-er)• Superlative (-est)• Tenses ( -s, -ed)• Participle (-en, -ing)
  10. 10. MORPHOLOGY Identifying the MorphemesWord Free Open Inflectional Affix Bound Closed Derivational (prefix) (suffix) (root)Insensitivity -in Bound Derivational Prefix - sense Free Open Root - itive Bound Derivational Suffix - ity Bound Derivational SuffixDisengaged dis- Bound Derivational Prefix engage Free Open Root -d Bound Inflectional Suffix
  11. 11. Disengaged (verb)dis - engaged (verb) (v) engage -d
  12. 12. Insensitivity (noun) insensitive (adj) - ityin - sensitive (adj) sense - itive
  13. 13. WORD ORIGINSEtymology – the study of word origins.Lexical gap – nonsense words
  14. 14. RULES ON WORD FORMATION• Inheritance• Neologisms (Creation de Novo)• Blending• Acronyms – Initialism – Reverse Acronym• Creation by Shortening•Derivation - by affixation - Without Affixation
  15. 15. • Compounding• Eponyms - based on personal names. - based on geographical names. - names from literature, myths, and folklore. - based on commercial brand names.• Other sources.