PPB Grammar


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PPB Grammar

  1. 1. Basics of Grammar Nouns VerbsPronouns Adverbs Adjectives Prepositions Interjections Conjunctions
  2. 2. What is Grammar? • A set of rules and principles to speak and write a language in a correct manner. • The word Grammar derives from Greek word (Grammatike) which means “Art of letters” • Grammar Is also called the backbone of the language.
  3. 3. Why to use Grammar To make the conversation positive and impressive.
  4. 4. How to use Grammar By making correct use of tenses and speeches of English.
  5. 5. 8 parts of speeches •Nouns •Verbs •Pronouns •Adverbs •Adjectives •Prepositions •Conjunctions •Interjections
  6. 6. Noun word that names a A Person A Place A Thing An Idea
  7. 7. Kinds of nouns • Common Noun • Proper Noun • Singular Noun • Plural Noun • Irregular Noun
  8. 8. Common noun Names general items like • Kitchen • Wallpaper • Mouse etc.
  9. 9. Proper noun Name a specific (one-of-a-kind or unique) thing Oxford Jupiter Eiffel Tower Will always begin with a capital letter
  10. 10. Singular/plural noun Singular noun names a only one thing whereas plural noun names more than thing. E.g House - houses Chair - Chairs
  11. 11. Conversion of singular to plural When the singular noun ends in: -sh, -ch, -s, -ss, -x, -o Form the plural by adding “-es". Sandwich - sandwiches brush - brushes bus - buses box - boxes potato - potatoes
  12. 12. singular noun ends in "y", we change “y” for “ies” Butterfly - Butterflies do not change the "y" for "ies" when the singular noun ends in "y" preceded by a vowel. day - days toy - toys
  13. 13. Irregular Nouns which do not form the plural in this way Woman - Women Child - Children Sheep - Sheep Child - children Man - men Ox - oxen Deer - deer Series - series Sheep - sheep Species - species Mouse - mice Person – people Cactus - Cacti
  14. 14. Verb word that expresses some action or occurrence Paul rides a bicycle John types an essay
  15. 15. Types of verbs • Action verbs • Linking verbs
  16. 16. Action verbs express some physical or mental action Paul rides a bicycle
  17. 17. Linking verbs make a statement by linking the subject with word that describes or explains it. I am riding a bicycle Being, Been, Am, Is, Are, Was, Were, Shall be, Will be
  18. 18. The Pronoun A Word which replaces noun or nouns and designates person, place or a thing. John is student He is student Rule: A pronoun must agree with the noun it refer to (singular/plural) The train was late, it had been delayed. The trains were late, they had been delayed.
  19. 19. Types of Pronouns • Personal Pronoun (I, me, mine) • Demonstrative Pronoun (This, That , These, Those) • Interrogative pronoun (Who, which, what)
  20. 20. Personal Pronoun Personal pronoun refers to person who I doing the action or to whom the action affects e.g. I, me, He, Him, She, Her, We, Us, They, Them.
  21. 21. Demonstrative pronoun Which points to a specific thing This, That, These, Those They also indicate whether the thing is close or far "That" (singular) and "Those" (plural) refer to an object or person far AWAY. Who owns that house? (distant - physical) Is this John's house? (near - physical)
  22. 22. Interrogative pronoun Used in order to ask a question What, Which, Who, Whose, Whom Who wrote the novel Rockbound?
  23. 23. The Adjective Modifies or describes a noun or pronoun / adjective shows the property of a noun Which, What kind, How many The lazy dog sat on the rug, the word lazy is an adjective which gives more information about the noun dog.
  24. 24. The Adverb Modifies and describes a verb, an adjective or any other Adverb How -Tom sings well. When - I can't meet you today. Where - They will be here soon. How much - He usually gets good grades.
  25. 25. Adjective and Adverb An Adjectives shows the relation with a Noun A Slow Car An Adverb shows the relation with a verb He drives slowly
  26. 26. Adjectives and Adverbs Slow – Slowly Angry – Angrily Easy – Easily Quiet – Quietly Careful – Carefully
  27. 27. The Preposition All those words which show the relationship between a noun/pronoun and another word in the sentence. The proposition never stands alone. The preposition can be one word or group of words.
  28. 28. Some common prepositions At, By, On, To, For, Of, Through, Up, Off, Onto, Up to, In, Within, Across, Into, Along, Behind , Below 1. I'm tired __ waiting for you. 2. He hasn't smoked ___ ages. 3. Nina is good __ running. 4. I'm looking ___ my keys. Has anyone found them? 5. They dream __ moving to South Africa. 6. This song was written __ Madonna 7. You can look the word __ in a dictionary. 8. I can't come to the party. Don't wait ___ me. 9. She had problems __ reading the instructions. 10. The police car chased the robbers _______ the streets.
  29. 29. The Conjunction A word that joins words or group of words And - They ate and drank. Or - He will be here on Monday or Tuesday Neither/nor Neither - John knew the answer nor Tom. Either/Or - Either Neil or peter can give speech But - She is small but strong. So - I was tired so I went to sleep (After, Before, Unless, Although, if, Until, as, Since, When, Because, Then)
  30. 30. The Interjection words which express the emotions WOW Goodness OOPS The interjection is a special word which is simply added to a sentence to convey an emotion. It has no grammatical relationship to the other parts of the sentence; in other words, it could be removed with no effect on the correctness of the sentence. It is generally followed by an exclamation mark. It is also rare in academic writing, except in direct quotations. Some interjections are: Ouch, Oh no, Hey, Eh, Ah, My God All curse words, used by themselves, are interjections.